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by Ven. Nycmcrtiloka 

Web site: 

Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc. 


Manual of Buddhist 


and Doctrines 


Fourth Revised Edition 
edited by 

Buddhist Publication Society 
Kandy /Sri Lanka 

Buddhist Publication Society 
P. O. Box 61 

54, Sangharaja Mawatha 
Kandy, Sri Lanka 

First Edition 1952 

Second Revised Edition 1956 

Third Revised & Enlarged Edition 1972 

(Pub. by Frewin & Co., Ltd., Colombo) 

Fourth Revised Edition 1980 

(Buddhist Publication Society) 

Reprinted 1988 

©1980 by Buddhist 
Publication Society 

ISBN - 955 - 24 - 0019 - 8 


FROM The PREFACE To The First Edition 

As a first attempt of an authentic dictionary of 
Buddhist doctrinal terms, used in the Pali Canon and its 
Commentaries, this present manual will fill a real gap 
felt by many students of Buddhism. It provides the 
reader not with a mere superficial enumeration of 
important Pali terms and their English equivalents, but 
offers him precise and authentic definitions and explan- 
ations of canonical and post-canonical terms and doc- 
trines, based on Sutta, Abhidhamma and Commen- 
taries, and illustrated by numerous quotations taken 
from these sources, so that, if anyone wishes, he could, 
by intelligently joining together the different articles, 
produce without difficulty a complete exposition of the 
entire teachings of Buddhism. 

As already pointed out by the author in the preface 
to his Guide through the Abhidhamma-Pitaka 
(Colombo 1938), there are found in the Abhidhamma 
Canon numerous technical terms not met with in the 
Sutta Canon; and again other terms are found only in 
the Commentaries and not in Sutta and Abhidhamma. 
The author therefore has made a first attempt - with- 
out, however, laying any claim to absolute reliability or 
completeness in this by no means easy undertaking - to 
indicate in the Appendix all the terms that in the oldest 
Sutta texts are either not found at all, or at least not in 
the same form or meaning, and to set forth how far 
these are deviations from the older texts, or further 

In this connection, the author wishes to state that 
the often quoted Patisambhida-Magga, as well as 
Niddesa, Buddhavamsa and Cariyapitaka, though 
included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, 
nevertheless bear throughout the character of Com- 
mentaries, and though apparently older than the Sutta 
Commentaries handed down to us in Buddhaghosa's 
version, must doubtless belong to a later period of 
origin than the Abhidhamma Canon. 

In rendering the terms into English, I often had to 
differ considerably from the interpretation of Western 
scholars, and to introduce quite new words. A great 
number of such earlier translations must be considered 
partly as totally incorrect, partly as misleading, or at 
the very least ambiguous. Incorrect are, for instance, 
the English renderings of ndma-rupa by 'name and 
form'; javana (impulsion, i.e. the karmic impulsive 
moments) by 'apperception', etc. 

The expositions concerning the true nature of the 
8-fold Path, the 4 Noble Truths, the paticcasamuppdda 
and the 5 groups of existence - doctrines which, with 
regard to their true nature, have been often misunder- 
stood by Western authors - are sure to come to many 
as a revelation. 

On the doctrine oianattd, or 'egolessness', i.e. the 
impersonality and emptiness of all phenomena of 
existence, the author repeatedly felt the necessity of 
throwing light from every possible point of view, for it 
is exactly this doctrine which, together with the doc- 
trine of the conditionality of all phenomena of exist- 
ence, constitutes the very essence of the whole Teach- 
ing of the Buddha without which it will be by no means 


possible to understand it in its true light. Thus the 
doctrine of impersonality runs like a red thread right 
through the whole book. 

May this little manual provide an ever-helpful 
companion and vade mecum to all earnest students in 
their study of the original Buddhist scriptures, and also 
give to Buddhist authors and lecturers the opportunity 
of supplementing and deepening their knowledge of 
the profound teachings of the Buddha! 

Should it, for a better understanding, prove 
necessary to give to certain subjects a more detailed 
treatment, the carrying out of this task may be reserved 
for a later edition of this work. 

"Central Internment Camp" 
Dehra-Dun, India 

EDITOR'S PREFACE To The Third Edition 

The present revised and enlarged Third Edition was 
intended to be issued in commemoration of the tenth 
anniversary of the venerable author's passing away on 
28th May 1957. But due to unavoidable circumstances 
the publication had to be delayed. 

It was the venerable author's wish to enlarge the 
first edition of this work, but when a second edition 
became necessary, he was prevented from expanding it 
by the illness to which he later succumbed. It rested, 
therefore, with his pupil, the present editor, to make, 
within the original scope and character of the work, 
such additions and revisions as seemed useful. 

Over seventy articles have been expanded and 
partly rewritten; others were slightly revised; more 
source references were included, and information on 
literature for further study of the respective subjects 
was added to some of the articles. But only very few 
new words have been added (e.g. anupassand, 
dnupubbi-kathd, etc.) . This restriction was observed 
because the venerable author himself thought only of 
'a more detailed treatment' of existing articles (see Pref- 
ace to the 1st ed.) as he obviously wished to preserve 
the original form and character of the book. It was also 
considered that the adding of more words such as those 
coined in later commentarial and abhidhammic litera- 
ture, would be superfluous as in the English language 
such terms will generally be found only in a few scho- 
larly books and translations which themselves give the 
explanations needed. 


This book is chiefly intended for those who study 
the Buddhist teachings through the medium of the 
English language, but wish to familiarize themselves 
with some of the original Pali terms of doctrinal import. 
They are in the same position as a student of philo- 
sophy or science who has to know the terminology of 
his field, which for common parlance is mostly not less 
'unfamiliar' than are the words of the Pali language 
found in the Dictionary. 

Such acquaintance with the Pali terms of the 
original texts will also be useful to the student for the 
purpose of identifying the various renderings of them 
favored by different translators. It is deplorable that 
there is a considerable multiplication of new English 
coining for the same doctrinal term. This great variety 
of renderings has proved to be confusing to those 
students of Buddhism who are not familiar with the Pali 
language. Even at this late stage when many translat- 
ions of Pali texts are in print, it will be desirable if, for 
the sake of uniformity, translators forgo their prefer- 
ence for their own coining, even if they think them 
better than others. In any case, doctrinal terms have to 
be known by definition, just as in the case of philosoph- 
ical and technical terms in a Western language. 

As a small help in the situation described, a number 
of alternative renderings used by other translators have 
been included in some articles of this edition. In a very 
few cases, unacceptable though familiar renderings 
have been bracketed. The Venerable Nyanatiloka's own 
preferences have been placed in inverted commas. 
Generally it may be said that his renderings, based on 
his comprehensive knowledge of texts and doctrine, are 


very sound and adequate. Only in a very few cases has 
the editor changed the author's preferred rendering 
e.g. 'canker' for asava (instead of 'bias'), 'right view' for 
sammd-ditthi (instead of 'right understanding'). The 
latter change was made for the sake of economizing 
with the few English equivalents for the numerous Pali 
synonyms for 'knowing', etc.; and also to avoid having 
to render the opposite term, micchd-ditthi, by 'wrong 

This Dictionary appeared also in the author's own 
German version (published by Verlag Christiani, 
Konstanz, Germany) and in a French translation made 
by the late Mme Suzanne Karpeles (published by 
'Adyar', Paris, 1961). 


Kandy, Ceylon 
February 1970. 

Only few and minor revisions have been made to 
the text of the Fourth Edition which is now issued by 
the Buddhist Publication Society. 


Kandy, Sri Lanka 
March 1980. 

Digitalised by WG, 
Chiangmai Thailand 1993. 



A. Anguttara Nikaya (figures refer to 

number of book (nipdtd) and Sutta) 


Abhidhamma Pitaka (Canon) 


Abhidhammattha Sangaha 


Abhidhamma Studies, by Nyanaponika 

Thera (BPS) 


Appendix at the end of this book 


Atthasalini= (Com. to Dhammasangarn) 


Atthasalini Tr. The Expositor, tr. by 

Maung Tin. PTS Tr. Series 


Otto Boehtlingk, Sanskrit-Worterbuch 


Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy 


Cula Niddesa 




Digha Nikaya (figures: number of 







Fund. Fundamentals of Buddhism, 

Nyanatiloka (BPS) 


Guide through the Abhidhamma 
Pitaka, Nyanatiloka, 3rd ed. 
1971 (BPS) 








Minor Readings & Illustrator, 

tr. (of Khp. & Com) byNanamoli 
Thera. PTS Tr. Series 

M. Majjhima Nikaya (figures: number 

of Sutta) 

M.Nid. Maha Niddesa 

Mil. Milinda Pafiha 

Path Path to Deliverance, Nyanatiloka (BPS) 

(figures: paragraphs) 

Patth. Patthana 

Pts.M. Patisambhida Magga 

PTS Pali Text Society's editions 


Pug. Puggala-Pannatti (figures: paragraphs) 

R. Und. Right Understanding, tr. (of M. 9 
& Com.) by Soma Thera (BPS) 

S. Samyutta Nikaya (figures: numbers of 

Samyutta and Sutta) 




Sutta Nipata (figures numbers of 



Table at the end of the book 








Visuddhi Magga (figures number: 

chapter & the paragraphing in Path of 
Purification, tr. by Nanamoli Thera, 
3rd ed., BPS) 

Wheel The Wheel publ. by BPS 

W.ofB . The Word of the Buddha, Nyanatiloka 


Yam. Yamaka 


Buddhist Dictionary 


abandonment, contemplation of: 
patinissaggdnupassand, is one of the 18 chief kinds of 
insight; s. vipassand, further dndpdnasati (16). 

abbhokasik'anga: 'living in the open air', is one of the 
ascetic means to purification (dhutanga, q.v.) . 

aberration (in morality and understanding): s. vipatti. 

abhabbagamana: 'incapable of progressing'. "Those 
beings who are obstructed by their evil actions 
(kamma, s. karma), by their defilements (kilesa, q.v.), 
by the result of their evil actions (s. vipdkd), or who are 
devoid of faith, energy and knowledge, and unable to 
enter the right path and reach perfection in wholesome 
things, all those are said to be incapable of progressing" 
(Pug. 13). According to Commentary the 'evil actions' 
denote the 5 heinous deeds with immediate result 
(dnantarika-kamma, q.v.), whilst the 'defilements' refer 
to the 'evil views with fixed destiny' (niyata-micchd- 
ditthi; s. ditthi). 

abhassara: The 'Radiant Ones', are a class of heavenly 
beings of the fine-material world (rupa-lokd); cf. deva. 

abhibhayatana: the 8 'stages of mastery', are powers 
to be obtained by means of the kasina-exercises 


(s. kasina). In the Com. to M. 77, where ay ataxia is 
explained by 'means' (karana) it is said: "The 
abhibhayatana through their counteracting may master 
(suppress) the adverse states, and by means of higher 
knowledge they may master the objects of mind." They 
are means for transcending the sensuous sphere. 

The stereotype text often met with in the Suttas 
(e.g. D. 11, 33; M. 77; A. VIII, 65; X, 29) is as follows: 

(1) "Perceiving (blue..., red..., yellow..., white) 
forms on one's own body, one sees forms externally 
small ones, beautiful or ugly; and in mastering these 
one understands: 'I know, I understand.' This is the first 
stage of mastery. 

(2) "Perceiving forms on one's own body, one sees 
forms externally, large ones.... This is the second stage 
of mastery. 

(3) "Not perceiving forms on one's own body, one 
sees forms externally, small ones.... This is the third 
stage of mastery. 

(4) "Not perceiving forms on one's own body, one 
sees forms externally, large ones.... This is the fourth 
stage of mastery. 

(5) "Not perceiving forms on one's own body, one 
sees forms externally, blue forms, forms of blue color, 
blue appearance, blue lustre, and mastering these one 
understands: 'I know, I understand. This is the fifth 
stage of mastery." 

(6-8) The same is repeated with yellow, red and 
white forms. 


As preparatory kasina-object for the 1st and 2nd 
exercise one should choose on one's own body a small 
or a large spot, beautiful or ugly, and thereon one 
should concentrate one's full undivided attention, so 
that this object after a while reappears as mental reflex 
or image (nimitta, q.v.) and, as it were, as something 
external. Such an exercise, though appearing quite 
mechanical, if properly carried out will bring about a 
high degree of mental concentration and entrance into 
the 4 absorptions (jhdna, q.v.). In the 3rd and 4th 
exercises the monk by an external kasina-object gains 
the mental reflexes and absorptions. As objects of the 
remaining exercises, perfectly clear and radiant colors 
should be chosen, flowers, cloth, etc. 

A kasina-object of small size is said to be suitable 
for a mentally unsteady nature, one of a large size for a 
dull nature, a beautiful object for an angry nature, an 
ugly one for a lustful nature. 

In Vis.M. V it is said: "By means of the earth-kasina 
one succeeds in reaching the stage of mastery with 
regard to small and large objects.... By means of the 
blue-kasina one succeeds in causing blue forms to 
appear, in producing darkness, in reaching the stage of 
mastery with regard to beautiful and ugly colors, in 
reaching 'deliverance through the beautiful', etc." 
(cf. vimokkha II, 3). The same is also said with regard to 
the other color kasinas. 

abhijjha: 'covetousness' is a synonym oflobha 
(s. mulct) and tanha (q.v.) and is the 8th link of the 
unwholesome courses of action (s. kamma-patha, I). 

abhinibbatti: a Sutta term for rebirth; s. punabbhava. 


abhinna: The 6 'higher powers', or supernormal 
knowledge's, consist of 5 mundane (lokiya, q.v.) 
powers attainable through the utmost perfection in 
mental concentration (samddhi, q.v.) and one 
supermundane (lokuttara, q.v.) power attainable 
through penetrating insight (vipassand, q.v.), 
i.e. extinction of all cankers (asavakkhaya; s. dsava), in 
other words, realization of Arahatship or Holiness. 
They are: (1) magical powers (iddhi-vidhd) , (2) divine 
ear (dibba-sotd) , (3) penetration of the minds of others 
(ceto-pariya-ndnd) , (4) remembrance of former exist- 
ences (pubbe-nivdsdnussati) , (5) divine eye (dibba- 
cakkhu), (6) extinction of all cankers (dsavakkhayd) . 
The stereotype text met with in all the 4 Sutta- 
collections (e.g. D. 34; M. 4, 6, 77; A. Ill, 99; V, 23; 
S. XV, 9 and Pug. 271, 239) is as follows: 

(1) "Now, O Bhikkhus, the monk enjoys the various 
magical powers (iddhi-vidhd) , such as being one he be- 
comes manifold, and having become manifold he again 
becomes one. He appears and disappears. Without be- 
ing obstructed he passes through walls and mountains, 
just as if through the air. In the earth he dives and rises 
up again, just as if in the water. He walks on water 
without sinking, just as if on the earth. Cross-legged he 
floats through the air, just like a winged bird. With his 
hand he touches the sun and moon, these so mighty 
ones, so powerful ones. Even up to the Brahma-world 
he has mastery over his body. 

(2) "With the divine ear (dibba-sota) he hears 
sounds both heavenly and human, far and near. 

(3) "He knows the minds of other beings {parassa 
ceto-pariya-ndncO , of other persons, by penetrating 


them with his own mind. He knows the greedy mind as 
greedy and the not-greedy one as not greedy; knows 
the hating mind as hating and the not-hating one as not 
hating; knows the deluded mind as deluded and the 
not-deluded one as not deluded; knows the shrunken 
mind and the distracted one, the developed mind and 
the undeveloped one, the surpassable mind and the 
unsurpassable one, the concentrated mind and the un- 
concentrated one, the freed mind and the unfreed one. 

(4) "He remembers manifold former existences 
(pubbe-nivdsdnussati) , such as one birth, two, three, 
four and five births... hundred thousand births; 
remembers many formations and dissolutions of 
worlds: 'There I was, such name I had... and vanishing 
from there I entered into existence somewhere else... 
and vanishing from there I again reappeared here.' 
Thus he remembers, always together with the marks 
and peculiarities, many a former existence. 

(5) "With the divine eye (dibba-cakkhu = yathd- 
kammupaga-ndna or cutupapata-ndna) , the pure one, 
he sees beings vanishing and reappearing, low and 
noble ones, beautiful and ugly ones, sees how beings 
are reappearing according to their deeds (s. karma) : 
'These beings, indeed, followed evil ways in bodily 
actions, words and thoughts, insulted the noble ones, 
held evil views, and according to their evil views they 
acted. At the dissolution of their body, after death, they 
have appeared in lower worlds, in painful states of 
existence, in the world of suffering, in hell. Those other 
beings, however, are endowed with good action... have 
appeared in happy state of existence, in a heavenly 


(6) "Through the extinction of all cankers 
(dsavakkhayd) even in this very life he enters into the 
possession of deliverance of mind, deliverance through 
wisdom, after having himself understood and realized it." 

4-6 appear frequently under the name of the 
'threefold (higher) knowledge' {te-vijjd, q.v.). They are, 
however, not a necessary condition for the attainment 
of sainthood (arahattd) , i.e. of the sixth abhifind. 

Vis.M. XI-XIII gives a detailed explanation of the 
5 mundane higher powers, together with the method of 
attaining them. 

In connection with the 4 kinds of progress 
(s. patipadd) , abhifind means the 'comprehension' 
achieved on attainment of the paths and fruitions. 

abhisamacarika-sila: 'morality consisting in good 
behavior', relates to the external duties of a monk such 
as towards his superior, etc. "abhisamdcdrika-sila is a 
name for those moral rules other than the 8 ending 
with right livelihood (i.e. 4-fold right speech, 3-fold 
right action and right livelihood, as in the Eightfold 
Path) (Vis.M. I; s. sacca IV, 3-5). "Impossible is it, 
O monks, that without having fulfilled the law of good 
behavior, a monk could fulfill the law of genuine pure 
conduct" (A.V, 21). Cf. ddibrahmacariyakasila. 

abhisamaya: 'truth-realization', is the full and direct 
grasp of the Four Noble Truths by the Stream-winner 
(Sotdpanna; s. ariya-puggala) . In the Com. the term is 
represented by 'penetration' (pativedha, q.v.). Frequent- 
ly occurring as dhamm.dbhisam.ay a, 'realization of the 


doctrine' Cf. S. XIII (Abhisamaya Samyutta) and 
Pts.M. (Abhisamaya Kathd) . 

abhisankhara: identical with the 2nd link of the 
paticca-samuppdda (q.v.) , scm/c/idra (q.v.; under I, 1) or 

ability to acquire insight: cf. ugghatitahhu, 
vipacitafinu, neyya. 

abodes: vihdra (q.v.). The 4 Divine a.: brahma- 
vihdra (q.v.). The 9 a. of beings: sattdvdsa (q.v.). 

absence: natthi-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions 
(paccaya, q.v.) . 

absorption: s.jhdna. 

abstentions, the 3: virati (q.v.). 

access, Moment of: s.javana. 

access-concentration: s. samddhi. 

accumulation (of Karma): dyuhana (q.v.). 

acinnaka-kamma: habitual karma; s. karma. 

acinteyya: lit. 'That which cannot or should not be 
thought, the unthinkable, incomprehensible, impene- 
trable, that which transcends the limits of thinking and 
over which therefore one should not ponder. These 
4 unthinkables are: the sphere of a Buddha (buddha- 
visaya), of the meditative absorptions (jhdna-visaya) , of 
karma-result (kamma-vipdkd) , and brooding over the 
world (loka-cinta) , especially over an absolute first 
beginning of it (s. A. IV, 77) . 


"Therefore, O monks, do not brood over the world 
as to whether it is eternal or temporal, limited or end- 
less.... Such brooding, O monks, is senseless, has noth- 
ing to do with genuine pure conduct (s. ddibrahma- 
cariyaka-sild) , does not lead to aversion, detachment, 
extinction, nor to peace, to full comprehension, 
enlightenment and Nibbana, etc." (S.LVI, 41). 

acquired image (during concentration) : s. nimitta, 
samddhi, kasina. 

action: karma (q.v.) - Right bodily a.: sammd- 
kammanta; s. sacca (IV.4) 

adaptability (of body, mental factors and 
consciousness): kammannatd (q.v.); cf. khandha 
(corporeality) and Tab. II. 

adaptation-knowledge: anuloma-ndna (q.v.). 

adherence: pardmdsa (q.v.) 

adherent: updsaka (q.v.) 

adhicitta-sikkha: 'training in higher mentality'; 
s. sikkhd. 

adhimokkha: 'determination', decision, resolve: is one 
of the mental concomitants {cetasika) and belongs to 
the group of mental formations (sankhdra-kkhandha) . 
In M. Ill, it is mentioned together with other mental 
concomitants. See Tab. II, III. 

adhipanna-dhamma-vipassana: 'insight into things 
based on higher wisdom', is one of the 18 chief kinds of 
insight (s. vipassana) . 


adhipati-paccaya: 'predominance-condition' is one of 
the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.); if developed, it is con- 
sidered as the fourfold road to power (iddhi-pdda. q.v.). 

adhislla-sikkha: 'training in higher morality': s. sikkhd. 

adhitthana, as a doctrinal term, occurs chiefly in two 

1. 'Foundation': four 'foundations' of an Arahat's 
mentality, mentioned and explained in M. 140: the 
foundation of wisdom (pafind), of truthfulness (saccd) 
of liberality (cdga) and of peace (upasama) . See also 
D. 33 and Com. 

2. 'Determination', resolution, in: adhitthdna-iddhi, 
'magical power of determination' (s. iddhi); adhitthdna- 
pdrami, 'perfection of resolution' (s. pdrami) . 

adibrahmacariyaka-sila: 'morality of genuine pure 
conduct', consists in right speech, right bodily action 
and right livelihood, forming the 3rd, 4th and 5th links 
of the Eightfold Path (s. sacca, IV.3, 4, 5); cf. Vis.M. I. In 
A. II, 86 it is said: 

"With regard to those moral states connected with 
and corresponding to the genuine pure conduct, he is 
morally strong, morally firm and trains himself in the 
moral rules taken upon himself. After overcoming the 
3 fetters (ego-belief, skeptic doubt and attachment to 
mere rules and ritual; s. samyojand) he becomes one 
who will be 'reborn seven times at the utmost' 
(s. Sotdpannd) and after only seven times more wan- 
dering through this round of rebirths amongst men and 
heavenly beings, he will put an end to suffering." 


adinavanupassana-nana: 'knowledge consisting in 
contemplation of misery', is one of the 8 kinds of insight 
(yipassand) that form the 'purification of the knowledge 
and vision of the path-progress (s. visuddhi, VI. 4) . It is 
further one of the 18 chief kinds of insight 
(s. vipassand) . 

adosa: 'hatelessness, is one of the 3 wholesome roots 
(mula, q.v.) . 

adukkha-m-asukha vedana: 'feeling which is neither 
painful nor joyful', i.e. indifferent feeling; s. khandha, 

advertence (of mind to the object) : avajjana, is one of 
the functions of consciousness (yinnana-kicca, q.v.) . 
Cf. manasikara. 

aeon: kappa (q.v.). 

agati: the 4 'wrong paths' are: the path of greed 
(chanda), of hate, of delusion, of cowardice (bhaya). 
"One who is freed from evil impulses is no longer liable 
to take the wrong path of greed, etc." (A. IV, 17; IX, 7). 

age, Old: jam (q.v.). 

aggregates: khandha (q.v.). 

agility: lahuta (q.v.) . 

ahara: 'nutriment', 'food', is used in the concrete sense 
as material food and as such it belongs to derived cor- 
poreality (s. khandha, Summary I.). In the figurative 
sense, as 'foundation' or condition, it is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) and is used to denote 


4 kinds of nutriment, which are material and mental: 
1. material food (kabalinkdrdhdra) , 2. (sensorial and 
mental) impression {phassa), 3. mental volition (mano- 
sancetand), 4. consciousness (yinndna). 

1. Material food feeds the eightfold corporeality 
having nutrient essence as its 8th factor (i.e. the solid, 
liquid, heat, motion, color, odour, the tastable and 
nutrient essence; s. rupa-kaldpa) . 2. Sensorial and 
mental impression is a condition for the 3 kinds of 
feeling (agreeable, disagreeable and indifferent); 
s. paticcasamuppdda (6). 3. Mental volition 
(= karma, q.v.) feeds rebirth; s. paticcasamuppdda (2). 
4. Consciousness feeds mind and corporeality; (ndma- 
rupa; ib., 2) at the moment of conception" (Vis.M. XI). 

Literature (on the 4 Nutriments) : M. 9 & Com. (tr. in 
'R. Und.'), M 38; S. XII, 11, 63, 64 - The Four Nutriments of 
Life, Selected texts & Com. (Wheel 105/106). 

ahara-ja (or-samunnhana) - rupa: 'Food-produced 
corporeality'; s. samutthdna. 

ahare patikkula-sanna: 'reflection on the loathsome- 
ness of food', fully described in Vis.M. XI, 1. 

ahetuka-citta: s. hetu. 

ahetuka-ditthi: 'view of uncausedness' (of existence) ; 
s. ditthi. 

ahetu-patisandhika: s. patisandhi. 

ahimsa: s. avihimsd. 


ahirika-anottappa: 'lack of moral shame and dread', 
are two of the 4 unwholesome factors associated with 
all karmically unwholesome states of consciousness, 
the two others being restlessness (uddhacca) and delus- 
ion (mo/ia). Cf. Tab. II. 

"There are two sinister things, namely, lack of mor- 
al shame and dread, etc." (A. II, 6) . "Not to be ashamed 
of what one should be ashamed of; not to be ashamed 
of evil, unwholesome things: this is called lack of moral 
shame" (Pug. 59). "Not to dread what one should 
dread... this is called lack of moral dread (Pug. 60). 

ahosi-kamma: 'ineffective karma'; s. karma. 

ajiva: 'livelihood'. About right and wrong livelihood., 
s. sacca (IV. 5) and micchd-magga (5). 

ajiva-parisuddhi-sila: 'morality consisting in purifi- 
cation of livelihood', is one of the 4 kinds of perfect 
morality; s. slla. 

akanittha: the 'Great Ones', i.e. 'Highest Gods', are the 
inhabitants of the 5th and highest heaven of the Pure 
Abodes (suddhdvdsa, q.v.); cf. avacara, deva (II) 

akasa: 'space', is, according to Com., of two kinds: 

1. limited space (paricchinndkdsa or pariccheddkdsa) , 

2. endless space (anantdkdsa) , i.e. cosmic space. 

1. Limited space, under the name of dkdsa-dhdtu 
(space element), belongs to derived corporeality 
(s. khandha, Summary I; Dhs. 638) and to a sixfold 
classification of elements (s. dhdtu; M 112, 115, 140). 


It is also an object of kasina (q.v.) meditation. It is 
defined as follows: "The space element has the char- 
acteristic of delimiting matter. Its function is to indicate 
the boundaries of matter. It is manifested as the con- 
fines of matter; or its manifestation consists in being 
untouched (by the 4 great elements), and in holes and 
apertures. Its proximate cause is the matter delimited. It 
is on account of the space element that one can say of 
material things delimited that 'this is above, below, 
around that' " (Vis.M. XIV, 63). 

2. Endless space is called in Atthasalini ajatdkdsa, 
'unentangled', i.e. unobstructed or empty space. It is the 
object of the first immaterial absorption (s.jhdnd), the 
sphere of boundless space (dkdsdnancdyatana) . Accord- 
ing to Abhidhamma philosophy, endless space has no 
objective reality (being purely conceptual), which is 
indicated by the fact that it is not included in the triad 
of the wholesome (kusalatika) , which comprises the 
entire reality. Later Buddhist schools have regarded it 
as one of several unconditioned or uncreated states 
{asankhata dharmd) - a view that is rejected in 
Kath. (s. Guide, p. 70). Theravada Buddhism recognizes 
only Nibbana as an unconditioned element (asankhata- 
dhdtu: s. Dhs. 1084). 

akasa dhatu: 'space element'; see above and dhdtu. 

akasa-kasina 'space-kasina exercise'; s. kasina. 

akasanancayatana: 'sphere of boundless space', is 
identical with the 1st absorption in the immaterial 
sphere; s.jhdna (6). 

akincanna-ceto-vimutti: s. ceto-vimutti. 


akincannayatana: s.jhana (7). 

akiriya-ditthi: view of the inefficacy of action'; 
s. ditthi. 

akuppa-ceto-vimutti: cf. ceto-vimutti. 

akuppa-dhamma: 'unshakable', is one who has 
attained full mastery over the absorptions (jhdna, q.v.). 
In Pug. 4 it is said: 

'What person is unshakable? If a person gains the 
meditative attainments of the fine -material and imma- 
terial sphere (rupdvacara-arupdvacara) ; and he gains 
them at his wish, without toil and exertion; and accord- 
ing to his wish, as regards place, object and duration, 
enters them or arises from them, then it is impossible 
that in such a person the attainments may become 
shaken through negligence. This person is unshakable." 

akusala: 'unwholesome', are all those karmic volitions 
(kamma-cetand; s. cetand) and the consciousness and 
mental concomitants associated therewith, which are 
accompanied either by greed (lobha) or hate (dosd) or 
merely delusion (mo/ia); and all these phenomena are 
causes of unfavourable karma-results and contain the 
seeds of unhappy destiny or rebirth. Cf. karma, paticca- 
samuppdda (1), Tab. II. 

akusala-sadharana-cetasika: 'general unwholesome 
mental factors associated with all unwholesome 
actions' (volitions), are four: (1) lack of moral shame 
(ahirikd), (2) lack of moral dread (anottappd) , 
(3) restlessness (uddhacca), (4) delusion (moha). For 


(1) and (2) s. ahirika-anottappa, for (3) s. mvarana, for 
(4) mula. (App.). 

The corresponding term in the field of wholesome 
consciousness is sobhana-sddhdrana-cetasika 
(s. sobhana) . 

akusala-vitakka: 'unwholesome thoughts' as defined 
under akusala (q.v.). In M. 20, five methods of over- 
coming them are given: by changing the object, think- 
ing of the evil results, paying no attention, analyzing, 

Tr. in The Removal of Distracting Thoughts (Wheel 21). 

alcohol prohibition: s. surdmeraya-majja- 
ppamddatthdnd etc. 

alms, vow of going for; or to do so without omitting 
any house: s. dhutanga, 3, 4. 

alms-bowl eater, the practice of the: s. dhutanga. 

alms-giving: ddna (q.v.) . 

alms-goer, the practice of the; s. dhutanga. 

alobha: 'greedlessness', is one of the 3 karmically 
wholesome roots (mula, q.v.) . 

aloka-kasina: 'light-kasina-exercise'; s. kasina. 

aloka-sanna: 'perception of light'. The recurring can- 
onical passage reads: "Here the monk contemplates the 
perception of light. He fixes his-mind to the perception 
of the day; as at day-time so at night, and as at night, so 
in the day. In this way, with a mind clear and un- 


clouded, he develops a stage of mind that is full of 
brightness." It is one of the methods of overcoming 
drowsiness, recommended by the Buddha to Maha- 
Moggallana (A. VII, 58) . According to D. 33, it is 
conducive to the development of 'knowledge and 
vision' (s. visuddhi), and it is said to be helpful to the 
attainment of the 'divine eye' (s. abhifind). 

altruistic joy: muditd, is one of the 4 sublime abodes 
(brahmavihara, q.v.) . 

amata (Sanskrit amrta; Vmr to die; = Gr. ambrosia): 
'Deathlessness' according to popular belief also the 
gods' drink conferring immortality, is a name for 
Nibbana (s. Nibbana), the final liberation from the 
wheel of rebirths, and therefore also from the ever- 
repeated deaths. 

amoha: 'non-delusion', wisdom, is one of the 
3 karmically wholesome roots (mula, q.v.) . 

anabhijjha: 'freedom from covetousness', 
unselfishness; s. kammapatha (II. 8) . 

anabhirati-sanfia: s. sabba-loke anabhirati-s. 

AnagamI: the 'Non-Returner', is a noble disciple 
(ariya-puggala, q.v.) on the 3rd stage of holiness. There 
are 5 classes of Non-Returners, as it is said 
(e.g. Pug. 42-46): 

"A being, through the disappearing of the 5 lower 
fetters (samyojana, q.v.), reappears in a higher world 
(amongst the devas of the Pure Abodes, suddha- 
vdsa, q.v.), and without returning from that world (into 
the sensuous sphere) he there reaches Nibbana. 


(1) "He may, immediately after appearing there (in 
the Pure Abodes) or without having gone beyond half 
of the life-time, attain the holy path for the overcoming 
of the higher fetters. Such a being is called 'one who 
reaches Nibbana within the first half of the life' (antard- 
parinibbdyl) . 

(2) "Or, whilst living beyond half of the lifetime, or 
at the moment of death, he attains the holy path for the 
overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is called 
'one who reaches Nibbana after crossing half the life- 
time' (upahacca-parinibbdyl) . 

(3) "Or, with exertion he attains the holy path for 
the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is 
called 'one who reaches Nibbana with exertion' 
(sasankhdra-parinibbdyl) . 

(4) "Or, without exertion he attains the holy path 
for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is 
called 'one who reaches Nibbana without exertion' 
(asankhdra-parinibbdyl) . 

(5) "Or, after vanishing from the heaven of the 
Aviha-gods (s. suddhdvdsd) , he appears in the heaven of 
the unworried {atappa) gods. After vanishing from 
there he appears in the heaven of the clearly- visible 
{sudassd) gods, from there in the heaven of the clear- 
visioned {sudassi) gods, from there in the heaven of the 
highest (akanitthd) gods. There he attains the holy path 
for the overcoming of the higher fetters. Such a being is 
called 'one who passes up-stream to the highest gods' 
(uddhamsota-akanittha-gdml) ." 

analysis of the 4 elements: dhdtu-vavatthdna (q.v.). 

analytical doctrine: vibhajja-vdda (q.v.). 


analytical knowledge, the 4 kinds of: 
patisambhidd (q.v.). 

anannatan-nassamlt'indriya: is one of the 

3 supermundane senses or faculties; s. indriya (20). 

anantara-paccaya: 'proximity', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

anantarika-kamma: the 5 heinous 'actions with 
immediate destiny' are: parricide, matricide, killing an 
Arahat (Saint), wounding a Buddha, creating schism in 
the monks' Order. In A.V., 129 it is said: 

"There are 5 irascible and incurable men destined 
to the lower world and to hell, namely: the parri- 
cide," etc. About the 5th see A. X., 35, 38. With regard 
to the first crime, it is said in D. 2 that if King Ajatasattu 
had not deprived his father of life, he would have 
reached entrance into the path of Stream-entry (App.). 

anantariya: the 'Immediacy', is a name for that 
concentration of mind which is associated with such 
insight (yipassand, q.v.) as is present in any one of the 

4 kinds of supermundane path consciousness (s. ariya- 
puggala), and which therefore is the cause of the 
immediately following consciousness as its result or 
'fruition' (phala, q.v.) . According to the Abhidhamma, 
the path (of the Sotdpanna, etc.) is generated by the 
insight into the impermanence, misery and imperson- 
ality of existence, flashing up at that very moment and 
transforming and ennobling one's nature forever. 


It is mentioned under the name of dnantarika- 
samddhi in the Ratana Sutta (Sn. v. 22) and in Pts.M. 1, 

anapana-sati: 'mindfulness on in-and-out-breathing', is 
one of the most important exercises for reaching mental 
concentration and the 4 absorptions (jhdna, q.v.). 

In the Satipatthana Sutta (M. 10, D. 22) and else- 
where, 4 methods of practice are given, which may also 
serve as basis for insight meditation. The 'Discourse on 
Mindfulness of Breathing' (Andpdnasati Sutta, M. 118) 
and other texts have 16 methods of practice, which 
divide into 4 groups of four. The first three apply to 
both tranquillity (samatha, q.v.) and insight-meditation, 
while the fourth refers to pure insight practice only. 
The second and the third group require the attainment 
of the absorptions. 

"With attentive mind he breathes in, with attentive 
mind he breathes out. 

I. (1) "When making a long inhalation he knows: 
'I make a long inhalation'; when making a long 
exhalation he knows: 'I make a long exhalation.' 

(2) "When making a short inhalation he knows: 
'I make a short inhalation'; when making a short 
exhalation he knows: 'I make a short exhalation.' 

(3) '"Clearly perceiving the entire (breath-) body 
I will breathe in,' thus he trains himself; 'clearly per- 
ceiving the entire (breath-) body I will breathe out,' 
thus he trains himself. 

(4) '"Calming this bodily function I will breathe in,' 
thus he trains himself; 'calming this bodily function 

I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself. 


II. (5) "'Feeling rapture (piti) I will breathe in,' thus 
he trains himself; 'feeling rapture I will breathe out,' 
thus he trains himself. 

(6) '"Feeling joy I will breathe in,' thus he trains 
himself; 'feeling joy I will breathe out,' thus he trains 

(7) '"Feeling the mental formation (citta-sankhdrd) 
I will breathe in,' thus he trains himself, 'feeling the 
mental formation I will breathe out,' thus he trains 

(8) '"Calming the mental formation I will breathe 
in,' thus he trains himself; 'calming the mental form- 
ation I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself. 

III. (9) '"Clearly perceiving the mind (citta) I will 
breathe in,' thus he trains himself; 'clearly perceiving 
the mind I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself. 

(10) '"Gladdening the mind I will breathe in,' thus 
he trains himself; 'gladdening the mind I will breathe 
out,' thus he trains himself. 

(11) '"Concentrating the mind I will breathe in, 
thus he trains himself; 'concentrating the mind I will 
breathe out', thus he trains himself. 

(12) '"Freeing the mind I will breathe in,' thus he 
trains himself; 'freeing the mind I will breathe out,' thus 
he trains himself. 

IV. (13) '"Reflecting on impermanence (aniccd) I will 
breathe in,' thus he trains himself; 'reflecting on imper- 
manence I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself. 

(14) '"Reflecting on detachment (virago) I will 
breathe in,' thus he trains himself; 'reflecting on detach- 
ment I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself. 


(15) "'Reflecting on extinction (nirodha) I will 
breathe in,' thus he trains himself; 'reflecting on extinct- 
ion I will breathe out,' thus he trains himself. 

(16) '"Reflecting on abandonment (patinissaggd) 
I will breathe in, thus he trains himself; 'reflecting on 
abandonment I will breathe out,' thus he trains 

In M. 118 it is further shown how these 16 exercises 
bring about the 4 foundations of mindfulness 
(satipatthdna, q.v.), namely: 1-4 contemplation of the 
body, 5-8 contemplation of feeling, 9-12 contemplation 
of mind (consciousness), 13-16 contemplation of mind- 
objects. Then it is shown how these 4 foundations of 
mindfulness bring about the 7 factors of enlightenment 
(bojjhanga, q.v.); then these again deliverance of mind 
(ceto-vimutti, q.v.) and deliverance through wisdom 
(pannd-vimutti, q.v.) . 

Literature: Anapanasati Samyutta (S. LIV). - 
Pts.M. Anapanakatha - Full explanation of practice in 
Vis.M. VIII, 145ff. - For a comprehensive anthology of 
canonical and commentarial texts, see Mindfulness of 
Breathing, Nanamoli Thera (Kandy: BPS, 1964). 

anatta: 'not-self, non-ego, egolessness, impersonality, 
is the last of the three characteristics of existence 
(ti-lakkhana, q.v.) . The anatta doctrine teaches that 
neither within the bodily and mental phenomena of 
existence, nor outside of them, can be found anything 
that in the ultimate sense could be regarded as a self- 
existing real ego-entity, soul or any other abiding 
substance. This is the central doctrine of Buddhism, 
without understanding which a real knowledge of 


Buddhism is altogether impossible. It is the only really 
specific Buddhist doctrine, with which the entire Struc- 
ture of the Buddhist teaching stands or falls. All the 
remaining Buddhist doctrines may, more or less, be 
found in other philosophic systems and religions, but 
the cmattd-doctrine has been clearly and unreservedly 
taught only by the Buddha, wherefore the Buddha is 
known as the anattd-vddi, or 'Teacher of Impersonality'. 
Whosoever has not penetrated this impersonality of all 
existence, and does not comprehend that in reality 
there exists only this continually self-consuming pro- 
cess of arising and passing bodily and mental pheno- 
mena, and that there is no separate ego-entity within or 
without this process, he will not be able to understand 
Buddhism, i.e. the teaching of the 4 Noble Truths 
{sacca, q.v.), in the right light. He will think that it is his 
ego, his personality, that experiences suffering, his per- 
sonality that performs good and evil actions and will be 
reborn according to these actions, his personality that 
will enter into Nibbana, his personality that walks on 
the Eightfold Path. Thus it is said in Vis.M. XVI: 

"Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found; 
The deeds are, but no doer of the deeds is there; 
Nibbana is, but not the man that enters it; 
The path is, but no traveller on it is seen." 

"Whosoever is not clear with regard to the condit- 
ionally arisen phenomena, and does not comprehend 
that all the actions are conditioned through ignorance, 
etc., he thinks that it is an ego that understands or does 
not understand, that acts or causes to act, that comes to 
existence at rebirth... that has the sense-impression, 


that feels, desires, becomes attached, continues and at 
rebirth again enters a new existence" (Vis.M. XVII, 117). 

While in the case of the first two characteristics it is 
stated that all formations (sabbe sankhara) are imper- 
manent and subject to suffering, the corresponding text 
for the third characteristic states that "all things are not- 
self (sabbe dhamma anatta; M. 35, Dhp. 279). This is 
for emphasizing that the false view of an abiding self or 
substance is neither applicable to any 'formation' or 
conditioned phenomenon, nor to Nibbana, the Uncon- 
ditioned Element (asankhata dhatu) . 

The Anatta-lakkhana Sutta, the 'Discourse on the 
Characteristic of Not-self, was the second discourse 
after Enlightenment, preached by the Buddha to his 
first five disciples, who after hearing it attained to 
perfect Holiness (arahatta). 

The contemplation of not-self (anattanupassand) 
leads to the emptiness liberation (sunnata-vimokkha, 
s. vimokkhd). Herein the faculty of wisdom 
(pannindriya) is outstanding, and one who attains in 
that way the path of Stream-entry is called a Dhamma- 
devotee (dhammanusari; s. ariya-puggala) ; at the next 
two stages of sainthood he becomes a vision-attainer 
(ditthippatta) ; and at the highest stage, i.e. Holiness, he 
is called 'liberated by wisdom' (panna-vimuttd) . 

For further details, see paramattha-sacca, paticca- 
samuppada, khandha, ti-lakkhana, nama-rupa, 

Literature: Anatta-lakkhana Sutta, Vinaya I, 13-14; 
S. XXII, 59; tr. in Three Cardinal Discourses of the Buddha 
(Wheel 17). - Another important text on Anatta is the 
Discourse on the Snake Simile (Alagaddupama Sutta, M. 22; 


tr. in Wheel 48/49). Other texts in "Path". - Further: 
Anattd and Nibbana, by Nyanaponika Thera (Wheel 11); 
The Truth of Anattd, by Dr. G. P. Malalasekera (Wheel 94); 
The Three Basic Facts of Existence III: Egolessness 
(Wheel 202/204) 

anattanupassana: 'contemplation of not-self is one of 
the 18 chief kinds of insight (s. vipassand). See also 

anatta-sanna: 'perception of not-self ; see A. VI, 104; 
A. VII, 48; A. X, 60; Ud. IV, 1. 

anatta-vada: the 'doctrine of impersonality'; s. anattd. 

anenja: 'imperturbability', denotes the immaterial 
sphere (arupdvacara; s. avacara); s. sankhdra. 
cf. M. 106. 

anger: s. mula. 

anicca: 'impermanent' (or, as abstract noun, aniccatd, 
'impermanence') is the first of the three characteristics 
of existence (tilakkhana, q.v.) . It is from the fact of 
impermanence that, in most texts, the other two charac- 
teristics, suffering (dukkha) and not-self (anattd), are 
derived (S. XXII, 15; Ud. IV, I) 

"Impermanence of things is the rising, passing and 
changing of things, or the disappearance of things that 
have become or arisen. The meaning is that these things 
never persist in the same way, but that they are vanish- 
ing dissolving from moment to moment" (Vis.M. VII, 3). 

Impermanence is a basic feature of all conditioned 
phenomena, be they material or mental, coarse or 


subtle, one's own or external: All formations are im- 
permanent" (sabbe sankhdrd aniccd; M. 35, Dhp. 277). 
That the totality of existence is impermanent is also 
often stated in terms of the five aggregates 
(khandha, q.v.), the twelve personal and external sense 
bases {dyatana q.v.), etc. Only Nibbana (q.v.), which is 
unconditioned and not a formation (asankhatd) , is 
permanent (nicca, dhuvd) . 

The insight leading to the first stage of deliverance, 
Stream-entry (sotdpatti; s. ariya-puggala) , is often 
expressed in terms of impermanence: "Whatever is 
subject to origination, is subject to cessation" 
(s. Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, S. XLVI, 11). In his 
last exhortation, before his Parinibbana, the Buddha 
reminded his monks of the impermanence of existence 
as a spur to earnest effort: "Behold now, Bhikkhus, 
I exhort you: Formations are bound to vanish. Strive 
earnestly!" (vayadhammd sankhdrd, appamddena 
sampddetha; D. 16). 

Without the deep insight into the impermanence 
and insubstantiality of all phenomena of existence 
there is no attainment of deliverance. Hence compre- 
hension of impermanence gained by direct meditative 
experience heads two lists of insight knowledge: 
(a) contemplation of impermanence (aniccdnupassand) 
is the first of the 18 chief kinds of insight (q.v.); (b) the 
contemplation of arising and vanishing 
(udayabbaydnupassand-ndna) is the first of 9 kinds of 
knowledge which lead to the 'purification by know- 
ledge and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi, VI). 
- Contemplation of impermanence leads to the condit- 


ionless deliverance (animitta-vimokkha; s. vimokkha) . 
As herein the faculty of confidence (saddhindriyd) is 
outstanding, he who attains in that way the path of 
Stream-entry is called a faith-devotee (saddhdnusdri; 
s. ariya-puggala) and at the seven higher stages he is 
called faith-liberated (saddhd-vimuttd) , - See also 

See The Three Basic Facts of Existence I: Impermanence 
(Wheel 186/187) 

aniccanupassana: 'contemplation of impermanence', 
is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (s. vipassand). 

anicca-sanna: 'perception of impermanence', is 
defined in the Girimananda Sutta (A.X. 60) as 
meditation on the impermanence of the five groups of 

"Though, with a faithful heart, one takes refuge in 
the Buddha, his Teaching and the Community of 
Monks; or with a faithful heart observes the rules of 
morality, or develops a mind full of loving-kindness, far 
more meritorious it is if one cultivates the perception of 
impermanence, be it only for a moment" (A.X. 20). 

See A. VI, 102; A. VII, 48; Ud. IV, 1; S. XXII, 102. 

animitta-ceto-vimutti: s. ceto-vimutti. 

animittanupassana: s. vipassand. 

animitta-vimokkha: s. vimokkha. 

anna: 'other', being of the opposite category. 


anna: 'highest knowledge', gnosis, refers to the perfect 
knowledge of the Saint (Arahat; s. ariya-puggala) . The 
following passage occurs frequently in the Suttas, when 
a monk indicates his attainment of Holiness (arahatta) : 
"He makes known highest knowledge (afinam 
vydkaroti), thus: 'Rebirth has ceased, fulfilled is the 
holy life, the task is accomplished, and there is no more 
of this to come.'" 

The 'faculty of highest knowledge' {afiiV indriya = 
annd-indriya; s. indriya), however, is present in six of 
the eight stages of holiness, that is, beginning with the 
fruition of Stream- Winning (sotdpatti-phald) up to the 
path of Holiness (arahatta-magga) . See Dhs. (PTS) 
362-364, 505, 553; Indriya Vibhanga; "Path" 162. 

annamanna-paccaya: 'mutuality-condition,' is one of 
the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.). 

annatavindriya: 'the faculty of one who knows'; 
s. indriya, 22. 

annindriya: 'the faculty of highest knowledge'; s. afind 
and indriya, 21. 

anottappa: s. ahirika. 

answering questions: 4 ways of: s. panhd-bydkarana. 

antara-parinibbayi: is one of the 5 kinds of Non- 
Returners or Andgdml (q.v.) . 

antinomies: s. ditthi. 

anuloma-citta: 'adaptation-moment of consciousness', 
denotes the third of the 4 moments of impulsion 


(javana, q.v.) flashing up immediately before either 
reaching the absorptions (jhdna, q.v.) or the super- 
mundane paths (s. ariya-puggala) . These 4 moments of 
impulsion are: the preparation (parikamma) , access 
(upacdrd) , adaptation (anulomd) and maturity 
(gotrabhu) moments. For further details, s. javana, 

anuloma-nana: 'adaptation-knowledge' or conformity- 
knowledge, is identical with the 'adaptation-to-truth 
knowledge', the last of 9 insight-knowledges 
(yipassana-nand) which constitute the purification of 
knowledge and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi 
VI, 9).Cf.Vis.M.XXI. 

anupadisesa-nibbana: see Nibbdna, upddi. 

anupassana: 'contemplation' - 4 fold: s. satipatthdna - 
18 fold: s. vipassana. - 7 fold: "The seven contem- 
plation's: (1) Contemplating (formations) as imper- 
manent, one abandons the perception of permanence. 

(2) Contemplating (them) as painful, one abandons 
the perception of happiness (to be found in them). 

(3) Contemplating (them) as not self, one abandons 
the perception of self. (4) Becoming dispassionate, one 
abandons delighting. (5) Causing fading away, one 
abandons greed. (6) Causing cessation, one abandons 
originating. (7) Relinquishing, one abandons grasping" 
(Pts.M. I, p. 58). - See also Vis.M. XXI, 43; XXII, 114. 

anupubba-nirodha: The 9 'successive extinctions', are 
the 8 extinctions reached through the 8 absorptions 
(jhdna, q.v.) and the extinction of feeling and 


perception' (s. nirodha-samapatti) , as it is said in A. IX, 
31 and D. 33: 

"In him who has entered the 1st absorption, the 
sensuous perceptions {kdma-sanna) are extinguished. 
Having entered the 2nd absorption, thought-concept- 
ion and discursive thinking (yitakkavicdra, q.v.) are 
extinguished. Having entered the 3rd absorption, 
rapture {plti, q.v.) is extinguished. Having entered the 
4th absorption, in-and-out breathing (assdsa- 
passdsa, q.v.) are extinguished. Having entered the 
sphere of boundless space (dkdsdnancdyatana) , the 
corporeality perceptions (rupa-sannd) are extinguished. 
Having entered the sphere of boundless consciousness 
(yinndnancdyatand) , the perception of the sphere of 
boundless space is extinguished. Having entered the 
sphere of nothingness (dkincanndyatana) , the 
perception of the sphere of boundless consciousness is 
extinguished. Having entered the sphere of neither- 
perception-nor-non-perception (neva-sannd- 
ndsanndyatana) the perception of the sphere of 
nothingness is extinguished. Having entered the 
extinction of perception and feeling {sanndvedayita- 
nirodhd) perception and feeling are extinguished." For 
further details, s.jhdna, nirodha-samapatti. 

anupubba-vihara: the 9 'successive abodes', are 
identical with the 9 anupubba-nirodha (s. above) . 
In A. IX, 33 they are called successive attainments 
(anupubba-samdpatti) . 

anupubbl-katha: 'gradual instruction', progressive 
sermon; given by the Buddha when it was necessary to 


prepare first the listener's mind before speaking to him 
on the advanced teaching of the Four Noble Truths. 
The stock passage (e.g. D. 3; D. 14; M. 56) runs as 

"Then the Blessed One gave him a gradual instruct- 
ion - that is to say, he spoke on liberality ('giving', 
ddna, q.v.), on moral conduct (sila) and on the heavens 
(saggd); he explained the peril, the vanity and the 
depravity of sensual pleasures, and the advantages of 
renunciation. When the Blessed One perceived that the 
listener's mind was prepared, pliant, free from 
obstacles, elevated and lucid; then he explained to him 
that exalted teaching particular to the Buddhas 
(Buddhanam samukkamsika desand), that is: suffering, 
its cause, its ceasing, and the path." 

anurakkhana-padhana: the 'effort to maintain' 
wholesome states; s. padhana. 

anusaya: the 7 'proclivities', inclinations, or tendencies 
are: sensuous greed (kama-raga, s. samyojana) , grudge 
(patighd), speculative opinion {ditthi, q.v.), skeptical 
doubt (vicikiccha, q.v.), conceit (mana, q.v.), craving for 
continued existence (bhavaraga), ignorance 
(avijja, q.v.) (D. 33; A. VII, 11, 12). 

"These things are called 'proclivities' since, in 
consequence of their pertinacity, they ever and again 
tend to become the conditions for the arising of ever 
new sensuous greed, etc." (Vis.M. XXII, 60). 

Yam. VII, first determines in which beings such and 
such proclivities exist, and which proclivities, and with 
regard to what, and in which sphere of existence. 


Thereafter it gives an explanation concerning their 
overcoming, their penetration, etc. Cf. Guide VI (vii) . 
According to Kath. several ancient Buddhist schools 
erroneously held the opinion that the anusayas, as 
such, meant merely latent, hence karmically neutral 
qualities, which however Contradicts the Theravada 
conception. Cf. Guide V, 88, 108, 139. 

anussati: 'recollection', meditation, contemplation. 
The six recollections often described in the Suttas 
(e.g. A. VI, 10, 25; D. 33) are: (1) recollection of the 
Buddha, (2) his Doctrine, (3) his Community of noble 
disciples, (4) of morality, (5) liberality, (6) heavenly 
beings (buddhdnussati, dhammdnussati, sanghdnussati, 
slldnussati, cdgdnussati, devatdnussati) . 

(1) "The noble disciple, Mahanama, recollects 
thus: 'This Blessed One is holy, a fully Enlightened 
One, perfected in wisdom and conduct, faring happily, 
knower of the worlds, unsurpassed leader of men to be 
trained, teacher of heavenly beings and men, a Buddha, 
a Blessed One.' 

(2) 'Well proclaimed by the Blessed One is the 
Doctrine (dhammd) , directly visible, with immediate 
fruit, inviting investigation, leading on to Nibbana, to be 
comprehended by the wise, each by himself.' 

(3) 'Of good conduct is the Community (Sangha) 
of the Blessed One's disciples, of upright conduct, living 
on the right path, performing their duties, to wit: the 

4 pairs of men or 8 individuals (s. ariya puggala) . This 
Community of the Blessed One's disciples is worthy of 
offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy 


of reverence with raised hands, the unsurpassed field 
for doing meritorious deeds.' 

(4) "The noble disciple further recollects his own 
morality (sila) which is unbroken, without any breach, 
undefiled, untarnished, conducive to liberation, praised 
by the wise, not dependent (on craving or opinions), 
leading to concentration. 

(5) "The noble disciple further recollects his own 
liberality (cdgd) thus: 'Blessed truly am I, highly bless- 
ed am I who, amongst beings defiled with the filth of 
stinginess, live with heart free from stinginess, liberal, 
open-handed, rejoicing in giving, ready to give anything 
asked for, glad to give and share with others.' 

(6) "The noble disciple further recollects the 
heavenly beings (devatd) : 'There are the heavenly 
beings of the retinue of the Four Great Kings, the 
heavenly beings of the World of the Thirty-Three, the 
Yamadevas... and there are heavenly beings besides 
(s. deva) . Such faith, such morality, such knowledge, 
such liberality, such insight, possessed of which those 
heavenly beings, after vanishing from here, are reborn 
in those worlds, such things are also found in me.'" 
(A. 111,70; VI,10;XI,12). 

"At the time when the noble disciple recollects the 
Perfect One. . . at such a time his mind is neither 
possessed of greed, nor of hate, nor of delusion. Quite 
upright at such a time is his mind owing to the Perfect 
One.... With upright mind the noble disciple attains 
understanding of the sense, understanding of the law, 
attains joy through the law. In the joyous one rapture 
arises. With heart enraptured, his whole being becomes 


stilled. Stilled within his being, he feels happiness; and 
the mind of the happy one becomes firm. Of this noble 
disciple it is said that amongst those gone astray, he 
walks on the right path, among those suffering he 
abides free from suffering. Thus having reached the 
stream of the law, he develops the recollection of the 
Enlightened One...." (A. VI, 10). 

In A. I, 21 (PTS: I, xvi) and A. I, 27 (PTS: xx. 2) 
another 4 recollections are added: mindfulness on 
death (marana-sati, q.v.), on the body (kdyagatd- 
sati, q.v.), on breathing (dndpdna-sati, q.v.), and the 
recollection of peace (upasamdnussati, q.v.). 

The first six recollections are fully explained in 
Vis.M. VII, the latter four in Vis.M. VIII. 

aparapariya-vedaniya-kamma: 'karma bearing fruits 
in later births'; s. karma. 

aparihana-dhamma: 'incapable of relapse', or 'of fall- 
ing away', namely, with regard to deliverance from 
some or all fetters of existence (s. samyojana) . Thus all 
noble disciples are called, i.e. all those who have 
attained any of the 4 noble paths to holiness 
(s. ariyapuggala) . With regard to the absorptions 
(jhdna, q.v.), anyone is called 'unrelapsable' who has 
attained full mastery over the absorptions. See 
A. VI, 62; Pug. 6. Cf. akuppa-dhamma. 

aparihaniya-dhamma: 'conditions of welfare' (lit. of 
non-decline), for a nation. Seven such conditions are 
mentioned in the Maha-Parinibbana Sutta (D. 16). 
They are followed by five sets of 7, and one set of 
6 conditions, conducive to the welfare of the Com- 


munity of Monks, the Sangha. Identical texts at A. VII, 
20-25. To be distinguished from the preceding term. 

apaya: The 4 'lower worlds', are: the animal world, 
ghost world, demon-world, hell. See Vis.M. XIII, 92f. 

apo-dhatu: 'water-element'; s. dhdtu. 

appamada: 'zeal', non-laxity, earnestness, diligence, is 
considered as the foundation of all progress. 

Just as all the footprints of living beings are sur- 
passed by the footprint of the elephant, and the foot- 
print of the elephant is considered as the mightiest 
amongst them, just so have all the meritorious qualities 
zeal as their foundation, and zeal is considered as the 
mightiest of these qualities" (A. X, 15). 

Cf. the Chapter on Zeal (Appamada Vagga) in Dhp., 
and the Buddha's last exhortation: "Transient are all 
formations. Strive zealously!" (appamadena 
sampadetha: D. 16) - In the commentaries, it is often 
explained as the presence (lit. 'non-absence') of 
mindfulness (satiya avippavasd) . 

appamanabha: a kind of heavenly being; s. deva, (II). 

appamana-ceto-vimutti: s. ceto-vimutti. 

appamana-subha: a kind of heavenly being: 
s. deva (II) . 

appamanna: The 4 'Boundless States', identical with 
brahma-vihara (q.v.). 


appana-samadhi: 'attainment concentration' or 'full 
concentration' (from apeti, to fix), is the concentration 
existing during absorption (jhdna, q.v.), whilst the 
neighbourhood or access-concentration (upacdra- 
samddhi) only approaches the 1st absorption without 
attaining it; s. samddhi. 

appanihita-vimokkha: s. vimokkha. - 
Appanihitdnupassand; s. vipassand. 

Appendants: The 3: kincana (q.v.). 

appicchata: 'having only few wishes', contentedness, is 
one of the indispensable virtues of the monk; 
cf. A. X. 181-190, and ariyavamsa (q.v.). 

apunnabhisankhara: s. sankhdra. 

Arahat and arahatta-magga,-phala: s. ariya-puggala. 

arammana: 'object'. There are six: visible object, 
sound, odor, taste, body-impression, mind-object. The 
mind-object (dhammdrammand) may be physical or 
mental, past, present or future, real or imaginary. The 
5 sense-objects belong to the corporeality-group (rupa- 
ykhandha, s. khandhd). They form the external 
foundations for the sense-perceptions, and without 
them no sense-perception or sense-consciousness 
(seeing, hearing, etc.) can arise. Cf. dyatana, paccaya. 
(App: paccaya 2.). 

arammanadhipati, arammanupanissaya: s. paccaya. 


arannikanga: The 'exercise of the forest-dweller', is 
one of the ascetic purification-exercises 
(dhutanga, q.v.). 

arising and vanishing (of things) . The knowledge 
consisting in the contemplation of; s. visuddhi (VI. 1.). 

ariya-iddhi: s. iddhi. 

ariya-magga: s. foil. 

ariya-puggala: or simply ariya: 'Noble Ones', 'noble 

(A) The 8 a. are those who have realized one of 
the 8 stages of holiness, i.e. the 4 supermundane paths 
(magga) and the 4 supermundane fruitions (phala) of 
these paths. There are 4 pairs: 

1. The one realizing the path of Stream- winning 
(sotdpattimagga) . 

2. The one realizing the fruition of Stream- 
winning (sotdpattiphala) . 

3. The one realizing the path of Once-return 
(sakaddgdmimagga) . 

4. The one realizing the fruition of Once-return 
(sakaddgdmiphala) . 

5. The one realizing the path of Non-return 
(andgdmimagga) . 

6. The one realizing the fruition of Non-return 
(andgdmiphala) . 

7. The one realizing the path of Holiness 
(arahatta-magga) . 

8. The one realizing the fruition of Holiness 
(arahatta-phala) . 


Summed up, there are 4 noble individuals {ariya- 
puggala): the Stream- winner (Sotdpanna) , the Once- 
Returner (Sakaddgdmi) , the Non-Returner (AndgdmT), 
the Holy One (Arahat). 

In A. VIII, 10 and A. IX, 16 the gotrabhu (q.v.) is 
listed as the 9th noble individual. 

According to the Abhidhamma, 'supermundane 
path', or simply 'path' (maggd), is a designation of the 
moment of entering into one of the 4 stages of holiness 
- Nibbana being the object - produced by intuitional 
insight (yipassand) into the impermanence, misery and 
impersonality of existence, flashing forth and forever 
transforming one's life and nature. By 'fruition' (phald) 
is meant those moments of consciousness which follow 
immediately thereafter as the result of the path, and 
which in certain circumstances may repeat for innumer- 
able times during the life-time. 

(I) Through the path of Stream-winning (sotdpatti- 
magga) one 'becomes' free (whereas in realizing the 
fruition, one 'is' free) from the first 3 fetters 
(samyojana, q.v.) which bind beings to existence in the 
sensuous sphere, to wit: (1) personality-belief 
(sakkdya-ditthi; s. ditthi), (2) skeptical doubt 
(yicikicchd, q.v.), (3) attachment to mere rules and 
rituals (sllabbata-pardmdsa; s. updddna) . 

(II) Through the path of Once-return (sakaddgdmi- 
maggd) one becomes nearly free from the 4th and 5th 
fetters, to wit: (4) sensuous craving (kdma-cchanda = 
kdma-rdga; s. rdga), (5) ill-will (yydpdda = dosa, 

s. mula) . 


(III) Through the path of Non-return (andgdmi- 
maggd) one becomes fully free from the above- 
mentioned 5 lower fetters. 

(IV) Through the path of Holiness (arahatta- 
maggd) one further becomes free from the 5 higher 
fetters, to wit: (6) craving for fine material existence 
(rupa-rdgd), (7) craving for immaterial existence. 
(arupa-rdga) , (8) conceit (mdna, q.v.), (9) restlessness 
(uddhacca, q.v.), (10) ignorance (avijjd, q.v.). 

The stereotype Sutta text runs as follows: 

(I) "After the disappearance of the three fetters, the 
monk has won the stream (to Nibbana) and is no more 
subject to rebirth in lower worlds, is firmly established, 
destined for full enlightenment. 

(II) "After the disappearance of the three fetters 
and reduction of greed, hatred and delusion, he will 
return only once more; and having once more returned 
to this world, he will put an end to suffering. 

(III) "After the disappearance of the five fetters he 
appears in a higher world, and there he reaches 
Nibbana without ever returning from that world (to the 
sensuous sphere) . 

(IV) "Through the extinction of all cankers (dsava- 
kkhayd) he reaches already in this very life the 
deliverance of mind, the deliverance through wisdom, 
which is free from cankers, and which he himself has 
understood and realized." 

For the various classes of Stream- winners and Non- 
Returners, s. Sotdpanna, Andgdml. 


(B) The sevenfold grouping of the noble disciples 
is as follows: 

(1) the faith-devotee {saddhdnusdn) , (2) the faith- 
liberated one (saddhavimuttd) , (3) the body- witness 
(kdya-sakkhi) , (4) the both-ways-liberated one 
(ubhato-bhdga-vimuttd) , (5) the Dhamma-devotee 
(dhammdnusdfi) , (6) the vision-attainer (ditthippattd) , 
(7) the wisdom-liberated one (pannd-vimuttd) . This 
group of seven noble disciples is thus explained in 
Vis.M.XXI, 73: 

(1) "He who is filled with resolution 
(adhimokkhd) and, in considering the formations as 
impermanent (aniccd), gains the faculty of faith, he, at 
the moment of the path to Stream-winning (A. 1) is 
called a faith-devotee (saddhdnusdfi); (2) at the seven 
higher stages (A. 2-8) he is called a faith-liberated one 
(saddhd-vimuttd) . (3) He who is filled with tranquillity 
and, in considering the formations as miserable 
(dukkha) , gains the faculty of concentration, he in 
every respect is considered as a body-witness (kdya- 
sakkhi) . (4) He, however, who after reaching the 
absorptions of the immaterial sphere has attained the 
highest fruition (of Holiness), he is a both-ways- 
liberated one (ubhato-bhdga-vimutta) . (5) He who is 
filled with wisdom and, in considering the formations as 
not-self {anatta), gains the faculty of wisdom, he is at 
the moment of Stream- winning a Dhamma-devotee 
(dhammdnusdfi) , (6) at the later stages (A. 2-7) a 
vision-attainer (ditthippatta) , (7) at the highest stage 
(A. 8) a wisdom-liberated one (panfidvimuttd) ." - 
Further details about the body-witness, the both-ways- 


liberated one and the wisdom-liberated one, s. under 
the three Pali terms. Cf. also M. 70; A. IX, 44; S. XII, 70; 
Pts.M. II, p. 33, PTS. 

ariya-sacca: The Four 'Noble Truths'; s. sacca. 

ariya-vamsa: The four 'noble usage's', are: contented- 
ness (of the monk) with any robe, contentedness with 
any alms-food, contentedness with any dwelling, and 
delight in meditation and detachment. In the Ariya- 
vamsa Sutta, (A. IV, 28) and similarly in D. 33, it is said: 

"Now the monk is contented with any robe, with 
any alms-food, with any dwelling, finds pleasure and 
enjoyment in mental training and detachment. But 
neither is he haughty on that account, nor does he look 
down upon others. Now, of a monk who herein is fit 
and indefatigable, who remains clearly conscious and 
mindful, of such a monk it is said that he is firmly 
established in the ancient, noble usage's known as the 
most lofty ones." 

Full tr. of Ariya-vamsa Sutta in Wheel 83/84. 

ariya-vihara: s. vihdra. 

arupa-bhava: s. bhava, loka. 

arupa-jjhana: - s.jhdna. 

arupa-kkhandha: The four 'immaterial groups' of 
existence are: feeling, perception, mental formations, 
consciousness; s. khandha. 

arupavacara: s. avacara. 

aruppa: s.jhdna. 


asankhara-parinibbayi: The 'one reaching Nibbana 
without exertion', is one of the five classes of Non- 
Returners (Andgdml, q.v.) 

asankharika-citta: an Abhidhamma term signifying a 
'state of consciousness arisen spontaneously', i.e. with- 
out previous deliberation, preparation, or prompting by 
others; hence: 'unprepared, unprompted'. This term 
and its counterpart (sasankhdrikacitta, q.v.), probably 
go back to a similar distinction made in the Suttas 
(A. IV, 171; "Path" 184). See Tab. I; examples in 
Vis.M. XIV, 84f. 

asankhata: The 'Unformed, Unoriginated, Uncon- 
ditioned' is a name for Nibbana, the beyond of all 
becoming and conditionality. 

asanna-satta: The 'unconscious beings', are a class of 
heavenly beings in the fine-material world; s. deva (II). 
"There are, O monks, heavenly beings known as the 
unconscious ones. As soon, however, as in those beings 
consciousness arises, those beings will vanish from that 
world. Now, O monks, it may happen that one of those 
beings after vanishing from that world, may reappear in 
this world...." (D. 24). Further details, s. Kath., 
Yam. (Guide, pp. 68, 79, 96 ff.). 

asava: (lit: influxes), 'cankers', taints, corruption's, 
intoxicant biases. There is a list of four (as in D. 16, 
Pts.M., Vibh.): the canker of sense-desire (kdmdsava) , 
of (desiring eternal) existence (bhavdsava), of 
(wrong) views (ditthdsavd) , and of ignorance 
(avijjdsava) . A list of three, omitting the canker of views, 
is possibly older and is more frequent in the Suttas, 


e.g. in M. 2, M. 9, D. 33; A. Ill, 59, 67; A. VI, 63. - In 
Vibh. (Khuddakavatthu Vibh.) both the 3-fold and 
4-fold division are mentioned. The fourfold division 
also occurs under the name of 'floods' (ogha) and 
'yokes' (yoga) . 

Through the path of Stream-Entry, the canker of 
views is destroyed; through the path of Non-Returning, 
the canker of sense-desire; through the path of 
Arahatship, the cankers of existence and ignorance. 
M. 2 shows how to overcome the cankers, namely, 
through insight, sense-control, avoidance, wise use of 
the necessities of life, etc. For a commentarial expos- 
ition, see Atthasalini Tr. I, p. 63f: II, pp. 475ff. 

Khinasava, 'one whose cankers are destroyed', or 
'one who is canker-free', is a name for the Arahat or 
Holy One. The state of Arahatship is frequently called 
dsavakkhaya, 'the destruction of the cankers'. Suttas 
concluding with the attainment of Arahatship by the 
listeners, often end with the words: "During this 
utterance, the hearts of the Bhikkhus were freed from 
the cankers through clinging no more" {anupdddya 
asavehi cittdni vimuccimsu'ti) . 

asavakkhaya: see above. 

ascending insight: s. vutthdna-gdmim-vipassand. 

ascetic purification practices: s. dhutanga. 

asekha: (lit.: 'not-learner'; s. sekhd), a disciple 
'perfected in training', one beyond training, an adept. 
This is a name for the Arahat, the Holy One (s. ariya- 
puggald), since he has reached the perfection in higher 
moral training, higher mind training and higher wisdom 


training (s. sikkhd) and needs no longer to train himself 

asevana-paccaya: 'repetition', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.). 

asmi-mana: (lit.: 'I am'-conceit), 'ego -conceit', may 
range from the coarsest pride and self-assertion to a 
subtle feeling of one's distinctiveness or superiority that 
persists, as the 8th fetter (samyojana, q.v.), until the 
attainment of Arahatship or Holiness. It is based upon 
the comparison of oneself with others, and may, there- 
fore, manifest itself also as a feeling of inferiority or the 
claim to be equal (s. mdnd). It has to be distinguished 
from 'ego-belief (sakkdya-ditthi, q.v.) which implies a 
definite belief or view {ditthi) concerning the assump- 
tion of a self or soul, and, being the 1st of the fetters, 
disappears at attainment of Stream-Entry (sotdpatti; 
s. ariya-puggala) . 

"Even when the five lower fetters have vanished in 
a noble disciple, there is still in him, with regard to the 
five groups of clinging, a slight undiscarded measure of 
the conceit 'I am', of the will 'I am', of the proclivity 
'I am'" (S. XXII, 89). - s. mdna. 

assasa-passasa: 'in-and-out-breathing', are corporeal 
or physical functions or 'formations' (kdya-sankhdrd) , 
whilst thought-conception and discursive thinking 
(yitakka and vicdrd) are called verbal functions (yacl- 
sankhdrd), s. sankhdra (2). In-and-out-breathing forms 
one of the 6 aspects of the wind-element (s. dhdtu) . 
Cf. M. 62. 


association: sampayutta-paccaya, is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

asubha: 'impurity', loathsomeness, foulness. - In 
Vis.M. VI, it is the cemetery contemplations 
(sivathika, q.v.) that are called 'meditation-subjects of 
impurity' (asubha-kammatthana; s. bhdvand) . In the 
Girimananda Sutta (A. X., 50), however, the perception 
of impurity {asubha-sanna) refers to the contemplation 
of the 32 parts of the body (s. kaya-gata-sati) . The 
contemplation of the body's impurity is an antidote 
against the hindrance of sense-desire (s. mvarand) and 
the mental perversion (yipalldsa, q.v.) which sees what 
is truly impure as pure and beautiful. See S. XLVI, 51; 
A. V. 36, Dhp. 7, 8; Sn. 193ff. - The Five Mental 
Hindrances (Wheel 26), pp. 5ff. 

asura: 'demons', titans, evil ghosts, inhabiting one of 
the lower worlds (apaya, q.v.). 

atappa: 'the unworried', is the name of a class of deities 
(s. deva,) inhabiting the first of the five Pure Abodes 
(suddhdvdsa, q.v.), in which the Anagaml (q.v.) has his 
last rebirth. 

atimana: 'superiority-conceit'; s. mana. 

atta: 'self, ego, personality, is in Buddhism a mere 
conventional expression (yoharadesana) , and no 
designation for anything really existing; s. paramattha- 
desana, anatta, puggala, sattajlva. 

attachments: s.paramdsa. 


atta-ditthi {-vada) : 'ego-belief, 'personality-belief, 
s. ditthi. 

attainment-concentration: appand-samddhi (q.v.); 
s. samddhi. 

attainments, 'The 8 a.'; s. samdpatti. 

atta-kilamatha: 'self-mortification', is one of the two 
extremes to be avoided, the other extreme being 
addiction to sensual pleasures (kdma-sukha) , whilst the 
Noble 8-fold Path constitutes the Middle Path 
(majjhima-patipadd, q.v.) . See the Buddha's first 
sermon, "The Establishment of the Realm of Dhamma" 
(Dhamma-cakkappavattana-Suttd) . 

atta-sanna Ccitta, °ditthi) : 'perception (consciousness, 
view) of an ego', is one of the 4 perversions 
(yipalldsa, q.v.) . 

atta-vadupadana: 'attachment to the ego-belief, is 
one of the 4 kinds of clinging (updddna, q.v.) . 

attention: s. manasikdra. 

attentiveness, attention, mindfulness; s. sati, 

atthangika-magga: The 'Eightfold Path'; s. magga. 

attha-patisambhida: The 'analytical knowledge of 
meaning', is one of the 4 kinds of analytical knowledge 
(patisambhidd, q.v.) . 

atthi-paccaya: 'presence', is one of the 24 conditions 
(paccaya, q.v.) . 


auditory organ: s. ay ataxia. 

avacara: 'sphere', realm. The 3 spheres of existence 
are: the sensuous sphere (kamavacara) , the fine- 
material sphere {rupavacard) , the immaterial sphere 
(arupavacard) . "Which things are of the sensuous 
sphere (kamavacard) ? Whatever things exist within the 
interval bounded beneath by the Avici -hell and above 
by the Paranimmitavasavatti-heaven (s. deva), having 
therein their sphere, and being therein included, to wit: 
the groups of existence, the elements, bases 
(s. khandha, dhatu, ayatana), corporeality, feeling, 
perception, mental formations and consciousness, all 
these things are of the sensuous sphere. - But which 
things are of the fine material sphere (rupavacard)? 
Whatever things exist within the interval bounded 
beneath by the Brahma-world and above by the 
Akanittha-world (s. deva), having therein their sphere, 
and being therein included... and also consciousness 
and mental factors in one who has entered the (fine- 
material) absorptions, or who has been reborn in that 
sphere, or who already during his life-time is living in 
happiness (of the absorptions), all these things are of 
the fine-material sphere. - Which things are of the im- 
material sphere (arupavacard)? Consciousness and 
mental factors arising within the interval bounded be- 
neath by the beings reborn in the sphere of unbounded 
space and above by the beings reborn in the sphere of 
neither-perception-nor-non-perception (s.jhana 5-8), 
and consciousness and mental factors in one who has 
entered the (immaterial absorptions), or who has been 
reborn in that sphere, or who already during his life- 
time is living in happiness (of the immaterial absorp- 


tions), all these things are of the immaterial sphere." 
(Cf. Dhs. 1280, 1282, 1284; Vibh. XVIII). (App.). 

avajjana: 'advertence' of the mind towards the object, 
forms the first stage in the process of consciousness 
(s. vinndna-kiccd) . If an object of the 5 physical senses 
is concerned, it is called 'five-door advertence' (pafica 
dvdr avajjana); in the case of a mental object, 'mind- 
door advertence' (mano-dvaravajjana) . 

aversion (from existence), contemplation of: 
s. vipassana (VI. 5) 

avici is the name of one of the most frightful hells 
(niraya, q.v.) . 

avigata-paccaya: 'non-disappearance', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.). 

aviha (derivation uncertain; Sanskrit avrha) is one of 
the five Pure Abodes (suddhavdsa, q.v.) in the fine- 
material sphere. For details, s. under Anagami. 

avihimsa (equivalents: ahimsa, avihesd) : 'harmless- 
ness', nonviolence, absence of cruelty. The 'thought of 
harmlessness' (or: 'non-cruelty'; avihimsa-vitakkd) is 
one of the three constituents of right thought (samma- 
sankappa), i.e. the 2nd factor of the Eightfold Path 
(s. magga). In the several lists of 'elements' (dhatu) 
appears also an 'element of harmlessness' {avihesa- 
dhatu) , in the sense of an elementary quality of noble 
thought. See Dhp. 225, 261, 270, 300. 

avijja: 'ignorance,' nescience, unknowing; synonymous 
with delusion (mo/ia, s. muld), is the primary root of all 


evil and suffering in the world, veiling man's mental 
eyes and preventing him from seeing the true nature of 
things. It is the delusion tricking beings by making life 
appear to them as permanent, happy, substantial and 
beautiful and preventing them from seeing that every- 
thing in reality is impermanent, liable to suffering, void 
of T and 'mine', and basically impure (s. vipalldsd). 
Ignorance is defined as 'not knowing the four truths, 
namely, suffering, its origin, its cessation, and the way 
to its cessation' (S. XII, 4). 

As ignorance is the foundation of all life-affirming 
actions, of all evil and suffering, therefore it stands first 
in the formula of Dependent Origination (paticca- 
samuppdda, q.v.). But for that reason, says Vis.M. (XVII, 
36f) ignorance should not be regarded as "the cause- 
less root-cause of the world. . . . It is not causeless. For a 
cause of it is stated thus 'With the arising of cankers 
(dsava, q.v.) there is the arising of ignorance' (M. 9). 
But there is a figurative way in which it can be treated 
as a root-cause; namely, when it is made to serve as a 
starting point in an exposition of the Round of Exist- 
ence. . . . As it is said: 'No first beginning of ignorance can 
be perceived, Bhikkhus, before which ignorance was 
not, and after which it came to be. But it can be perceiv- 
ed that ignorance has its specific condition (idappaccaya)" 
(A. X, 61). The same statement is made (A. X, 62) 
about the craving for existence (bhava-tanhd; s. tanhd). 
The latter and ignorance are called "the outstanding 
causes of kamma that lead to unhappy and happy 
destinies" (Vis.M. XVII, 38). 

As ignorance still exists - though in a very refined 
way until the attainment of Arahatship or Holiness, it is 


counted as the last of the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.) 
which bind beings to the cycle of rebirths. As the first 
two roots of evil, greed and hate (s. muld), are on their 
part rooted in ignorance, consequently all unwhole- 
some states of mind are inseparably bound up with it. 
Ignorance (or delusion) is the most obstinate of the 
three roots of evil. 

Ignorance is one of the cankers {asava, q.v.) and 
proclivities {anusaya, q.v.). It is often called a hind- 
rance (mvarana; e.g. in S.XV, 3; A.X, 61) but does not 
appear together with the usual list of five hindrances. 

avikkhepa: 'undistractedness', is a synonym of 
concentration (samadhi, q.v.), one-pointedness of mind 
(citfekaggatd) and tranquillity (samatha, q.v.; further 
s. samatha-vipassand) . 

avoidance and performance: s. carina, etc. - The 
effort to avoid, s. padhana. 

avyakata: lit. 'indeterminate' - i.e. neither determined 
as karmically 'wholesome' nor as 'unwholesome' - are 
the karmically neutral, i.e. amoral, states of conscious- 
ness and mental factors. They are either mere karma- 
results (yipaka, q.v.), as e.g. all the sense perceptions 
and the mental factors associated therewith, or they are 
karmically independent functions (kiriya-citta, q.v.), 
i.e. neither karmic nor karma-resultant. See 
Tab. I. (App.). 

avyapada: 'hatelessness', non-ill-will, goodness; is one 
of the three kinds of right thought (s. sacca, IV. 2), or 
wholesome thoughts (yitakka, q.v.) and is the 9th of the 
10 wholesome courses of actions (kammapatha II. q.v.). 


The most frequently used synonyms are adosa (s. muld) 
and mettd (s. brahma-vihdrd) . 

awakenment: s. bodhi. 

ayatana: 1. 'spheres', is a name for the four immaterial 
absorptions; s.jhdna (5-8). 

2. The 12 'bases' or 'sources' on which depend the 
mental processes, consist of five physical sense-organs 
and consciousness, being the six personal (ajjhattikd) 
bases; and the six objects, the so-called external 
(bdhird) bases - namely: 

eye, or visual organ visible object 

ear, or auditory organ sound, or audible object 

nose, or olfactory organ odour, or olfactive object 

tongue, or gustatory organ taste, or gustative object 

body, or tactile organ body-impression, or 

tactile object 

mind-base, or consciousness mind-object 

(mandyatana) (dhammdyatana) 

"By the visual organ (cakkhdyatand) is meant the 
sensitive part of the eye (cakkhu-pasddd) built up of the 
four elements... responding to sense-stimuli" 
(sa-ppatighd) . . . . (Vibh. II). Similar is the explanation of 
the four remaining physical sense-organs. 

Mind-base (mandyatand) is a collective term for all 
consciousness whatever, and should therefore not be 
confounded with the mind-element (mano-dhdtu; 
s. dhdtu II, 16), which latter performs only the func- 
tions of adverting (dvajjana) to the sense-object, and of 
receiving (sampaticchand) the sense-object. On the 
functions of the mind, s. vinndna-kicca. 


The visible object (rupdyatana) is described in 
Vibh. II as "that phenomenon which is built up of the 
four physical elements and appears as color, etc." What 
is seen by- visual perception, i.e. by eye-consciousness 
(cakkhu-vinndna) are colors and differences of light, 
but not three dimensional bodily things. 

'Mind-object-base' (dhammdyatand) is identical 
with 'mind-object-element' (dhamma-dhdtu; s. dhdtu II) 
and dhamm.dramm.ana (s. drammana). It may be 
physical or mental, past, present or future, real or 

The 5 physical sense-organs are also called facul- 
ties {indriya, q.v.), and of these faculties it is said in 
M. 43: "Each of the five faculties owns a different 
sphere, and none of them partakes of the sphere of 
another one; . . . they have mind as their support. . . are 
conditioned by vitality,. . . but vitality again is condit- 
ioned by heat, heat again by vitality, just as the light 
and flame of a burning lamp are mutually con- 

The 12 bases are fully discussed in Vis.M. XV. In 
Yam. Ill (s. Guide, p. 98f) the 12 terms are subjected to 
a logical investigation The six personal bases form the 
5th link of dependent origination (paticca-samuppdda 
5, q.v.). 

ayuhana: (karmic) 'accumulation', is a name used in 
the commentarial literature for the wholesome and 
unwholesome volitional activities (karma, q.v.) or 
karma-formations (sankhdra; s. paticca-samuppdda) , 
being the bases of future rebirth. "'Accumulation', is a 
name for the karma-formations, and signifies those 
volitions (cetand) which arise at the performance of a 


karma, first while thinking 'I will give alms', and then 
while actually giving alms (e.g.) for one month or a 
year. The volition, however, at the time when one is 
handing the alms over to the recipient; is called karma- 
process (kamma-bhava, s. Vis.M. XVII, IX, X). Or, the 
volitions during the first six impulsive-moments 
(javana, q.v.) depending on one and the same state of 
advertence (dvajjana, s. vinndna-kicca) , these are called 
the karma-formations, whilst the 7th impulsive moment 
is called the karma-process (kamma-bhavd) . . . . Or, each 
volition is called 'karma-process' and the accumulation 
connected with it, 'karma-formation'." (Vis.M. XVII). 
Cf. paticca-samuppdda (2, 10) - (App.). 



bahula-kamma: 'habitual karma': s. karma. 

bala: 'powers'. Among various groups of powers the 
following five are most frequently met with in the texts: 
(1) faith (saddhd, q.v.), (2) energy (yiriya, q.v.), 
(3) mindfulness (sati, q.v.), (4) concentration 
(samddhi, q.v.), (5) wisdom (panfid, q.v.). 

Their particular aspect, distinguishing them from 
the corresponding 5 spiritual faculties (indriya, q.v.), is 
that they are unshakable by their opposites: (1) the 
power of faith is unshakable by faithlessness 
(unbelief); (2) energy, by laziness; (3) mindfulness, by 
forgetfulness; (4) concentration, by distractedness; 
(5) wisdom, by ignorance (see Pts.M., Nana Kathd). 
They represent, therefore, the aspect of firmness in the 
spiritual faculties. 

According to A.V. 15, the power (1) becomes 
manifest in the 4 qualities of the Stream-winner 
(sotdpannassa angdni, q.v.), (2) in the 4 right efforts 
(s. padhdnd) , (3) in the 4 foundations of mindfulness 
(satipatthdna, q.v.), (4) in the 4 absorptions 
(jhdna, q.v.), (5) in the (full comprehension of 
the) 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.) . 

Cf. S. XLVIII, 43; S. L. (Bala Samyutta). 

In A. VII, 3, the powers of moral shame {hiri, q.v.) 
and moral dread (ottappa) are added to the aforemen- 
tioned five Several other groups of 2 (s. patisankhdna- 
bala), 4, 5 and more powers are mentioned in the texts. 
- About the 10 powers of a Buddha, s. dasa-bala. 


balance of mental faculties: indriya samatta (q.v.). 

bases: The 12 of the perceptual process: 
dyatana (q.v.) . 

beautiful: sobhana (q.v.). 

beauty, deliverance through the perception of: 
cf. vimokkha (II. 3) . To hold for beautiful or pure 
(subhd) what is impure (asubhd) , is one of the 
4 perversions (s. vipalldsa) . 

behaviour, morality consisting in good: 
abhisamdcdrikaslla (q.v.). 

being, living: satta (q.v.); further s.puggala. - Belief in 
eternal personality: bhava-ditthi (s. ditthi) , sassata- 
ditthi (q.v.). 

beings, The 9 worlds of: sattdvdsa (q.v.) . 

belief, blind: s. indriya-samatta. 

bhanganupassana-fiana: 'knowledge consisting in 
contemplation of dissolution' (of all forms of 
existence), is one kind of insight: s. visuddhi (VI, 2). 

bhava: 'becoming', 'process of existence', consists of 
3 planes: sensuous existence (kdma-bhavd) , fine- 
material existence (rupa-bhavd) , immaterial existence 
(arupa-bhava) . Cf. loka. 

The whole process of existence may be divided into 
two aspects: 

(1) Karma-process (kamma-bhavd) , i.e. the karmic- 
ally active side of existence, being the cause of rebirth 
and consisting in wholesome and unwholesome volit- 
ional actions. See Karma, paticca-samuppdda (IX). 


(2) Karma-produced rebirth, or regenerating pro- 
cess (uppattibhavd) , i.e. the karmically passive side of 
existence consisting in the arising and developing of the 
karma-produced and therefore morally neutral mental 
and bodily phenomena of existence. Cf. Tab. - (App.). 

bhava: (feminine and masculine) 'nature', refers to the 
sexual characteristics of the body, and belongs to the 
group of corporeality (s. khandha) . It is a commentarial 
term for the faculties of femininity and masculinity 
(s. indriya 7, 8). (App.). 

bhava-ditthi: 'belief in being' (eternal personality); 
s. sassataditthi, ditthi. 

bhavana: 'mental development' (lit. 'calling into 
existence, producing') is what in English is generally 
but rather vaguely called 'meditation'. One has to 
distinguish 2 kinds: development of tranquillity 
(samatha-bhdvand) , i.e. concentration (samddhi), and 
development of insight {yipassand-bhdvana) , 
i.e. wisdom {pahha). 

These two important terms, tranquillity and insight 
(s. samatha-vipassand) , are very often met with and 
explained in the Sutta, as well as in the Abhidhamma. 

Tranquillity (samatha) is the concentrated, un- 
shaken, peaceful, and therefore undefiled state of 
mind, whilst insight (yipassand) is the intuitive insight 
into the impermanence, misery and impersonality 
(anicca, dukkha, anattd; s. tilakkhana) of all bodily and 
mental phenomena of existence, included in the 
5 groups of existence, namely, corporeality, feeling, 
perception, mental formations and consciousness; 
s. khandha. 


Tranquillity, or concentration of mind, according to 
Sankhepavannana (Commentary to Abhidhammattha- 
sangahd), bestows a threefold blessing: favourable re- 
birth, present happy life, and purity of mind which is 
the condition of insight. Concentration (samddhi) is the 
indispensable foundation and precondition of insight 
by purifying the mind from the 5 mental defilements or 
hindrances (riivarana, q.v.), whilst insight 
(yipassand) produces the 4 supra mundane stages of 
holiness and deliverance of mind. The Buddha there- 
fore says: "May you develop mental concentration, 
O monks; for who is mentally concentrated, sees things 
according to reality" (S. XXII, 5). And in Mil. it is said: 
"Just as when a lighted lamp is brought into a dark 
chamber, the lamp-light will destroy the darkness and 
produce and spread the light, just so will insight, once 
arisen, destroy the darkness of ignorance and produce 
the light of knowledge." 

Vis.M. III-XI gives full directions how to attain full 
concentration and the absorptions (jhdna, q.v.) by 
means of the following 40 meditation subjects 
(kammatthdnd) : 

10 kasina-exercises (s. kasina). These produce the 
4 absorptions. 

10 loathsome subjects (asubha, q.v.). These pro- 
duce the 1st absorption. 

10 recollections (anussati, q.v.): of the Buddha 
(buddhdnussati) , the Doctrine (dhammdnussati) , the 
Brotherhood of the Noble Ones (sanghdnussati) , mor- 
ality, liberality, the heavenly beings, death (maranasati, 
q.v.), the body (kdyagatdsati, q.v.), in-and-outbreathing 
(dndpdna-sati, q.v.) and peace (upasamdnussati, q.v.) . 


Among these, the recollection (or mindfulness) of in- 
and-out breathing may produce all the 4 absorptions, 
that of the body the 1st absorption, the rest only neigh- 
bourhood-concentration (upcLcdra-samddhi, s. samddhi). 

4 sublime abodes (brahma-vihdra, q.v.) : loving- 
kindness, compassion, altruistic joy, equanimity {mettd, 
karund, muditd, upekkhd). Of these, the first 3 exercises 
may produce 3 absorptions, the last one the 4th 
absorption only. 

4 immaterial spheres (arupdyatana, s.jhdnd): of 
unbounded space, unbounded consciousness, 
nothingness, neither-perception-nor-non-perception. 
These are based upon the 4th absorption. 

1 perception of the loathsomeness of food {dhdre 
patikkula-safind) , which may produce neighbourhood- 

1 analysis of the 4 elements (catudhdtu-vavatthdna, 
s. dhdtu-vavatthdnd) , which may produce 

Mental development forms one of the 3 kinds of 
meritorious action (punna-kiriya-vatthu, q.v.). 'Delight 
in meditation' (bhdvand-rdmatd) is one of the noble 
usages (ariya-vamsa, q.v.) . 

bhavana-bala: s. patisankhdna-bala. 

bhavana-maya-panna: wisdom based on mental 
development'; s. pannd 

bhavanga-santana: 'continuity of subconsciousness'; 
s. santdna 

bhavanga-sota and bhavanga-citta: The first term 
may tentatively be rendered as the 'undercurrent form- 


ing the condition of being, or existence', and the second 
as 'subconsciousness', though, as will be evident from 
the following, it differs in several respects from the 
usage of that term in Western psychology. Bhavanga 
(bhava-anga) , which, in the canonical works, is men- 
tioned twice or thrice in the Patthdna, is explained in 
the Abhidhamma commentaries as the foundation or 
condition (kdrand) of existence (bhava), as the sine qua 
non of life, having the nature of a process, lit. a flux or 
stream (sotd) . Herein, since time immemorial, all im- 
pressions and experiences are, as it were, stored up, or 
better said, are functioning, but concealed as such to- 
full consciousness, from where however they occasion- 
ally emerge as subconscious phenomena and approach 
the threshold of full consciousness, or crossing it be- 
come fully conscious. This so-called 'subconscious life- 
stream' or undercurrent of life is that by which might be 
explained the faculty of memory, paranormal psychic 
phenomena, mental and physical growth, karma and 
rebirth, etc. An alternative rendering is 'life-continuum'. 

It should be noted that bhavanga-citta is a karma- 
resultant state of consciousness (yipdka, q.v.), and that, 
in birth as a human or in higher forms of existence, it is 
always the result of good, or wholesome karma 
(kusala-kamma-vipdka) , though in varying degrees of 
strength (s. patisandhi, end of the article). The same 
holds true for rebirth consciousness (patisandhi) and 
death consciousness (cuti), which are only particular 
manifestations of subconsciousness. In Vis.M. XIV it is 

"As soon as rebirth-consciousness (in the embryo at 
the time of conception) has ceased, there arises a simi- 


lar subconsciousness with exactly the same object, fol- 
lowing immediately upon rebirth-consciousness and 
being the result of this or that karma (volitional action 
done in a former birth and remembered there at the 
moment before death) . And again a further similar state 
of subconsciousness arises. Now, as long as no other 
consciousness arises to interrupt the continuity of the 
life-stream, so long the life-stream, like the flow of a 
river, rises in the same way again and again, even dur- 
ing dreamless sleep and at other times. In this way one 
has to understand the continuous arising of those states 
of consciousness in the life-stream." Cf. vinfidna-kicca. 
For more details, s. Fund. 11. (App.). 

bhava-tanha: 'craving for (eternal) existence'; 
s. tanhd. 

bhavasava: 'canker of existence'; s.dsava. 

bhayatupatthana-nana: 'knowledge consisting in the 
awareness of terror', is one of those kinds of insight- 
knowledge that form the 'purification by knowledge 
and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi, VI.). 

bhikkhu: A fully ordained disciple of the Buddha is 
called a bhikkhu. "Mendicant monk" may be suggested 
as the closest equivalent for "Bhikkhu", literally it 
means "he who begs" but bhikkhus do not beg. They 
silently stand at the door for alms. They live on what is 
spontaneously given by the supporters. He is not a 
priest as he is no mediator between God and man. He 
has no vows for life, but he is bound by his rules which 
he takes of his own accord. He leads a life of voluntary 


poverty and celibacy. If he is unable to live the Holy 
Life, he can discard the robe at any time. 

bhojane mattannuta: 'knowing the measure in 

"Now, O monks, the monk wisely reflecting par- 
takes of his almsfood, neither for pastime, nor for indul- 
gence, nor to become beautiful or handsome, but only 
to maintain and support this body, to avoid harm and 
to assist the holy life, knowing: 'In this way I shall dis- 
pel the former pain (of hunger, etc.) and no new pain 
shall I let arise, and long life, blamelessness and ease 
will be my share ' This, O monks, is knowing the meas- 
ure in eating." (A. III. 16) . "How O monks, would it be 
possible for Nanda to lead the absolutely pure life of 
holiness, if he did not watch over his senses and did not 
know the measure in eating?" (A. VII, 9). 

biases: s. dsava. 

birth process: upapatti-bhava: s. bhava. Further 
s. patisandhi, jdti. 

bodhi (from verbal root budhi, to awaken, to 
understand) : awakenment, enlightenment, supreme 
knowledge. "(Through Bodhi) one awakens from the 
slumber or stupor (inflicted upon the mind) by the 
defilements (kilesa, q.v.) and comprehends the Four 
Noble Truths {sacca, q.v.)" (Com. to M. 10). 

The enlightenment of a Buddha is called sammd- 
sambodhi (q.v.) 'perfect enlightenment'. The faith 
(saddhd, q.v.) of a lay follower of the Buddha is des- 
cribed as "he believes in the enlightenment of the 
Perfect One" (saddahati Tathdgatassa bodhim: M. 53, 
A. Ill, 2) . 


As components of the state of enlightenment and 
contributory factors to its achievement, are mentioned 
in the texts: the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga (q.v.) = 
bodhi-anga) and the 37 'things pertaining to enlighten- 
ment' (bodhipakkhiya-dhammd, q.v.). In one of the 
later books of the Sutta-Pitaka, the Buddhavamsa, 
10 bodhipdcana-dhammd are mentioned, i.e. qualities 
that lead to the ripening of perfect enlightenment; 
these are the 10 perfections (pdrami, q.v.). 

There is a threefold classification of enlightenment: 
1. that of a noble disciple (sdvaka-bodhi, q.v.). i.e. of an 
Arahat, 2. of an Independently Enlightened One 
(pacceka-bodhi, q.v.), and 3. of a Perfect Enlightened 
One (sammd-sambodhi) . This 3-fold division, however, 
is of later origin, and in this form it neither occurs in the 
canonical texts nor in the older Sutta commentaries. 
The closest approximation to it is found in a verse sutta 
which is probably of a comparatively later period, the 
Treasure Store Sutta (Nidhikkanda Sutta) of the 
Khuddakapatha, where the following 3 terms are 
mentioned in stanza 15: sdvaka-pdrami, pacceka-bodhi, 
buddha-bhumi (see Khp. Tr., pp. 247f.). 

The commentaries (e.g. to M., Buddhavamsa, 
Cariyapitaka) generally give a 4-fold explanation of the 
word bodhi: 1. the tree of enlightenment, 2. the holy 
path (ariya-maggd) , 3. Nibbana, 4 omniscience (of the 
Buddha: sabbannutd-ndncO . As to (2), the comment- 
aries quote Cula-Nidesa where bodhi is defined as the 
knowledge relating to the 4 paths (of Stream-entry, etc.; maggesu nana) . 

Neither in the canonical texts nor in the old 
commentaries is it stated that a follower of the Buddha 


may choose between the three kinds of enlightenment 
and aspire either to become a Buddha, a Pacceka- 
Buddha, or an Arahat-disciple. This conception of a 
choice between three aspirations is, however, frequent- 
ly found in present-day Theravada countries, e.g. in 
Sri Lanka. 

bodhipakkhiya-dhamma: The 37 'things pertaining to 
enlightenment', or 'requisites of enlightenment' com- 
prise the entire doctrines of the Buddha. They are: 

the 4 foundations of mindfulness 

(satipatthdna, q.v.), 
the 4 right efforts (s. padhdna) , 
the 4 roads to power (iddhi-pdda, q.v.), 
the 5 spiritual faculties (indriya; s. bald), 
the 5 spiritual powers (bala, q.v.) , 
the 7 factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), 
the Noble 8-fold Path (s. magga). 

In M. 77 all the 37 bodhipakkhiya-dhamma are 
enumerated and explained though not called by that 
name. A detailed explanation of them is given in 
Vis.M. XXII. In S.XLVII, 51, 67, only the five spiritual 
faculties (indriya) are called bodhipakkhiya-dhamma; 
and in the Jhana Vibhanga, only the 7 factors of 
enlightenment (bojjhanga) . 

See The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw 
(Wheel 169/172). 

Bodhisatta: 'Enlightenment Being', is a being destined 
to Buddhahood, a future Buddha. According to the 
traditional belief a Bodhisatta, before reaching his last 
birth as a Buddha on this earth, is living in the Tusita- 
heaven (s. deva), the heaven of bliss. Cf. A IV, 127; VIE, 70. 


In the Pali Canon and commentaries, the designat- 
ion 'Bodhisatta' is given only to Prince Siddhattha be- 
fore his enlightenment and to his former existences. 
The Buddha himself uses this term when speaking of his 
life prior to enlightenment (e.g. M. 4, M. 26). Bodhi- 
sattahood is neither mentioned nor recommended as an 
ideal higher than or alternative to Arahatship; nor is 
there any record in the Pali scriptures of a disciple 
declaring it as his aspiration. - See bodhi. 

bodily action (wholesome or unwholesome); 
s. karma, karma formations - Right b.a. = sammd- 
kammanta; s. magga. 

bodily postures, the 4: iriyd-patha (q.v.) 

body: kdya (q.v.) Contemplation on the b. is one of the 
4 satipatthdna (q.v.) . 

body-witness: kdya-sakkhi (q.v.). 

bojjhanga: 'the 7 factors of enlightenment', are: mind- 
fulness (sati-sambojjhanga; s. sati), investigation of the 
law (dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga), energy (yiriya- 
sambojjhanga; s. viriya, padhdna) , rapture (plti- 
sambojjhanga, q.v.) tranquillity (passaddhi- 
sambojjhanga, q.v.), concentration (samddhi- 
sambojjhanga, q.v.) , equanimity (upekkhd, q.v.) . 
"Because they lead to enlightenment, therefore they 
are called factors of enlightenment" (S. XLVI, 5). 

Though in the 2nd factor, dhamma-vicaya, the 
word dhamma is taken by most translators to stand for 
the Buddhist doctrine, it probably refers to the bodily 
and mental phenomena (ndma-rupa-dhammd) as pre- 
sented to the investigating mind by mindfulness, the 1st 


factor. With that interpretation, the term may be ren- 
dered by 'investigation of phenomena'. 

In A.X. 102, the 7 factors are said to be the means 
of attaining the threefold wisdom (s. tevijjd). 

They may be attained by means of the 4 foundat- 
ions of mindfulness (satipatthdna, q.v.), as it is said in 
S. XLVI, 1 and explained in M. 118: 

(1) "Whenever, O monks, the monk dwells con- 
templating the body (kdy a), feeling (yedand), mind 
{citta) and mind-objects (dhammd), strenuous, clearly- 
conscious, mindful, after subduing worldly greed and 
grief, at such a time his mindfulness is present and 
undisturbed; and whenever his mindfulness is present 
and undisturbed, at such a time he has gained and is 
developing the factor of enlightenment 'mindfulness' 
(sati-sambojjhangd) , and thus this factor of enlighten- 
ment reaches fullest perfection. 

(2) "Whenever, while dwelling with mindfulness, 
he wisely investigates, examines and thinks over the 
law. . . at such a time he has gained and is developing 
the factor of enlightenment 'investigation of the law' 
(dhamma-vicaya°) .... 

(3) "Whenever, while wisely investigating his 
energy is firm and unshaken. . . at such a time he has 
gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment 
'energy' (yiriya°) .... 

(4) "Whenever in him, while firm in energy, arises 
supersensuous rapture... at such a time he has gained 
and is developing the factor of enlightenment 'rapture' 

(5) "Whenever, while enraptured in mind, his body 
and his mind become composed... at such a time he has 


gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment 
'tranquillity' (passaddhi ) . 

(6) "Whenever, while being composed in his body 
and happy, his mind becomes concentrated... at such a 
time he has gained and is developing the factor of 
enlightenment 'concentration' (samddhi ) 

(7) "Whenever he looks with complete indifference 
on his mind thus concentrated. . . at such a time he has 
gained and is developing the factor of enlightenment 
'equanimity' (upekkhd). 

Literature: Bojjhanga Samyutta (S. XLVI); Bojjhanga 
Vibh. - For the conditions leading to the arising of each of 
the factors, see the Com. to Satipatthana Sutta (Way of 
Mindfulness, by Soma Thera; 3rd ed., 1967, BPS). Further, 
The Seven Factors of Enlightenment, by Piyadassi Thera 
(Wheel 1.) 

bondages, mental: cetaso vinibandha (q.v.). 

bonds, the 4: yoga (q.v.). 

both-ways liberated, s. ubhato-bhdga-vimutta, 
ariyapuggala B. 4. 

boundless consciousness (and b. space), Sphere of: 
s.jhdna 5, 6. 

brahma-cariya: 'pure (chaste) or holy life', is a term 
for the life of the monk. Also a lay-devotee who ob- 
serves the 8 moral precepts (sikkhdpada, q.v.), takes as 
the third precept the vow of chastity, i.e. full abstention 
from sexual relations. The highest aim and purpose of 
b. is, according to M. 29, the 'unshakable deliverance of 
mind' (akuppd ceto-vimutti) . 


brahma-kayika-deva: The 'heavenly beings of the 
Brahma-world' inhabit the first 3 heavens of the fine- 
material world, (rupalokd) , corresponding to the 1st 
absorption (jhdna, q.v.). The highest ruler of them is 
called the Great Brahma (Mafia-Brahma) . With caustic 
humor he is said (D. 11) to pretend: "I am Brahma, the 
Great Brahma, the Most High, the Invincible One, the 
Omniscient One, the Ruler, the Lord, the Creator, the 
Maker, the Perfect One, the Preserver, the Controller, 
the Father of all that was and will be." Cf. deva (II. 1-3) . 

brahma-loka: 'Brahma-world', in the widest sense, is a 
name for the fine-material (rupa-loka) and immaterial 
world (arupa-loka) ; in a narrower sense, however, only 
for the first three heavens of the fine-material world. 
Cf. Brahma-kayika-deva. 

brahma-vihara: the 4 'sublime' or 'divine abodes', also 
called the 4 boundless states (appamannd) , are: loving- 
kindness (mettd), compassion (karund), altruistic (or 
sympathetic) joy (mudita), equanimity (upekkhd). 

The stereotype text on the development of these 
4 sublime abodes (brahma-vihara-bhavana; 
s. bhavand), often met with in the Suttas,- is as follows: 
"There, O monks, the monk with a mind full of loving- 
kindness pervading first one direction, then a second 
one, then a third one, then the fourth one, just so 
above, below and all around; and everywhere 
identifying himself with all, he is pervading the whole 
world with mind full of loving-kindness, with mind 
wide, developed, unbounded, free from hate and ill- 


will." Hereafter follows the same theme with com- 
passion, altruistic joy, and equanimity. 

Literature: Detailed explanation in Vis.M. IX. - For texts 
s. "Path", 97ff; texts on mettd in The Practice of Loving 
Kindness, by Nanamoli Thera (Wheel 7). - The Four 
Sublime States, by Nyanaponika Thera (Wheel 6). - 
Brahma Vihara, by Narada Thera (Vajirarama, Colombo, 

breathing, mindfulness of in-and-out-breathing 
dndpdnasati (q.v.). 

Buddha: s. sammd-sambodhi. 

buddhanussati: 'recollection of the Enlightened One'; 
s. anussati. 

Buddha-sasana: s. sdsana. 



caga: 'liberality', is one of the 'blessings' (s. sampadd), 
'foundations' (s. adhitthdnd), 'recollections' 
(s. anussati), 'treasures' (s. dhand). 

cakka: 'wheel', is one of the seven 'precious possess- 
ions' {ratana) of a righteous World Emperor 
(cakkavatti: 'He who owns the Wheel,' cf. D. 26), and 
symbolizes conquering progress and expanding 
sovereignty. From that derives the figurative expression 
dhamma-cakkam pavatteti, 'he sets rolling the Wheel of 
the Law' and the name of the Buddha's first sermon, 
Dhamma-cakkappavattana Sutta (s. dhamma-cakka) . 

Another figurative meaning of C. is 'blessing'. There 
are 4 such 'auspicious wheels' or 'blessings': living in a 
suitable locality, company of good people, meritorious 
acts done in the past, right inclinations (A. IV, 31). 

Bhava-cakka, 'wheel of existence', or of life, is a 
name for 'dependent origination' (s. paticca- 
samuppdda) . 

See The Buddhist Wheel Symbol, by T. B. Karunaratne 
(Wheel 137/138); The Wheel of Birth and Death, by 
Bhikkhu Khantipalo (Wheel 147/149) 

cakkh' ayatana: 'the base "visual organ" ' (s. dyatana). 

cakkhu: 'eye' s. dyatana. - The foil. 5 kinds of 'eyes' are 
mentioned and explained in CNid. (PTS, p. 235; the 
first 3 also in It. 52): 1. the physical eye (mamsa 


cakkhu), 2. the divine eye (dibba-cakkhu; s. abhinnd), 
3. the eye of wisdom (pannd-cakkhu) , 4 the eye of a 
Buddha (Buddha-c), 5. the eye of all-round knowledge 
(samanta-c; a frequent appellation of the Buddha). 

cakkhu-dhatu: 'the element "visual organ" ' (s. dhdtu). 

cakkhu-vinnana: 'eye-consciousness' (s. vinndnd) . 

cankers: s. dsava. 

carana: s. vijjd-carana. 

carita: 'nature, character'. In Vis.M. Ill there are ex- 
plained six types of men: the greedy-natured {rdga- 
carita), the hate-natured (dosa-carita) , the stupid or 
dull-natured (moha-caritd) , the faithful -natured 
(saddhd-carita) , the intelligent-natured (buddhi-carita) , 
the ruminating-natured (yitakka-caritd) . - (App.). 

caritta- and varitta-sila: 'morality consisting in 
performance and morality consisting in avoidance,' 
means "the performance of those moral rules which the 
Blessed one has ordained to be followed, and the 
avoidance of those things that the Blessed One has 
rejected as not to be followed" (Vis.M. III). - (App.). 

catu-dhatu-vavatthana: 'analysis of the four 
elements'; s. dhdta-vavatthdna. 

catu-maharajika-deva a class of heavenly beings of 
the sensuous sphere; s. deva. 

catu-parisuddhi-sila: s. slla. 


catu-vokara-bhava: 'four-group existence', is the exist- 
ence in the immaterial world (arupa-loka; s. lokd), since 
only the four mental groups (feeling, perception, men- 
tal formations, consciousness, s. khandhd) are found 
there, the corporeality group being absent. Cf. panca- 
vokdra-bhava, eka-vokdra-bhava. (App.: vokdra). 

cause: cf. paccaya (1). - For the five c. of existence, 
s. paticca-samuppdda (10). 

cemetery: ascetic practice of living in a c; s. dhutanga. 

cemetery-meditations: s. slvathikd. 

cetana: Volition', will, is one of the seven mental 
factors (cetasika, q.v.) inseparably bound up with all 
consciousness, namely sensorial or mental impression 
(phassa), feeling (vedand), perception (sannd), volition 
(cetand), concentration (samddhi), vitality (jivita), 
advertence (manasikdra) . Cf. Tab. II, III. 

With regard to karmical volition (i.e. wholesome or 
unwholesome karma) it is said in A. VI, 13: "Volition is 
action (karma), thus I say, O monks; for as soon as vol- 
ition arises, one does the action, be it by body, speech 
or mind." For details, s. paticca-samuppdda (10), karma. 

cetasika: 'mental things, mental factors', are those 
mental concomitants which are bound up with the 
simultaneously arising consciousness {citta = vinfidnd) 
and conditioned by its presence. Whereas in the Suttas 
all phenomena of existence are summed up under the 
aspect of 5 groups: corporeality, feeling, perception, 
mental formations, consciousness (s. khandhd), the 
Abhidhamma as a rule treats them under the more 


philosophical 3 aspects: consciousness, mental factors 
and corporeality (citta, cetasika, rupa). Thus, of these 
3 aspects, the mental factors (cetasika) comprise feel- 
ing, perception and the 50 mental formations, alto- 
gether 52 mental concomitants. Of these, 25 are lofty 
qualities (either karmically wholesome or neutral), 
14 karmically unwholesome, while 13 are as such 
karmically neutral, their karmical quality depending on 
whether they are associated with wholesome, unwhole- 
some or neutral consciousness. For details s. Tab. II, III. 
Cf. prec. (App.) 

cetaso vinibandha: 'mental bondages', are 5 things 
which hinder the mind from making right exertion, 
namely: lust for sensuous objects, for the body, for 
visible things, for eating and sleeping, and leading the 
monk's life for the sake of heavenly rebirth. For details, 
s. A.V, 205; X, 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. foil. 

cetokhila: 'mental obduracies', are 5 things which 
stiffen and hinder the mind from making right exertion, 
namely: doubt about the Master, about the Doctrine, 
about the (holy) Brotherhood, about the training, and 
anger against one's fellow-monks. For details s. A.V, 
206, X, 14; D. 33; M. 16. Cf. prec. 

ceto-pariya-nana: 'penetrating knowledge of the mind 
(of others)', is one of the 6 higher powers (abhinna 
3, q.v.). 

ceto-vimutti: 'deliverance of mind'. In the highest 
sense it signifies the fruition of Arahatship (s. ariya- 
puggala), and in particular, the concentration associ- 
ated with it. It is often linked with the 'deliverance 


through wisdom' (pannd-vimutti, q.v.), e.g. in the ten 
powers of a Perfect One (s. dasa-bala). See vimokkha I. 

It is also called 'unshakable deliverance of mind' 
(akuppa-c); further 'boundless d. of m. (appamdna-c); 
'd. of m. from the conditions of existence, or signless 
d. of m.' (animittd-c); 'd. of m. from the appendages' 
(dkincanna-c), since that state of mind is free from the 
3 bonds, conditions and appendants, i.e. from greed, 
hatred and ignorance; and since it is void thereof, it is 
called the 'void deliverance of mind' (sunnatd-c.) 

In a more restricted sense, 'boundless deliverance 
of mind' is a name for the 4 boundless states, i.e. loving- 
kindness, compassion, altruistic joy and equanimity 
(s. brahma-vihdrd) ; 'd. of m. from the appendages' 
stands for the 'sphere of nothingness' (dkincanndyatana 
s.jhdna 7); 'd. of mind from the conditions of exist- 
ence', for d. of mind due to non-attention to all condit- 
ions of existence; 'void d. of m' for d. of m. due to con- 
templating voidness of self. For further details, s. M. 43. 

chal-abhinna: the 6 'higher powers'; s. abhifind. 

chal-abhinno: an Arahat who is a 'possessor of the 
6 higher powers' (s. abhifind). 

chanda: intention, desire, will. 

1. As an ethically neutral psychological term, in the 
sense of 'intention', it is one of those general mental 
factors (cetasika, q.v. Tab. II) taught in the Abhi- 
dhamma, the moral quality of which is determined by 
the character of the volition {cetand, q.v.) associated 
therewith. The Com. explains it as 'a wish to do' (kattu- 


kamyata-chandd) . If intensified, it acts also as a 
'predominance condition' (s.paccaya 3). 

2. As an evil quality it has the meaning of 'desire', 
and is frequently coupled with terms for 'sensuality', 
'greed', etc., for instance: kdma-cchanda, 'sensuous 
desire', one of the 5 hindrances (s. mvarand); chanda- 
rdga, 'lustful desire' (s. kdma) . It is one of the 4 wrong 
paths (s. agati). 

3. As a good quality it is a righteous will or zeal 
(dhamma-chandd) and occurs, e.g. in the formula of the 
4 right efforts (s. padhdnd) : "The monk rouses his will 
(chandam janeti) . . . ." If intensified, it is one of the 

4 roads to power (s. iddhipdda). 

change, contemplation of: one of the 18 chief kinds of 
insight (vipassand, q.v.) . 

chaos: cf. kappa. 

character: On the 6 kinds of human character, 
s. carita. 

characteristics of existence, the. 3: ti-lakkhana (q.v.). 

chaste life: brahma-cariya (q.v.). 

chief-elements, the 4: mahd-bhuta (q.v.) - 
dhdtu (q.v.). 

cinta-maya-paniia: 'Wisdom (or knowledge) based on 
thinking', s. pannd. 

citta: 'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is 
a synonym of mano (q.v.) and vinfidna (s. khandha and 


Tab. 1). Dhs. divides all phenomena into consciousness 
(cittd), mental concomitants (cetasika, q.v.) and 
corporeality (rupa). 

In adhicitta, 'higher mentality', it signifies the con- 
centrated, quietened mind, and is one of the 3 trainings 
(s. sikkha). The concentration (or intensification) of 
consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power 
(s. iddhipdda) . 

citta-ja (citta-samutthana)-rupa: 'mind-produced 
corporeality'; s. samutthdna. 

citta-kammannata, °lahutd, °mudutd, °pagunnatd, 
°passaddhi, °ujukatd; s. Tab. II. 

citta-kkhana: 'consciousness-moment', is the time 
occupied by one single stage in the perceptual process 
or cognitive series (cittavlthi; s. vinfidna-kiccd) . This 
moment again is subdivided into the genetic (uppddd), 
static (.thiti) and dissolving (bhanga) moment. One 
such moment is said in the commentaries to be of 
inconceivably short duration and to last not longer 
than the billionth part of the time occupied by a flash 
of lightning. However that may be, we ourselves know 
from experience that it is possible within one single 
second to dream of innumerable things and events. In 
A. 1, 10 it is said: "Nothing, O monks, do I know that 
changes so rapidly as consciousness. Scarcely anything 
may be found that could be compared with this so 
rapidly changing consciousness." (App. khand). 


cittanupassana: 'contemplation of consciousness', is 
one of the 4 foundations of mindfulness 
(satipatthdna, q.v.) 

citta-samutthana-rupa: 'mind-produced 
corporeality'; s. samutthdna. 

citta-sankhara: s. sankhdra. 

citta-santana: 'consciousness-continuity'; s. santdna. 

cittass'ekaggata: 'one-pointedness of mind', is a 
synonym of concentration, or samddhi (q.v.) 

citta-vipallasa: 'perversion of mind'; s. vipalldsa. 

citta-visuddhi: 'purification of mind', is the 2nd of the 
7 stages of purification (visuddhi, II,. q.v.). 

citta-vlthi: 'process of consciousness'; s. vinndna-kicca. 

citt'ekaggata = cittass'ekaggata (q.v.). 

clarity of consciousness: sampajanna (q.v.). 

clinging, the 4 kinds of: updddna (q.v.) . 

cognitive series: s. vinndna-kicca. 

companionship: Influence of good and bad° = 
samseva (q.v.) . 

compassion: karund; s. brahma-vihdra. 

comprehension: clear c: s. sampajanna. - c. in insight, 
s. sammasana. - As an alternative tr. for full 
understanding, s. parihhd. 


co-nascence: sahajata-paccaya, is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

conceit: mdna (q.v.); further s. samyojana. 

concentration: samddhi (q.v.) - right , s. sacca (IV. 8), 
magga (8). - wrong , s. micchd-magga (8). 

conception 1. thought-c°: cf. vitakka-vicdra. 

conception 2. (in the mother's womb): okkanti (q.v.). 

conditions, the 24: paccaya (q.v.). 

conditions of existence, deliverance from the: see 
ceto-vimutti; vimokkha. 

confidence: s. saddhd. 

consciousness: vinndna (s. khandha), citta (q.v.), 
mano (q.v.) - Moment of 3 : citta-kkhana (q.v.). 
Contemplation of 3 : cittdnupassand: s. satipatthdna - 
Corporeality produced by°: citta-ja-rupa, s. samutthdna 
- Abodes or supports of 3 : 
cf. vinndnatthiti (q.v.) Functions of 3 : vifindna- 
kicca (q.v.) . 

contemplation: s. anupassand. 

contentedness (with whatever robe, etc.) belongs to 
the noble usages: ariya-vamsa (q.v.) . 

contentment: appicchatd, is one of the ascetic virtues. 
Cf. A. X, 181-90. 

contiguity: samanantara-paccaya, is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 


continuity (of body, subconsciousness, consciousness 
or groups of existence) : santdna (q.v.) . 

control, effort of: s. padhdna. 

conventional (expression or truth) : s. desand. 

corporeality: produced through consciousness, karma, 
etc.; s. samutthdna. - Sensitive c: pasdda-rupa. (q.v.). 

corporeality and mind: s. ndma-rupa. 

corporeality-group: rupa-kkhandha: s. khandha. 

corporeality-perceptions: rupa-safind: s.jhdna. 

corruptions: s. upakkilesa. 

cosmogony: cf. kappa. 

counteractive karma: upapilaka-kamma', s. karma. 

counter-image (during concentration) : s. nimitta, 
kasina, samddhi. 

course of action (wholesome or unwholesome) : 
kammapatha (q.v.) . 

covetousness: abhijjhd (q.v); further s. kamma-pafha (1). 

cowardice: s. agati. 

craving: tanhd (q.v.), rdga (q.v.); further s. mula. 

created, the: sankhata (q.v.). 

cuti-citta: 'death-consciousness', lit. 'departing 
consciousness', is one of the 14 functions of 
consciousness (vinndna-kicca q.v.) . 


cutupapata-nana: the 'knowledge of the vanishing 
and reappearing' (of beings) is identical with the divine 
eye; s. abhinnd. 

cycle of existence: s. samsard, vatta. 



dana: 'almsgiving', liberality, offering. "He who gives 
alms, bestows a fourfold blessing: he helps to long life, 
good appearance, happiness and strength. Therefore 
long life, good appearance, happiness and strength will 
be his share, whether amongst heavenly beings or 
amongst men" (A. IV, 57). 

"Five blessings accrue to the giver of alms: the 
affection of many, noble association, good reputation, 
self-confidence, and heavenly rebirth" (see A. V, 34) . 
Seven further blessings are given in A. VII, 54. 

Liberality, especially the offering of robes, food, 
etc., to the monks, is highly praised in all Buddhist 
countries of Southern Asia as a fundamental virtue and 
as a means to suppress man's inborn greed and egoism. 
But, as in any other good or bad action, so also in 
offering gifts, it is the noble intention and volition that 
really counts as the action, not the mere outward deed. 

Almsgiving or liberality {dana), constitutes the first, 
kind of meritorious activity, the two others being 
morality {slla, q.v.) and mental development 
(bhavana); s. pufina-kiriya-vatthu. Liberality (caga) 
forms one of the 10 recollections (anussati, q.v.) and 
almsgiving one of the 10 perfections (s. par 'arm) . 

dasa-(tathagata-) bala: 'the ten powers (of a Perfect 
One); or, he who Possesses the 10 P.', i.e. the Buddha. 
About him it is said (e.g., M. 12.; A. X, 21) : 


"There, O monks, the Perfect One understands 
according to reality the possible as possible, and the 
impossible as impossible... the result of past, present 
and future actions... the path leading to the welfare of 
all. . . the world with its many different elements. . . the 
different inclinations in beings... the lower and higher 
faculties in beings... the defilement, purity and rising 
with regard to the absorptions, deliverances, concen- 
tration and attainments... remembering many former 
rebirths. . . perceiving with the divine eye how beings 
vanish and reappear again according to their actions 
(karma) . . . gaining, through extinction of all taints, 
possession of 'deliverance of mind' and 'deliverance 
through wisdom'. . . ." 

dasaka-kalapa: s. rupa-kaldpa. 

dasa-paraml: s. pdraml. 

dasa-punna-kiriya-vatthu: s. punna-kiriya-vatthu. 

death: marana (q.v.) - Contemplation of 3 : 
marandnussati (q.v.) - As divine messenger: deva- 
duta (q.v.). 

death-consciousness: cuti-citta, is one of the 

14 functions of consciousness (yinfidna-kicca, q.v.). 

deathlessness: amata (q.v.). 

death-proximate karma: marandsafind-kamma; 
s. karma. 

deciding function (of consciousness) : s. vinfidna- 


decline (in morality, wisdom, etc.) : s. hana-bhagiya- 
sila. - Liable to , parihdna-dhamma (q.v.). 

defilements: s. kilesa, upakkilesa. -10 d. of insight: 
vipassanupakkilesa, s. visuddhi VI. - Round of d., 
s.vatta (1). 

deliverance: s. vimutti, vimokkha. - The 8 kinds of d. 
(or liberation), s. vimokkha. - D. of mind, d. through 
voidness, boundless d. etc., s. ceto-vimutti. - Desire 
for d., s. visuddhi (VI, 6). - D. through wisdom; panfid- 
vimutti (q.v.). - 3 doors of d. (or gateways of 
liberation) s. visuddhi (VI, 8) . 

deluded consciousness: s. Tab. I. 32, 33. 

deluded-natured: moha-carita; s. carita. 

delusion: s. moha, avijjd. 

demons' realm: asura-nikdya; s. apdya. 

departed, the spirits o f the: peta (q.v.). 

dependent origination: paticca samuppdda (q.v.). 

derived corporeality: upddd-rupa (q.v.); further 
s. khandha (I. B.). 

desana: 'exposition' of the doctrine, may be either an 
exposition true in the highest sense (paramattha- 
desand); or it may not be true in the highest, but only in 
the conventional sense (yohdra-desand) . See 

desire for deliverance: s. visuddhi (VI, 6) . 


desireless deliverance: s. vimokkha (1). 

desirelessness, contemplation on: s. vipassand (12). 

destiny, evil views with fixed d.: niyata-micchd- 
ditthi (q.v.). Men with fixed d.: niyata-puggala (q.v.). 
See gati. 

destruction: overcoming, or liberation from, evil 
things through their d.; samuccheda-pahdna or 
samuccheda-vimutti; s.pahdna. 

destructive karma: upaghdtaka-kamma; s. karma. 

detachment: viveka (q.v.) . 

determination: s. adhimokkha, adhitthdna. 

determining: votthapana (s. vinnana-kicca) . 

determining the reality: s. vavatthdna. 

deva (lit: the Radiant Ones; related to Lat. deus) : 
heavenly beings, deities, celestials, are beings who live 
in happy worlds, and who, as a rule, are invisible to the 
human eye. They are subject, however, just like all 
human and other beings, to ever-repeated rebirth, old 
age and death, and thus are not freed from the cycle of 
existence and from misery. There are many classes of 
heavenly beings. 

I. The 6 classes of heavenly beings of the sensuous 
sphere (kdmdvacara or kdma-loka; s. avacara loka), are 
Cdtumahdrdjika-deva, Tdvatimsa, Ydma, Tusita 
(s. Bodhisatta) , Nimmdna-rati, Paranimmita-vasavatti. 
Cf. anussati. (6). 


II. The heavenly beings of the fine-material sphere 
{rupdvacara or rupaloka) are: 

1. Brahma-pdrisajja, Brahma-purohita, Mahd- 
brahmdno (s. brahma-kdyika-devd) . Amongst these 

3 classes will be reborn those with a weak, medium or 
full experience of the 1st absorption (jhdna, q.v.). 

2. Parittdbha, Appamdndbha, Abhassara. Here will 
be reborn those with experience of the 2nd absorption. 

3. Paritta-subha, Appamdna-subha, Subha-kinna (or 
kinhd) . Here will be reborn those with experience of 
the 3rd absorption. 

4. Vehapphala, Asanna-satta (q.v.) , Suddhdvdsa 
(q.v.; further s. Andgdmi) . Amongst the first 2 classes 
will be reborn those with experience of the 4th 
absorption, but amongst the 3rd class only 
Andgdmis (q.v.). 

III. The 4 grades of heavenly beings of the imma- 
terial sphere (arupdvacara or arupa-loka) are: the 
heavenly beings of the sphere of unbounded space 
(dkdsdnancdyatanupaga-devd) , of unbounded 
consciousness (vinndnancdyatanupaga-deva) , of 
nothingness (dkincanndyatanupaga devd), of neither- 
perception-nor- non-perception (nevasafind- 
ndsanndyatanupaga-devd) . Here will be reborn those 
with experience of the 4 immaterial spheres 
(arupdyatana; s. jhdna 5-8). 

See Gods and the Universe by Francis Story 
(Wheel 180/181). 

deva-duta: 'divine messengers', is a symbolic name for 
old age, disease and death, since these three things 


remind man of his future and rouse him to earnest 
striving. In A. Ill, 35, it is said: 

"Did you, man, never see in the world a man or a 
woman eighty, ninety or a hundred years old, frail, 
crooked as a gable-roof, bent down, resting on 
crutches, with tottering steps, infirm, youth long since 
fled, with broken teeth, grey and scanty hair, or bald- 
headed, wrinkled, with blotched limbs? And did it 
never occur to you that you also are subject to old age, 
that you also cannot escape it? 

"Did you never see in the world a man or a woman, 
who being sick, afflicted and grievously ill, and wallow- 
ing in their own filth, was lifted up by some people, and 
put down by others? And did it never occur to you that 
you also are subject to disease, that you also cannot 
escape it? 

"Did you never see in the world the corpse of a 
man or a woman, one or two or three days after death, 
swollen up, blue-black in colour, and full of corrup- 
tion? And did it never occur to you that you also are 
subject to death, that you also cannot escape it?" - See 
M. 130. 

devatanussati: 'recollection of the heavenly beings'; 
s. anussati. 

development (mental): bhdvand (q.v.). - Effort to 
develop, s. padhdna. - Wisdom based on d. s. panfid. - 
Gradual d. of the Eightfold Path in the 'progress of the 
disciple' (q.v.). 

deviation: (from morality and understanding): 
vipatti (q.v.). 


devotee: upasaka (q.v.). 

dhamma: lit. the 'bearer', constitution (or nature of a 
thing), norm, law {jus), doctrine; justice, righteousness; 
quality; thing, object of mind (s. dyatana) 'phenome- 
non'. In all these meanings the word l dhamma! is to be 
met with in the texts. The Com. to D. instances 
4 applications of this term guna (quality, virtue), desana 
(instruction), party atti (text) , nijjlvatd (soullessness, 
e.g. "all dhamma, phenomena, are impersonal," etc.). 
The Com. to Dhs. has hetu (condition) instead of 
desana. Thus, the analytical knowledge of the law 
(s. patisambhidd) is explained in Vis.M. XIV. and in 
Vibh. as hetumhi-ndna, knowledge of the conditions. 

The Dhamma, as the liberating law discovered and 
proclaimed by the Buddha, is summed up in the 
4 Noble Truths (s. saccd) . It forms one of the 3 Gems 
(ti-ratana, q.v.) and one of the 10 recollections 
(anussati q.v.) . 

Dhamma, as object of mind (dhammdy 'ataxia, 
s. dyatana) may be anything past, present or future, 
corporeal or mental, conditioned or not 
(cf. sankhdra, 4), real or imaginary. 

dhamma-cakka: The 'Wheel (realm) of the Law', is a 
name for the doctrine 'set rolling' (established) by the 
Buddha, i.e. the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.). 

"The Perfect One, O monks, the Holy One, fully 
Enlightened One, in the Deer Park at Isipatana near 


Benares, has set rolling (established) the unsurpassed 
Wheel (realm) of the Law" (M. 141). Cf. cakka. 

dhamma-desana: 'exposition of the Doctrine (law)'; 
s. desand. 

dhamma-dhatu: mind-object-element (s. dhdtu). 

dhammanupassana: 'contemplation of the mind- 
objects' is the last of the 4 foundations of mindfulness 
(satipatthdna, q.v.) 

dhammanusarl: the 'dhamma-devotee', is one of the 
7 noble disciples (ariya-puggala, q.v.) . 

dhammanussati: 'recollection of the Law', is one of 
the 10 recollections (anussati, q.v.). 

dhamma-patisambhida: the 'analytical knowledge of 
the law, is one of the 4 kinds of analytical knowledge 
(patisambhidd, q.v.) . 

dhamma-tthiti-nana: 'knowledge of the fixity of law, 
is a name for that 'insight which is leading up' to the 
entrance into one of the 4 supermundane paths 
(yutthdna-gdmirii-vipassand, q.v.) . In the Susima Sutta 
(S. XII, 70) this (ascending) insight is called the 
'knowledge of the fixity of the law', namely: "At first, 
Susima, there exists the knowledge of the fixity of the 
law, and later the knowledge of Nibbana." (See 
Vis.M. XXI.) 

dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga: 'investigation of the 
law as factor of enlightenment', is one of the 7 factors 
of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.) . 


dhammayatana: 'mind-object as base' (ayatana, q.v.). 

dhana: 'treasures', a term for the following 7 qualities: 
faith, morality, moral shame, moral dread, learning, 
liberality and wisdom. Cf. A. VII, 5, 6. 

See 'Treasures of the Noble', by Soma Thera (Bodhi 
Leaves B. 27, BPS). 

dhatu: 'elements', are the ultimate constituents of a 

(I) The 4 physical elements (dhatu or mahd-bhutd) , 
popularly called earth, water, fire and wind, are to be 
understood as the primary qualities of matter. They are 
named in Pali: pathavi-dhdtu, dpo-dhdtu, tejo-dhdtu, and 
vdyo-dhdtu. In Vis.M. XI, 2 the four elements are 
defined thus: "Whatever is characterized by hardness 
(thaddha-lakkkhand) is the earth or solid-element; by 
cohesion (dbandhand) or fluidity, the water-element; 
by heating (paripdcand) , the fire or heat-element; by 
strengthening or supporting (yitthambhand) , the wind 
or motion-element. All four are present in every 
material object, though in varying degrees of strength. 
If, for instance, the earth element predominates, the 
material object is called 'solid', etc. - For the analysis of 
the 4 elements, s. dhdtu-vavatthdna. 

(II) The 18 physical and mental elements that 
constitute the conditions or foundations of the process 
of perception, are: 

1. visual organ (eye) 11. eye-consciousness 

2. auditory organ (ear) 12. ear-consciousness 

3. olfactory organ (nose) 13. nose-consciousness 

4. gustatory organ (tongue) 14. tongue- 



5. tactile organ (body) 15. body-consciousness 

6. visible object 16. mind-element 


7. sound or audible object 17. mind-object 

8. odour or olfactive object (dhamma-dhdtu) 

9. gustative object 18. mind-consciousness 

10. body- impression element (mano-vinndna-dhdtu) 

1-10 are physical; 11-16 and 18 are mental; 17 
may be either physical or mental. - 16 performs the 
function of advertence (avajjand) towards the object at 
the inception of a process of sensuous consciousness; it 
further performs the function of receiving 
(sampaticchana) the sensuous object. 18 performs, e.g., 
the function of investigation (santlrand) , determining 
(yotthapana) and registering (taddrammana) - (for its 
other functions, s. Table I). For the 14 functions of 
consciousness, s. vihhdna-kicca. 

Cf. M. 115; S. XIV and especially Vibh. II 
(Guide p. 280, Vis.M. XV, 17ff. 

Of the many further groupings of elements 
(enumerated in M. 115), the best known is that of the 

3 world-elements: the sensuous world (kdma-dhdtu) , 
the fine-material world {rupa-dhdtu) , the immaterial 
world (arupa-dhdtu) ; further the sixfold group: the 
solid, liquid, heat, motion, space, consciousness 
(pathavl, dpo, tejo, vdyo, dkdsa, vinndna; s. above I), 
described in M. 140; see also M. 112. 

dhatu-vavatthana: 'analysis (or determining) of the 

4 elements', is described in Vis.M. XI, 2, as the last of 
the 40 mental exercises (s. bhdvand). In a condensed 
form this exercise is handed down in D. 22 and M. 10 
(s. satipatthdnd) , but in detail explained in M. 28, 


62, 140. The simile of the butcher in M. 10 ("Just, 

monks, as a skilled butcher or butcher's apprentice, 
after having slaughtered a cow and divided it into 
separate portions, should sit down at the junction of 
four highroads; just so does the disciple contemplate 
this body with regard to the elements") is thus explain- 
ed in Vis.M. XL: "To the butcher, who rears the cow, 
brings it to the slaughter-house, ties it, puts it there, 
slaughters it, or looks at the slaughtered and dead cow, 
the idea 'cow' does not disappear as long as he has not 
yet cut the body open and taken it to pieces. As soon, 
however, as he sits down, after having cut it open and 
taken it to pieces, the idea 'cow' disappears to him, and 
the idea 'meat' arises. And he does not think: 'A cow do 

1 sell, or 'A cow do they buy.' Just so, when the monk 
formerly was still an ignorant worldling, layman or a 
homeless one, the ideas 'living being' or 'man' or 
'individual' had not yet disappeared as long as he had 
not taken this body, whatever position or direction it 
had, to pieces and analysed it piece by piece. As soon, 
however, as he analysed this body into its elements, the 
idea 'living being' disappeared to him, and his mind 
became established in the contemplation of the 
elements." - (App.). 

dhutanga: (lit. 'means of shaking off (the defile- 
ments)'); 'means of purification', ascetic or austere 
practices. These are strict observances recommended 
by the Buddha to monks as a help to cultivate content- 
edness, renunciation, energy and the like. One or more 
of them may be observed for a shorter or longer period 
of time. 

101 - 

"The monk training himself in morality should take 
upon himself the means of purification, in order to gain 
those virtues through which the purity of morality will 
become accomplished, to wit: fewness of needs, con- 
tentedness, austerity, detachment, energy, moder- 
ation, etc." (Vis.M. II). 

Vis.M. II describes 13 dhutangas, consisting in the 
vows of 

1. wearing patched-up robes: pamsukulik'anga, 

2. wearing only three robes: tecivarik'anga, 

3. going for alms: pindapdtik'anga, 

4. not omitting any house whilst going for alms: 


5. eating at one sitting: ekasanik'anga, 

6. eating only from the alms-bowl: 


7. refusing all further food: khalu-pacchd- 


8. living in the forest: drannik'anga, 

9. living under a tree: rukkha-mulik'anga, 

10. living in the open air: abbhokdsik'anga, 

1 1 . living in a cemetery: susdnik'anga, 

12. being satisfied with whatever dwelling: yathd- 


13. sleeping in the sitting position (and never 

lying down) : nesajf/i/c'cmga. 

These 13 exercises are all, without exception, 
mentioned in the old sutta texts (e.g. M. 5, 113; A.V., 
181-90), but never together in one and the same place. 

"Without doubt, O monks, it is a great advantage to 
live in the forest as a hermit, to collect one's alms, to 


make one's robes from picked-up rags, to be satisfied 
with three robes" (A.I, 30). 

The vow, e.g. of No. 1, is taken in the words: 
"I reject robes offered to me by householders," or 
"I take upon myself the vow of wearing only robes 
made from picked-up rags." Some of the exercises may 
also be observed by the lay-adherent. 

Here it may be mentioned that each newly ordain- 
ed monk, immediately after his being admitted to the 
Order, is advised to be satisfied with whatever robes, 
alms-food, dwelling and medicine he gets: "The life of 
the monks depends on the collected alms as food... on 
the root of a tree as dwelling. . . on robes made from 
patched-up rags... on stale cow's urine as medicine. 
May you train yourself therein all your life." 

Since the moral quality of any action depends en- 
tirely upon the accompanying intention and volition, 
this is also the case with these ascetic practices, as is 
expressly stated in Vis.M. Thus the mere external 
performance is not the real exercise, as it is said 
(Pug. 275-84): "Some one might be going for alms; etc. 
out of stupidity and foolishness - or with evil intention 
and filled with desires - or out of insanity and mental 
derangement - or because such practice had been 
praised by the Noble Ones...." These exercises are, 
however properly observed "if they are taken up only 
for the sake of frugality, of contentedness, of 
purity, etc." (App.) 

On dhutanga practice in modern Thailand, see With 
Robes and Bowl, by Bhikkhu Khantipalo (Wheel 82/83). 


dibba-cakkhu: the 'divine eye', is one of the 6 higher 
powers (abhinnd, q.v.), and one of the three kinds of 
knowledge (tevijjd, q.v.). 

dibba-loka: heavenly world; s. deva. 

dibba-sota: the 'divine ear', is one of the 6 higher 
powers (abhinnd, q.v.) . 

dibba-vihara: s. vihdra. 

disappearance: vigata-paccaya, is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

disciplinary code: s. pdtimokkha. 

discursive thinking: vicdra; s. vitakka-vicdra. 

disease: one of the 'divine messengers' (deva- 
duta, q.v.) . 

disinterestedness: (regarding the whole world): 
s. sabbaloke anabhirati-sannd. 

dispensation: s. sdsana. 

dissociation: vippayutta-paccaya, is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

dissolution, contemplation of: khaydnupassand, is one 
of the 18 chief kinds of insight (yipassand, q.v.). 

dittha-dhamma-vedanlya-kamma: karma bearing 
fruit in this present life; s. karma. 

ditthi (lit. 'sight'; Vdis, to see) : view, belief, speculative 
opinion, insight. If not qualified by sammd, 'right', it 


mostly refers to wrong and evil view or opinion, and 
only in a few instances to right view, understanding or 
insight (e.g. ditthi-ppatta, q.v.; ditthi-visuddhi, purifi- 
cation of insight; ditthi-sampanna, possessed of insight). 

Wrong or evil views {ditthi or micchd-ditthi) are 
declared as utterly rejectable for being a source of 
wrong and evil aspirations and conduct, and liable at 
times to lead man to the deepest abysses of depravity, 
as it is said in A. I, 22: 

"No other thing than evil views do I know, 
O monks, whereby to such an extent the unwholesome 
things not yet arisen arise, and the unwholesome things 
already arisen are brought to growth and fullness. No 
other thing than evil views do I know, whereby to such 
an extent the wholesome things not yet arisen are 
hindered in their arising, and the wholesome things 
already arisen disappear. No other thing than evil views 
do I know, whereby to such an extent human beings at 
the dissolution of the body, at death, are passing to a 
way of suffering, into a world of woe, into hell." 
Further in A. I, 23: "Whatever a man filled with evil 
views performs or undertakes, or whatever he possesses 
of will, aspiration, longing and tendencies, all these 
things lead him to an undesirable, unpleasant and 
disagreeable state, to woe and suffering." 

From the Abhidhamma (Dhs) it may be inferred 
that evil views, whenever they arise, are associated with 
greed (s. Tab. I. 22, 23, 26, 27). 

Numerous speculative opinions and theories, which 
at all times have influenced and still are influencing 
mankind, are quoted in the sutta-texts. Amongst them, 


however, the wrong view which everywhere, and at all 
times, has most misled and deluded mankind is the 
personality-belief, the ego-illusion. This personality- 
belief (sakkdya-ditthi) , or ego-illusion (atta-ditthi) , is of 
2 kinds: eternity-belief and annihilation-belief. 

Eternity-belief {sassata-ditthi) is the belief in the 
existence of a persisting ego-entity, soul or personality, 
existing independently of those physical and mental 
processes that constitute life and continuing even after 

Annihilation-belief (uccheda-ditthi) , on the other 
hand, is the belief in the existence of an ego-entity or 
personality as being more or less identical with those 
physical and mental processes, and which therefore, at 
the dissolution at death, will come to be annihilated. - 
For the 20 kinds of personality-belief, see sakkdya- 

Now, the Buddha neither teaches a personality 
which will continue after death, nor does he teach a 
personality which will be annihilated at death, but he 
shows us that 'personality', 'ego', 'individual', 'man', etc., 
are nothing but mere conventional designations 
(yohdra-vacand) and that in the ultimate sense 
(s. paramattha-saccd) there is only this self-consuming 
process of physical and mental phenomena which 
continually arise and again disappear immediately. - 
For further details, s. anattd, khandha, 

"The Perfect One is free from any theory 
(ditthigatd) , for the Perfect One has seen what cor- 
poreality is, and how it arises and passes away. He has 


seen what feeling. . . perception. . . mental formations. . . 
consciousness are, and how they arise and pass away. 
Therefore I say that the Perfect One has won complete 
deliverance through the extinction, fading away, dis- 
appearance, rejection and casting out of all imaginings 
and conjectures, of all inclination to the Vain-glory of T 
and 'mine'." (M. 72). 

The rejection of speculative views and theories is a 
prominent feature in a chapter of the Sutta-Nipata, the 

The so-called 'evil views with fixed destiny' {niyata- 
micchdditthi) constituting the last of the 10 unwhole- 
some courses of action (kammapatha, q.v.), are the 
following three: (1) the fatalistic 'view of the uncaused- 
ness' of existence (ahetukaditthi) , (2) the 'view of the 
inefficacy of action' (akiriyaditthi) , (3) nihilism 
(natthikaditthi) . 

(1) was taught by Makkhali-Gosala, a contem- 
porary of the Buddha who denied every cause for the 
corruptness and purity of beings, and asserted that 
everything is minutely predestined by fate. 

(2) was taught by Purana-Kassapa, another 
contemporary of the Buddha who denied every 
karmical effect of good and bad actions: "To him who 
kills, steals, robs, etc., nothing bad will happen. For 
generosity, self-restraint and truthfulness, etc. no 
reward is to be expected." 

(3) was taught by Ajita-Kesakambali, a third con- 
temporary of the Buddha who asserted that any belief 


in good action and its reward is a mere delusion, that 
after death no further life would follow, that man at 
death would become dissolved into the elements, etc. 

For further details about these 3 views, s. D. 2, M. 60; 
commentarial exposition in Wheel 98/99, p. 23. 

Frequently mentioned are also the 10 antinomies 
(antagdhikd micchd-ditthi) : 'Finite is the world' or 
'infinite is the world'... 'body and soul are identical' or 
'body and soul are different' (e.g. M. 63). 

In the Brahmajala Sutta.(D.l), 62 false views are 
classified and described, comprising all conceivable 
wrong views and speculations about man and world. 

See The Ail-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmajala Sutta), 
tr. with Com. by Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS). 

Further s. D. 15, 23, 24, 28; M. 11, 12, 25, 60, 63, 72, 
76, 101, 102, 110; A. II, 16; X, 93; S. XXI, XXIV; 
Pts.M. Ditthikatha,. etc. 

Wrong views (ditthi) are one of the proclivities 
(s. anusayd), cankers (s. dsava), clingings (s. updddna), 
one of the three modes of perversions (s. vipalldsa) . 
Unwholesome consciousness (akusala citta), rooted in 
greed, may be either with or without wrong views 
(ditthigata-sampayutta or vippayutta) ; s. Dhs.; Tab I. 

On right view {sammd- ditthi) , s. magga and M. 9 
(Trans, with Com. in 'R. Und.'). 

ditthi-nissita-sila: 'morality based on wrong views'; 
s. nissaya. 


ditthi-ppatta: the Vision attainer', is one of the 
7 Noble Persons (ariya-puggala, q.v.). 

ditthi-vipallasa: 'perversion of views'; s. vipalldsa. 

ditthi-visuddhi: 'purification of view' is the 3rd of the 
7 stages of purification (visuddhi III, q.v.). 

ditth'upadana: 'clinging to views', is one of the 4 kinds 
of clinging (updddna, q.v.) . 

divine abode: s. vihdra. 

divine ear and eye: s. abhinnd. 

divine messengers, the 3 : deva-duta (q.v.) . 

doctrine of the Buddha: s. dhamma, sdsana. 

dogmatic articles, the 3: titthdyatana (q.v.). 

domanassa: lit. 'sad-mindedness', grief, i.e. mentally 
painful feeling (cetasika-vedand) , is one of the 
5 feelings (yedand, q.v.) and one of the 22 faculties 
(indriya, q.v.) . According to the Abhidhamma, grief is 
always associated with antipathy and grudge, and 
therefore karmically unwholesome (akusala, q.v.) 
Cf. Tab. I. 30, 31. 

domanassupavicara: 'indulging in grief; 
s. manopavicdra. 

doors of deliverance, the 3 : vimokkha-dvdra; 
s. vimokkha I; visuddhi VI, 8. 

dosa: 'hatred', anger, is one of the 3 unwholesome, 
roots (mula, q.v.). - d. citta: hate consciousness; 
s. Tab. I (30, 31). 


dosa-carita: 'angry-or hate-natured'; s. carita. 

doubt, skeptical: vicikicchd (q.v.), kankhd (q.v.). 

dread, moral: ottappa s. hiri-ottappa. 

drinking: On the evil effects of drinking intoxicants, 
s. surdmeraya, etc. 

dry-visioned: s. sukkha-vipassaka. 

duccarita: 'evil conduct', is threefold: in deeds, words 
and thoughts. See kammapatha (I) . 

duggati: 'woeful course' (of existence); s. gati. 

dukkha: (1) 'pain', painful feeling, which may be 
bodily and mental (s. vedana). 

(2) 'Suffering', 'ill'. As the first of the Four Noble 
Truths (s. saccd) and the second of the three character- 
istics of existence (s. ti-lakkhana) , the term dukkha is 
not limited to painful experience as under (1), but re- 
fers to the unsatisfactory nature and the general in- 
security of all conditioned phenomena which, on 
account of their impermanence, are all liable to suffer- 
ing, and this includes also pleasurable experience. 
Hence 'unsatisfactoriness' or 'liability to suffering' 
would be more adequate renderings, if not for stylistic 
reasons. Hence the first truth does not deny the exist- 
ence of pleasurable experience, as is sometimes wrong- 
ly assumed. This is illustrated by the following texts: 

"Seeking satisfaction in the world, monks, I had 
pursued my way. That satisfaction in the world I found. 
In so far as satisfaction existed in the world, I have well 


perceived it by wisdom. Seeking for misery in the 
world, monks, I had pursued my way. That misery in 
the world I found. In so far as misery existed in the 
world, I have well perceived it by wisdom. Seeking for 
the escape from the world, monks, I had pursued my 
way. That escape from the world I found. In so far as an 
escape from the world existed, I have well perceived it 
by wisdom" (A. Ill, 101). 

"If there were no satisfaction to be found in the 
world, beings would not be attached to the world.... If 
there were no misery to be found in the world, beings 
would not be repelled by the world. . . . If there were no 
escape from the world, beings could not escape there- 
from" (A. Ill, 102). 

See dukkhatd. For texts on the Truth of Suffering, 
see W. of B. and 'Path'. 

See The Three Basic Facts of Existence, II. Suffering 
(Wheel 191/193). 

dukkhanupassana: s. vipassand. 

dukkhata (abstr. noun fr. dukkhd): 'the state of 
suffering', painfulness, unpleasantness, the unsatis- 
factoriness of existence. "There are three kinds of 
suffering: (1) suffering as pain (dukkha- dukkhatd) , 
(2) the suffering inherent in the formations (sankhdra- 
dukkhatd), (3) the suffering in change (yiparindma- 
dukkhatd)" (S. XLV, 165; D. 33). 

(1) is the bodily or mental feeling of pain as actu- 
ally felt. (2) refers to the oppressive nature of all form- 
ations of existence (i.e. all conditioned phenomena), 

-111 - 

due to their continual arising and passing away; this 
includes also experiences associated with neutral feel- 
ing. (3) refers to bodily and mental pleasant feelings, 
"because they are the cause for the arising of pain when 
they change" (Vis.M. XIV, 34f). 

dukkha-patipada: 'painful progress'; s.patipadd. 

dvi-hetuka-patisandhi: s. patisandhi. 

dwellings: Suitable d. for monks; s. senasana. Satisfied 
with whatever d.; s. dhutanga. 



earnestness: appamdda (q.v.). 

earth-element: s. dhdtu (I). 

eating, knowing the measure in: bhojane 
mattannutd (q.v.). 

effort, the 4 right e.: samma-ppadhdna; s. padhdna. 
Right e. s. sacca (IV 6), magga (6). - 5 elements of e.: 
padhdniyanga (q.v.). 

ego-entity: attd (q.v.). 

ego-belief: s. ditthi, sakkdya-ditthi, vipalldsa. 

ego-idea, ego-perception: s. vipalldsa. 

egolessness: anattd (q.v.). 

eightfold path: s. magga. 

eka-bljl: 'germinating only once more', is the name for 
one of the 3 kinds of Stream- winners: s. Sotdpanna. 

ekasanik'anga: the exercise of eating at one sitting, is 
one of the ascetic practices; s. dhutanga. 

eka-vokara-bhava: one-group existence, is the exist- 
ence of the unconscious beings (asanna-satta, q.v.) as 
they possess only the corporeality- group. Cf. catu- 


elasticity (of corporeality, mental factors or conscious- 
ness): mudutd; s. khandha (Corporeality LB.) and 
Tab. II. 

elders, the teaching of the: Theravdda (q.v.). 

elements: dhdtu (q.v.) .- Analysis of the 4 e.: dhdtu- 
vavatthdna (q.v.) . 

emotion: 8 sources of e.: samvega-vatthu (q.v.). The 
4 places rousing emotion; samvejanlya-tthdna (q.v.). 

emptiness: sunnatd (q.v.). - Contemplation of e.: 
sunnatdnupassand. - For emptiness of self, pertaining to 
the 4 truths, s. sacca. 

ends: 'attaining two ends simultaneously'; 
sama-slsi (q.v.) . 

energy: viriya (q.v.) ; further s. bojjhanga, bala, pdraml. 

enlightened one, the: Buddha; s. sammd-sambuddha. 

enlightenment: bodhi (q.v.). - The 7 elements of e.: 
bojjhanga (q.v.) . - A being destined for e.: 
Bodhisatta (q.v.) . 

enthusiasm: plti (q.v.) . 

envy: issd (q.v.). 

equality-conceit: s. mdna. 

equanimity: upekkhd (q.v.) = tatra-majjhattatd (q.v.) . 
- Knowledge consisting in e. with regard to all format- 
ions, s. visuddhi (VI, 8). - Indulging in e., s. manopavicdra. 


equilibrium of mental faculties: indriya- 
samatta (q.v.). 

escape: nissarana (s.pahana). 

eternity: cf. kappa. 

eternity-belief: sassata-ditthi; s. ditthi. 

exertion: see padhana, viriya, magga (6). - Reaching 
Nibbana with or without e.; s. Anagami. 

existence: bhava (q.v.) - The 5 groups of e.: 
khandha (q.v.) - The 4 substrata of e.: upadhi (q.v.). - 
Courses of e.: gati (q.v.) . - Wheel of e.: samsara (q.v.) . 
- Craving for e.: bhava-tanha; s. tanha; - 
The 3 characteristics of e.: ti-lakkhana (q.v.). 

expression (bodily and verbal): s.vinnatti. 

extinction: s. nirodha; - of craving: tanhakkhaya (q.v.), 

extremes: the two e. and the middle path; s. majjhima- 

eye: 5 kinds, s. cakkhu. -Visual organ, s. ayatana. 

eye-consciousness: cakkhu-vinnana; s. dhatu, 

eye-organ: s. ayatana. 



factors, mental: s. cetasika. - F. of absorption, 
s.jhdna - F. of enlightenment, s. bojjhanga. 

faculties: indriya (q.v.); see also paccaya 16. 

fading away: s. virdga. 

faith: saddhd (q.v.). 

faith-devotee and faith-liberated one: 

s. ariyapuggala (B). 

faithful-natured: saddhd-carita; s. carita. 

fatalism: s. ditthi. 

favour, 4 ways of showing sangaha-vatthu. (q.v.). 

feeling: vedand (q.v.) ; further s. khandha. - 
Contemplation off.: vedandnupassand; s. satipatthdna. 

femininity: s. bhdva, indriya. 

fetters: The 10 f. binding to existence; s. samyojana. 

few wishes: s. appicchatd. 

fine-material sphere or world: s. avacara, loka. 
Absorptions of the: rupa-jjhdna; s.jhdna. 

fire-element: s. dhdtu (I). 


fivefold sense-door, Advertence to the: 
pancadvdrdvajjana; s. vinndna-kicca. 

five-group existence: panca-vokdra-bhava (q.v.). 

fixed destiny: s. niyata-micchd-ditthi, niyata-puggala. 

fixity: s. niyama, tathatd, dhamma-tthiti-ndna. 

floods, the 4: ogha, are identical with the 4 cankers 
(dsava, q.v.) . 

food, material: is one of the 4 nutriments (d/idra, q.v.). 
Food-produced corporeality, s. samutthdna. - Refusing 
all further f., s. dhutanga. - Loathsomeness of f. s. dhdre 

foolish babble: sampha-ppaldpa; s. karma, 
kammapatha (I) ; cf. tiracchdna-kathd. 

forbearance: khanti (q.v.). 

forest-dweller, the ascetic practice for the: s. dhutanga. 

formation: sankhdra (q.v.). 

foundation: nissaya, one of the 24 conditions 
(paccaya, q.v.) . Wrong f. of morality, s. nissaya. - f. of 
sympathy: sangaha-vatthu (q.v.) - f.-forming absorp- 
tions: pddaka-jjhdna (q.v.); - f. of an Arahat's mentality: 
s. adhitthdna. 

foundations of mindfulness, the 4: 

satipatthdna (q.v.) . 

four-group existence: catu-vokdra-bhava (q.v.) . 


freedom of will, problem of the: 
cf. paticcasamuppdda (X) . 

friend, noble: kalydna-mitta (q.v.). 

frivolous talk: cf. tiracchdna-kathd, kamma-patha 
(I, 7) , karma. 

fruition (result of supermundane path) : phala; 
s. ariyapuggala (A) . 

fruits of monk-life: sdmanna-phala (q.v.) 

full comprehension: parihhd (q.v.). 

functional consciousness, or consciousness 
functioning independently of karma: kiriya-citta (q.v.); 
see vinndna-kicca. 

functions of consciousness: vinndna-kicca (q.v.). 



gantha: 'ties'. "There are 4 ties: the bodily tie 
(kdyagantha) of covetousness (abhijjhd), of ill-will 
(yydpdda) , of clinging to rule and ritual (silabbata- 
pardmdsd), of dogmatical fanaticism (idam- 
saccdbhinivesci)" (D. 33). - "These things are ties, since 
they tie this mental and material body" 
(Vis.M. XXII, 54). 

garuka-kamma: weighty karma; s. karma. 

gati (lit. 'going') : 'course of existence', destiny, destin- 
ation. "There are 5 courses of existence: hell, animal 
kingdom, ghost realm, human world, heavenly world" 
(D. 33; A. XI, 68). Of these, the first 3 count as woeful 
courses (duggati, s. apdya), the latter 2 as happy 
courses (sugati) . 

gems, the 3 : ti-ratana (q.v.) . 

generation, the 4 modes of: yoni (q.v.) . 

germinating once more: eka-bljl, is the name of one 
of the 3 kinds of Sotdpanna (q.v.). 

ghosts: d.peta,yakkha; s. loka. 

giving: ddna (q.v.) . 

gladness: somanassa (q.v.). - Indulging in g., 
s. manopavicdra. 


gnosis: s. indriya (21). 

gotrabhu: lit. 'who has entered the lineage (of the 
Noble Ones)', i.e. the Matured One. 

I. 'Maturity-Moment' (gotrabhu-cittd) is the last of 
the 4 impulsive moments (javana, q.v.; cf. vinndna- 
kiccd) immediately preceding the entering into an 
absorption (jhdna, q.v.) or into one of the super- 
mundane paths (s. ariya-puggala, A.). Cf. visuddhi VII. 

II. The 'Matured One'. "He who is endowed with 
those things, immediately upon which follows the 
entrance into the noble path (ariya-maggd) , this person 
is called a 'Matured One'." (Pug. 10). In the Com. to 
this passage it is said: "He who through perceiving 
Nibbana, leaves behind the whole multitude of world- 
lings (puthujjana, q.v.), the family of worldlings, the 
circle of worldlings, the designation of a worldling and 
enters into the multitude of the Noble Ones, the family 
of the Noble Ones, the circle of the Noble Ones, and 
obtains the designation of a Noble One, such a being is 
called a Matured One." By this state of consciousness is 
meant the lightning-like transitional stage between the 
state of a worldling and that of a Sotdpanna; s. ariya- 
puggala. - Gotrabhu is mentioned in this sense, i.e. as 
9th ariyapuggala (q.v.), in A. IX, 10; X, 16. 

gotrabhu-nana: 'Maturity-knowledge'; s.prec. and 
visuddhi (VII) 

gradual instruction: dnupubblkathd (q.v.). 

grasping: cf. pardmdsa, updddna. 


great man, the 8 thoughts of a: mahapurisa- 
vitakka (q.v.) . 

greed: lobha (q.v.). 

greedy consciousness: s. Tab, I, III. (22-29). 

greedy-natured: rdga-carita; s. carita. 

grief: domanassa (q.v.) - Indulging in g. 
s. manopavicdra. 

groups: of existence, s. khandha; corporeal groups, 
s. rupa-kaldpa; corporeality-group, s. rupa-kdya; mind- 
group, s. ndma-kdya. 

growth, bodily: rupassa upacaya: s. khandha I. 

grudge: s. patigha. 

gustatory organ: s. dyatana. 

121 - 


habitual karma: bahula-kamma: s. karma. 

hadaya-vatthu: 'heart as physical base' of mental life. 
The heart, according to the commentaries as well as to 
the general Buddhist tradition, forms the physical base 
(yatthu) of consciousness In the canonical texts, how- 
ever, even in the Abhidhamma Pitaka, no such base is 
ever localized, a fact which seems to have first been 
discovered by Shwe Zan Aung (Compendium of 
Philosophy, pp. 277ff.). In the Patth. we find repeatedly 
only the passage: "That material thing based on which 
mind-element and mind-consciousness element 
function" (yam rupam nissaya manodhdtu ca mano- 
vinndna-dhdtu ca vattanti, tarn ruparri). 

hana-bhagiya-slla, h.-b.-samadhi, h.-b.-panna: 
morality, concentration or wisdom connected with 
decline. The other three stages are: thiti-bhagiya- 
sila, etc. morality, etc. connected with a standstill; 
visesa-bhagiya sila, etc.: morality, etc. connected with 
progress; nibbedha-bhagiya sila, etc.: morality, etc. 
connected with penetration. Cf. A. IV, 179; VI. X, 71. 

"'Decline' (hand) is to be understood with regard to 
the arising of opposing qualities, 'standstill' ( thiti) with 
regard to the standstill of the corresponding 
attentiveness, 'progress' (visesa) with regard to higher 
excellency, 'penetration' (nibbedha) with regard to the 
arising of perception and reflection connected with the 


turning away (from existence)" (Vis.M. III). 
Cf. voddna (2). 

happiness, feeling of h.: s. sukha. - The idea of h. 
(of the world), s. vipallasa. 

happy courses of existence: s. gati. 

harmlessness: s. avihimsd. 

hasituppada-citta: lit. 'consciousness producing mirth' 
(smile), is found in the Abhidhammattha Sangaha as a 
name for the joyful mind-consciousness element 
(manovifindna-dhdtu, Tab. I. 72) arising as functional 
consciousness independent of karma (kiriya-cittd) , only 
in the Arahat. - (App.) . 

hate and hatelessness: (dosa, adosa) are two of the 
6 karmical roots (mulct, q.v.) or root-conditions (hetu; 
paccaya 1). 

hate-rooted consciousness: s. Tab. I. (30, 31). 

hate-natured: dosa-carita; s. carita. 

health-infatuation: s. mada. 

hearer (disciple): sdvaka (q.v.). 

heat-element: tejo-dhdtu; s. dhdtu. 

hell: niraya (q.v.). 

hetu: 'cause', condition, reason; (Abhidhamma) root- 
condition. In sutta usage it is almost synonymous with 
paccaya, 'condition', and often occurs together with it 


('What is the cause, what is the condition', ko hetu ko 
paccayo) . 

In Abhidhamma, it denotes the wholesome and 
unwholesome roots (mula, q.v.) . In that sense, as 'root- 
condition' (hetu-paccaya; s.paccaya), it is the first of the 
24 conditions given in the introduction to the Patthana 
(s. Guide, p. 117). The Dhs (1052-1082) and Patthana 
(Duka-patth; Guide, p. 144) have sections on roots 
(hetu) . - The term is also used (a) for the classification 
of consciousness, as sa-hetuka and a-hetuka, with and 
without concomitant root-conditions; (b) for a division 
of rebirth consciousness into ahetuka, dvihetuka and 
tihetuka, without, with 2, or with 3 root-conditions 
(s. patisandhi) . 

Ahetuka- ditthi, the false view of the uncausedness 
of existence; s. ditthi. 

higher wisdom: clear insight based on h. w.: 
s. vipassand. Training in H. W., s. sikkhd. 

highest knowledge: s. anna. 

hindrances, the 5: nlvarana (q.v.). 

hiri-ottappa: 'moral shame and moral dread', are 
associated with all karmically wholesome conscious- 
ness (s. Tab. II). 

"To be ashamed of what one ought to be ashamed 
of, to be ashamed of performing evil and unwholesome 
things: this is called moral shame. To be in dread of 
what one ought to be in dread of, to be in dread of 


performing evil and unwholesome things: this is called 
moral dread" (Pug, 79, 80). 

"Two lucid things, O monks, protect the world: 
moral shame and moral dread. If these two things were 
not to protect the world, then one would respect 
neither one's mother, nor one's mother's sister, nor 
one's brother's wife, nor one's teacher's wife...." 
(A. II, 7). Cf. ahirika. See Atthasalini Tr. I. pp. 164ff. 

homelessness, going into pabbajjd (q.v.). Cf. Progress 
of the disciple. 

human world: cf. loka,gati. 



iddhi: 'power', 'magical power'. The magical powers 
constitute one of the 6 kinds of higher spiritual powers 
(abhifind, q.v.). One distinguishes many kinds of magi- 
cal powers: the power of determination (adhitthdn , 
iddhi), i.e. the power of becoming oneself manifold; 
the power of transformation (yikubbana iddhi), i.e. the 
power of adopting another form; the power of spiritual 
creation (manomaya iddhi), i.e. the power of letting 
issue from this body another mentally produced body; 
the power of penetrating knowledge (ndna-vipphara 
iddhi), i.e. the power of inherent insight to remain un- 
hurt in danger; the power of penetrating concentration 
(samddhivipphard iddhi) producing the same result. 
The magical powers are treated in detail in Vis.M. XII; 
Pts.M., Vibh. - (App.). They are not a necessary condit- 
ion for final deliverance. 

'Noble power' (ariyd-iddhi) is the power of control- 
ling one's ideas in such a way that one may consider 
something not repulsive as repulsive and something 
repulsive as not repulsive, and remain all the time im- 
perturbable and full of equanimity. This training of 
mind is frequently mentioned in the Suttas (e.g. M. 152, 
A.V. 144), but only once the name of ariyd-iddhi is 
applied to it (D. 28). See further Pts.M., Iddhi-katha, 
Vis.M. XII. 

iddhi-pada: 'roads to power' (or success) are the 
4 following qualities, "for as guides, they indicate the 


road to power connected therewith; and because they 
form, by way of preparation, the roads to the power 
constituting the fruition of the path" (Vis.M. XII), name- 
ly: "concentration of intention (chanda-samddhi) 
accompanied by effort of will (padhdna-sankhdra- 
samanndgatd) , concentration of energy {viriya- 
samddhi) . . . concentration of consciousness (citta- 
samddhi) . . . and concentration of investigation 
(yimamsa-samddhi) accompanied by effort of will." As 
such, they are supermundane (lokuttara, i.e. connected 
with the path or the fruition of the path; 
s. ariyapuggala) . But they are mundane (lokiya, q.v.) as 
predominant factors (adhipati; s. paccaya 3), for it is 
said: "Because the monk, through making intention a 
predominant factor, reaches concentration, it is called 
the concentration of intention (chanda-samddhi) , etc." 
(Vis.M. XII). 

"These 4 roads of power lead to the attaining and 
acquiring of magical power, to the power of magical 
transformation, to the generation of magical power, 
and to mastery and skill therein" (Pts.M. II. 205, PTS). 
For a detailed explanation, s. Vis.M. XII. 

"Once the monk has thus developed and often 
practised the 4 roads to power, he enjoys various magi- 
cal powers,... hears with the divine ear heavenly and 
human sounds,... perceives with his mind the mind of 
other beings. . . remembers many a former existence. . . 
perceives with the divine eye beings passing away and 
reappearing,... attains, after the extinction of cankers, 
deliverance of mind and deliverance through wisdom, 


free from, cankers.... (S. LI, 2). For a detailed 
explanation of these 6 higher powers, s. abhinnd. 

"Whosoever, O monks, has missed the 4 roads to 
power, he has missed the right path leading to the 
extinction of suffering; but whosoever, O monks, has 
reached the 4 roads to power, he has reached the right 
path leading to the extinction of suffering" (S. LI, 2). 

See the chapter on Iddhipada in The Requisites of 
Enlightenment by Ledi Sayadaw (Wheel 169/172). 

ignorance: avijjd (q.v.); further 
s. paticcasamuppdda (1). 

ill-humour, heavenly beings who come to grief 
through: mano-padosika-deva (q.v.). 

ill-will: vydpdda, is a synonym of dosa (s. mula) and 
patigha and is one of the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), 
5 hindrances (mvarana, q.v.) and 10 unwholesome 
courses of action (s. kammapatha, I). 

image, mental: s. nimitta, samddhi, kasina. 

immaterial sphere: arupdvacara: cf. avacara, jhdna 
(5-8); Tab. I. 

immaterial world: arupa-loka; s. loka. 

immediacy: an alternative rendering for contiguity- 
condition, samanatara-paccaya, which is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) 

immediate, the: dnantariya (q.v.). 

immortality: s. amata. 


imperfections: s. upakkilesa. 

impermanence: anicca (q.v.). - Contemplation of i., 
cf.vipassand (1). 

impersonality of existence: s. anattd. - Contemplation 
of: s. vipassand (3) . 

imperturbable karma-formations: 

dnenjdbhisankhdra; s. sankhdra. 

impression, sensorial or mental: phassa (q.v.). 

impulsion: javana (q.v.). 

impurities: s. upakkilesa. 

impurity of the body, contemplation of the: s. asubha, 

inclinations: s. anusaya. 

independently enlightened: Pacceka-Buddha (q.v.). 

indifferent feeling cf. vedand, upekkhd. 

individual: puggala (q.v.). 

indriya: 'faculties', is a name for 22, partly physical, 
partly mental, phenomena often treated in the Suttas as 
well as in the Abhidhamma. They are: 


1. eye: cakkhu -^ 

2. ear: sota 

3. nose: ghdna 

4. tongue: jiv/id 

5. body: /cay a 

6. mind: mano _J 

>6 Bases (ayatana, q.v.) 

7. femininity: itthi 

8. masculinity: purisa 

9. vitality: jfvita _^ 

*- Sex (bhava, q.v.) 

10. bodily pleasant feeling: sukha ~> 

11. bodily pain: dukkha 

12. gladness: somanassa 

13. sadness: domanassa 

14. indifference: upekkhd 

>^5 Feelings 
(yedand, q. v.) 

15. faith: saddhd ~^ 

16. energy: viriya 

17. mindfulness: sari 

18. concentration: samddhi 

19. wisdom: pahhd -J 

^5 Spiritual Faculties 
(s. baZa) 

20. the assurance: 'I shall know 
what I did not yet know!': 
anndtan-nassdmi? indriya 

21. the faculty of highest 
knowledge: afinindriya 

22. the faculty of him who 
knows: anndtdvindriya. 


3 Supermundane 

(1-5, 7-8) are physical; (9) is either physical or 
mental. All the rest are mental. - (14) (s. upekkhd) is 
here merely indifferent feeling ( = adukkha-m-asukhd 


vedand, i.e. 'neither pleasant nor unpleasant feeling') 
and not identical with that highly ethical state of equan- 
imity (= tatramajjhattatd, i.e. 'keeping everywhere the 
middle', the equipoise of mind), also called upekkhd 
which belongs to the group of mental formations 
(sankhdra-kkhandha; s. Tab II). - (20) arises at the 
moment of entering the Sotapatti-Path (sotdpatti- 
magga), (21) on reaching the Sotapatti-Fruition 
(sotdpatti-phald) , (22) at attaining the Arahat-Fruition 
(arahatta-phala) . For the three last, s. ariya-puggala. 

The faculties, excepting (7) and (8), form one of 
the 24 conditions (paccaya 16, q.v.). 

In Vibh. V all these faculties are treated in the 
above order, whereas S. XLVIII enumerates and ex- 
plains them by way of the above indicated groups, 
leaving only 20-22 unexplained. See Vis. XVI; 
Path 138ff. - For the 5 spiritual faculties (15-19), 
s. The Way of Wisdom (Wheel 65/66) . 

indriya-paccaya: s.paccaya 16. 

indriya-samatta: 'equilibrium, balance, or harmony of 
faculties', relates to the 5 spiritual faculties: faith, 
energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom 
(s. indriya 15-19). Of these there are two pairs of 
faculties, in each of which both faculties should well 
counter-balance each other, namely: faith and wisdom 
(saddhd, panfid, q.v.) on the one hand and energy and 
concentration {viriya, samddhi, q.v.) on the other. For 
excessive faith with deficient wisdom leads to blind 
belief, whilst excessive wisdom with deficient faith 
leads to cunning. In the same way, great energy with 
weak concentration leads to restlessness, whilst strong 

-131 - 

concentration with deficient energy leads to indolence. 
Though for both faculties in each of the 2 pairs a 
balanced degree of intensity is desirable, mindfulness 
should be allowed to develop to the highest degree of 
strength. Cf. Vis.M. Ill - (App.). 

indriya-samvara-sila: 'morality consisting of purity of 
restraint of the senses'; s. slla. 

indriyesu gutta-dvarata: 'guarding the sense-doors' is 
identical with sense-control (indriya-samvara; s. slid) . 

in-and-out-breathing, watching over: dndpdna- 
sati (q.v.). 

inducement: an alternative rendering for decisive- 
support condition, upanissaya, is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya; q.v.). 

indulging (in joy, sadness etc.): s. manopavicdra. 

ineffective karma: s. karma. 

infatuation: cf. mada, moha (s. mula), avijjd. 

inference of meaning: an 'expression the meaning of 
which is to be inferred': neyyattha-dhamma (q.v.). - 
Antonym: 'expression with an established meaning': 
mtattha-dhamma (s. neyyattha-dhamma) . 

inferiority-conceit: s. mdna. 

influxes (cankers), the 4: dsava (q.v.). 

inoperative consciousness, karmically; s. kiriyacitta. 


inseparable mental factors, the 7 i. m. f. in all 
consciousness: s. cetand, phassa, noma. 

insight: cf. pannd, vipassand, nana. 

intelligent-natured: s. carita. 

intention: chanda (q.v.). 

interest: plti (q.v.); cf. Tab. II. 

intimation: cf. vinhatti. 

intoxicants: s. dsava. 

intoxicating drinks, the evil effect of taking: 
s. surdmeraya. 

investigating function (of consciousness) : santirana; 
s. vinndna-kicca. 

investigation, full understanding through: 
tiranaparifind, s. parifind. - 'Investigation' (yimamsd) is 
one of the 4 roads to power (iddhipdda, q.v.) and one 
of the 4 predominants (adhipati; s.paccaya 3). - i. of 
truth: dhamma-vicaya, is one of the 7 factors of enlight- 
enment (bojjhanga, q.v.) . 

iriya-patha (lit. 'ways of movement') : 'bodily postures', 
i.e. going, standing, sitting, lying. In the Satipatthdna- 
sutta (s. satipatthdna) , they form the subject of a con- 
templation and an exercise in mindfulness. 

"While going, standing, sitting or lying down, the 
monk knows 'I go', 'I stand', 'I sit', 'I lie down'; he under- 
stands any position of the body." - "The disciple under- 
stands that there is no living being, no real ego, that 
goes, stands, etc., but that it is by a mere figure of 


speech that one says: 'I go', 'I stand', and so forth." 

issa: 'envy', is a karmically unwholesome (akusald) 
mental factor, which is occasionally associated with 
hate-rooted consciousness (s. Tab. I. 30, 31,). 
Explained in Pug. 55. 

itthindriya: 'femininity'; s. bhdva. 



janaka-kamma: 'regenerative karma'; s. karma. 

jara: 'old age, decay', is one of the 3 divine messengers 
(s. deva-duta, q.v.). For its conditioning by birth, 
s. paticcasamuppdda (11). 

jati: 'birth', comprises the entire embryonic process 
beginning with conception and ending with parturition. 

"The birth of beings belonging to this or that order 
of beings, their being born, their conception {okkanti) 
and springing into existence, the manifestation of the 
groups (corporeality, feeling, perception, mental form- 
ations, consciousness; s. khandhd), the acquiring of 
their sensitive organs: this is called birth" (D. 22). For 
its conditioning by the prenatal karma-process (kamma- 
bhava; s. bhava), s. paticcasamuppdda (9, 10), 

javana (fr. javati, to impel): 'impulsion', is the phase of 
full cognition in the cognitive series, or perceptual pro- 
cess (citta-vlthi; s. vinfiana-kicca) occurring at its cli- 
max, if the respective object is large or distinct. It is at 
this phase that karma is produced, i.e. wholesome or 
unwholesome volition concerning the perception that 
was the object of the previous stages of the respective 
process of consciousness. There are normally 7 impul- 
sive moments. In mundane consciousness (lokiya, q.v.), 
any of the 1 7 karmically wholesome classes of con- 


sciousness (Tab. 1, 1-17) or of the 12 unwholesome 
ones (Tab. I, 22-23) may arise at the phase of impul- 
sion. For the Arahat, however, impulsion has no longer 
a karmic, i.e. rebirth-producing character, but is a karm- 
ically independent function (kiriya, q.v.; Tab. I, 72-89). 
There are further 8 supermundane classes of impulsion 
(Tab. 1, 18-21,66-69). 

The 4 impulsive moments immediately before en- 
tering an absorption (jhdna, q.v.) or one of the super- 
mundane paths (magga; s. ariyapuggala) are: the pre- 
paratory (parikammd) , approach (upacdrd), adaptation 
(anulomd), and maturity- moment (gotrabhu, q.v.). In 
connection with entering the earth-kasina absorption 
(s. kasind), they are explained as follows, in Vis.M. IV: 
"After the breaking off of the subconscious stream of 
being (bhavanga-sota, q.v.), there arises the 'advertence 
at the mind-door' (manodvdrdvajjana, s. vinndnakicca) , 
taking as object the earth-kasina (whilst thinking), 
'Earth! Earth!' Thereupon, 4 or 5 impulsive moments 
flash forth, amongst which the last one (maturity- 
moment) belongs to the fine-material sphere {rupd- 
vacard), whereas the rest belong to the sense-sphere 
(kdmdvacara; s. avacara), though the last one is more 
powerful in thought conception, discursive thinking, 
interest (rapture), joy and concentration (cf. jhdna) 
than the states of consciousness belonging to the sense- 
sphere. They are called 'preparatory' {parikamma- 
samddhi), as they are preparing for the attainment- 
concentration (appand-samddhi) ; 'approaching' 
(upacdra-samddhi) , as they are close to the attainment- 
concentration and are moving in its neighbourhood; 
'adaptive' (anuloma) , as they adapt themselves to the 


preceding preparatory states and to the succeeding 
attainment concentration. The last one of the four is 
called 'matured' (gotrabhu). In a similar way, the 
impulsive moments before reaching the divine ear are 
described in Vis.M. XIII, 1. - Cf. Karma - (App.). 

jewels. The 3: ti-ratana (q.v.). 

jhana: 'absorption' (meditation) refers chiefly to the 
four meditative absorptions of the fine-material sphere 
(rupa-jjhdna or rupdvacara-jjhdna; s. avacara) . They are 
achieved through the attainment of full (or attainment-, 
or ecstatic) concentration (appand, s. samddhi), during 
which there is a complete, though temporary, suspen- 
sion of fivefold sense -activity and of the 5 hindrances 
(s. mvarand) . The state of consciousness, however, is 
one of full alertness and lucidity. This high degree of 
concentration is generally developed by the practice of 
one of the 40 subjects of tranquillity meditation 
(samatha-kammatthdna; s. bhdvand) . Often also the 
4 immaterial spheres {arupdyatana) are called absorp- 
tions of the immaterial sphere (arupa-jjhdna or 
arupdvacara-jjhdna) . The stereotype text, often met 
with in the Suttas, runs as follows: 

(1) "Detached from sensual objects, O monks, 
detached from unwholesome consciousness, attached 
with thought-conception (vitakka) and discursive 
thinking (yicdrd), born of detachment (yivekaja) and 
filled with rapture (pf ft) and joy (sukhd) he enters the 
first absorption. 

(2) "After the subsiding of thought-conception and 
discursive thinking, and by gaining inner tranquillity 
and oneness of mind, he enters into a state free from 


thought-conception and discursive thinking, the second 
absorption, which is born of concentration (samadhi) , 
and filled with rapture (piti) and joy (sukhd) . 

(3) "After the fading away of rapture he dwells in 
equanimity, mindful, clearly conscious; and he experi- 
ences in his person that feeling of which the Noble 
Ones say, 'Happy lives the man of equanimity and 
attentive mind'; thus he enters the 3rd absorption. 

(4) "After having given up pleasure and pain, and 
through the disappearance of previous joy and grief, he 
enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain, into the 
4th absorption, which is purified by equanimity 
(upekkha) and mindfulness. 

(5) "Through the total overcoming of the percept- 
ions of matter, however, and through the vanishing of 
sense-reactions and the non-attention to the percept- 
ions of variety, with the idea, 'Boundless is space', he 
reaches the sphere of boundless space (akdsanancayatana) 
and abides therein. 

["By 'perceptions of matter' (rupa-sannd) are meant 
the absorptions of the fine-material sphere, as well as 
those objects themselves... " (Vis.M. X, 1). 

"By 'perceptions of sense-reactions' (patigha-sanncO 
are meant those perceptions that have arisen due to the 
impact of sense-organs (eye, etc.) and the sense-objects 
(visible objects, etc.). They are a name for the percep- 
tion of visible objects, as it is said (Jhana-Vibh.) : 'What 
are here the perceptions of sense-reactions? They are 
the perceptions of visible objects, sounds, etc' - Surely, 
they do no longer exist even for one who has entered 
the 1st absorption, etc., for at such a time the five-sense 


consciousness is no longer functioning. Nevertheless, 
this is to be understood as having been said in praise of 
this immaterial absorption, in order to incite the striving 
for it" (Vis.M. X, 16). 

"Perceptions of variety (ndnatta-sannci) are the 
perceptions that arise in various fields, or the various 
perceptions" (ib.). Hereby, according to Vis.M. X, 20, 
are meant the multiform perceptions outside the 

(6) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of 
boundless space, and with the idea 'Boundless is con- 
sciousness', he reaches the sphere of boundless con- 
sciousness (yinndnancdyatana) and abides therein. 

(7) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of 
boundless consciousness, and with the idea 'Nothing is 
there', he reaches the sphere of nothingness 
(dkincanndyatand) and abides therein. 

(8) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of 
nothingness he reaches the sphere of neither-percept- 
ion-nor-non-perception (nevasannd-n'asanndyatana) 
and abides therein." 

"Thus the 1st absorption is free from 5 things 
(i.e. the hindrances, riivarana, q.v.), and 5 things are 
present (i.e. the factors of absorption; jhdnangd). 
Whenever the monk enters the 1st absorption, there 
have vanished sensuous desire, ill-will, sloth and tor- 
por, restlessness and scruples, doubts; and there are 
present: thought-conception (yitakka), discursive think- 
ing (yicdrd) rapture (piti) Joy (sukhd), and concentrat- 
ion (samddhi). In the 2nd absorption there are present: 
rapture, joy and concentration; in the 3rd: joy and con- 


centration; in the 4th: equanimity (upekkha) and 
concentration" (Vis.M. IV). 

The 4 absorptions of the immaterial sphere 
(s. above 5-8) still belong, properly speaking, to the 
4th absorption as they possess the same two constitu- 
ents. The 4th fine-material absorption is also the base 
or starting point (pddaka-jhdna, q.v.) for the attaining of 
the higher spiritual powers (abhinnd, q.v.) . 

In the Abhidhamma, generally a fivefold instead of 
a fourfold division of the fine-material absorptions is 
used: the 2nd absorption has still the constituent 
'discursive thinking' (but without thought-conception), 
while the 3rd, 4th and 5th correspond to the 2nd, 3rd 
and 4th, respectively, of the fourfold division (s. Tab. I, 
9-13). This fivefold division is based on sutta texts like 
A. VIII, 63. 

For the 8 absorptions as objects for the develop- 
ment of insight (vipassand) , see samatha-vipassand. - 
Full details in Vis.M. IV-X. 

Jhana in its widest sense (e.g. as one of the 24 con- 
ditions; s. paccaya 17), denotes any, even momentary 
or weak absorption of mind, when directed on a single 

jhananga: 'constituents (or factors) of absorption'; 
s. prec. 

jhana-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions 
(paccaya, q.v.) . 

jiva: life, vital principle, individual soul. 'Soul (life) 
and body are identical' and 'Soul and body are differ- 
ent', these two frequently quoted wrong views fall 


under the 2 kinds of personality-belief (sakkdya-ditthi; 
s. ditthi), i.e. the first one under the annihilation-belief 
(uccheda-ditthi) and the second under the eternity- 
belief (sassata-ditthi) . 

"Verily, if one holds the view that the soul (life) is 
identical with the body, in that case a holy life is not 
possible; or if one holds the view that the soul (life) is 
something quite different, also in that case a holy life is 
impossible. Both these extremes the Perfect One has 
avoided and shown the Middle Doctrine, which says: 
'On ignorance depend the karma-formations, on the 
karma-formations depends consciousness', etc." 
(S. XII. 35). 

jivita and jivitindriya: 'Life, vitality', may be either 
physical (rupa-jivitindriyd) or mental (ndma- 
jivitindriyd) . The latter is one of the mental factors 
inseparably associated with all consciousness; cf. ndma, 
cetand, phassa. 

jivita-navaka-kalapa: ninefold vital group; s. rupa- 

joy: somanassa (q.v.). - Altruistic j. = muditd 
(s. brahma-vihdra) . 

141 - 


kabalinkarahara: lit. 'food formed into balls', i.e. food 
formed into mouthfuls for eating (according to Indian 
custom); it denotes 'material food' and belongs, togeth- 
er with the three mental nutriments, to the group of 
four nutriments (s. dhdra) . 

kalapa, 'group', 'unit': 1. 'corporeal unit' (s. rupa- 
kaldpd); 2. It has the meaning of 'group of existence' 
(khandha) in kaldpasammasana (s. sammasana) , 
i.e. 'comprehension by groups', which is the application 
of 'methodical (or inductive) insight' (naya-vipassand) 
to the comprehension of the 5 aggregates (khandhd) as 
impermanent, painful and not-self. It is a process of 
methodical summarization, or generalization, from 
one's own meditative experience that is applied to each 
of the 5 aggregates, viewed as past, present, future, as 
internal and external, etc. In Vis.M. XX, where the 'com- 
prehension by groups' is treated in detail, it is said to 
constitute 'the beginning of insight' as it leads to the 
'knowledge of rise and fall', being the first of the 
8 insight-knowledges (s. visuddhi VI). It is necessary for 
accomplishing the 5th purification (s. visuddhi V; 
Vis.M. XX, 2, 6ff.). 

kalpa: (Skr) = kappa (q.v.). 

kaly ana-mitt a: 'noble (or good) friend', is called a 
senior monk who is the mentor and friend of his pupil, 
"wishing for his welfare and concerned with his 


progress", guiding his meditation; in particular, the 
meditation teacher (kammatthdndcariyd) is so called. 
For details see Vis.M. Ill, 28, 57ff. The Buddha said that 
"noble friendship is the entire holy life" (S. Ill, 18; 
XLV, 2), and he himself is the good friend par excell- 
ence: "Ananda, it is owing to my being a good friend to 
them that living beings subject to birth are freed from 
birth" (S. Ill, 18). 

kama may denote: 1. subjective sensuality, 'sense- 
desire'; 2. objective sensuality, the five sense-objects. 

1. Subjective sensuality, or sense-desire, is directed 
to all five sense-objects, and is synonymous with kdma- 
cchanda, 'sensuous desire', one of the 5 hindrances 
(nlvarana, q.v.); kdma-rdga, sensuous lust', one of the 
ten fetters (samyojana, q.v.); kdma-tanhd, 'sensuous 
craving', one of the 3 cravings (tanhd, q.v.); kdma- 
vitakka, 'sensuous thought', one of the 3 wrong 
thoughts (micchd-sankappa; s. vitakkd) . - Sense-desire 
is also one of the cankers (dsava, q.v.) and clingings 
(updddna, q.v.) . 

2. Objective sensuality is, in the canonical texts, 
mostly called kdma-guna, 'cords (or strands) of sen- 

"There are 5 cords of sensuality: the visible objects, 
cognizable by eye-consciousness, that are desirable, 
cherished, pleasant, lovely, sensuous and alluring; the 
sounds... smells... tastes... bodily impressions cogniz- 
able by body-consciousness, that are desirable...." 
(D. 33; M. 13, 26, 59, 66). 


These two kinds of kdma are called 1 . kilesa-kdma, 
i.e. kdma as a mental defilement, 2. vatthu-kdma, 
i.e. fcdma as the object-base of sensuality; first in 
MNid. I, p. 1, and frequently in the commentaries. 

Sense-desire is finally eliminated at the stage of the 
Non-Returner (Andgdmi; s. ariya-puggala, samyojana) . 

The peril and misery of sense-desire is often descri- 
bed in the texts, e.g. in stirring similes at M. 22, 54, and 
in the 'gradual instruction' (s. dnupubbl-kathd) . See 
further M. 13, 45, 75; Sn. v. 766ff.; Dhp. 186, 215. 

The texts often stress the fact that what fetters man 
to the world of the senses are not the sense-organs nor 
the sense-objects but lustful desire (chandardga) . On 
this see A. VI, 63; S. XXXV, 122, 191. - (App.). 

kama-bhava: 'sensuous existence'; s. bhava. 

kama-cchanda: 'sensuous desire', s. mvarana, chanda. 

kama-guna: s. kdma. 

kama-loka: 'sensuous world', s. loka. 

kama-raga: 'sensuous lust', is one of the 10 fetters 
(samyojana, q.v.) . 

kamasava: s. dsava. 

kama-sukh'allikanuyoga: 'being addicted to sensual 
pleasures', is one of the 2 extremes to be avoided by 
the monk; s. majjhima-patipadd. 

kama-tanha: 'sensuous craving'; s. tanhd. 


kamavacara: 'sensuous sphere'; s. avacara. 

kamesu-micchacara: lit. 'wrong or evil conduct with 
regard to sensual things'; 'unlawful sexual intercourse' 
refers to adultery, and to intercourse with minors or 
other persons under guardianship. The abstaining from 
this unlawful act is one of the 5 moral rules 
(s. sikkhdpadd) binding upon all Buddhists. Through 
any other sexual act one does not become guilty of the 
above transgression, which is considered a great crime. 
The monk, however, has to observe perfect chastity. 

In many Suttas (e.g. A.X., 176) we find the follow- 
ing explanation: "He avoids unlawful sexual inter- 
course, abstains from it. He has no intercourse with girls 
who are still under the protection of father or mother, 
brother, sister or relatives, nor with married women, 
nor female convicts, nor, lastly, with betrothed girls." 

kamma: (wholesome or unwholesome) action; 
s. karma. 

kamma-bhava: s. bhava, paticcasamuppdda. 

kammaja-rupa: 'karma-produced corporeality'; 
s. samutthdna. 

kammannata: 'adaptability', i.e. of corporeality 
(rupassa; s. khandha, Summary I), mental factors 
(kdya), and of consciousness (citta); cf. Tab. II. 

kammanta, sammd-: 'right action'; s. magga. 

kamma-paccaya: 'karma as condition'; s.paccaya (13). 


kamma-patha: 'course of action', is a name for the 
group of 10 kinds of either unwholesome or whole- 
some actions, viz. 

I. The tenfold unwholesome courses of action 
(akusala-kamma-pathd) : 

3 bodily actions: killing, stealing, unlawful sexual 

4 verbal actions: lying, slandering, rude speech, 
foolish babble; 

3 mental actions: covetousness, ill-will, evil views. 

Unwholesome mental courses of action comprise 
only extreme forms of defiled thought: the greedy wish 
to appropriate others' property, the hateful thought of 
harming others, and pernicious views. Milder forms of 
mental defilement are also unwholesome, but do not 
constitute 'courses of action'. 

II. The tenfold wholesome course of action (kusala- 
kamma-patha) : 

3 bodily actions: avoidance of killing, stealing, 
unlawful sexual intercourse; 

4 verbal actions: avoidance of lying, slandering, 
rude speech, foolish babble; i.e. true, conciliatory, mild, 
and wise speech; 

3 mental actions: unselfishness, good-will, right 

Both lists occur repeatedly, e.g. in A. X, 28, 176; 
M. 9; they are explained in detail in M. 114, and in 
Com. to M. 9 (R. Und., p. 14), Atthasalini Tr. I, 126ff. 

kamma-samutthana-rupa: 'corporeality produced 
through karma'; s. samutthdna. 


kammatthana: lit. 'working-ground' (i.e. for 
meditation), is the term in the Com. for 'subjects of 
meditation'; s. bhdvand. 

kamma-vatta: 'karma-round': s. vatta. 

kammayuhana: s. dyuhana. 

kamupadana: 'sensuous clinging', is one of the 4 kinds 
of clinging (updddna, q.v.) . 

kankha: 'doubt', may be either an intellectual, critical 
doubt or an ethically and psychologically detrimental 
doubt. The latter may either be a persistent negative 
skepticism or wavering indecision. Only the detrimental 
doubt (identical with vicikicchd, q.v.) is to be rejected as 
karmically unwholesome, as it paralyses thinking and 
hinders the inner development of man. Reasoned, criti- 
cal doubt in dubious matters is thereby not dis- 

The 16 doubts enumerated in the Suttas (e.g. M. 2) 
are the following: "Have I been in the past? Or, have I 
not been in the past? What have I been in the past? 
How have I been in the past? From what state into 
what state did I change in the past? - Shall I be in the 
future? Or, shall I not be in the future? What shall I be 
in the future? How shall I be in the future? From what 
state into what state shall I change in the future? - Am 
I? Or, am I not? What am I? How am I? Whence has 
this being come? Whither will it go?" 

kankha-vitarana-visuddhi: 'purification by 
overcoming doubt', is the 4th of the 7 stages of 
purification (yisuddhi, q.v.). 


kappa (Sanskrit kalpd): 'world-period', an inconceiv- 
ably long space of time, an aeon. This again is sub- 
divided into 4 sections: world-dissolution (samvatta- 
kappa) dissolving world), continuation of the chaos 
(samvatta-tthdyi) , world-formation (yivatta-kappd) , 
continuation of the formed world (yivatta-tthayi) . 

"How long a world-dissolution will continue, how 
long the chaos, how long the formation, how long the 
continuation of the formed world, of these things; 
O monks, one hardly can say that it will be so many 
years, or so many centuries, or so many millennia, or so 
many hundred thousands of years" (A. IV, 156). 

A detailed description of the 4 world-periods is given in 
that stirring discourse on the all-embracing imperman- 
ence in A. VII, 62. 

The beautiful simile in S. XV, 5 may be mentioned 
here: "Suppose, O monks, there was a huge rock of one 
solid mass, one mile long, one mile wide, one mile 
high, without split or flaw. And at the end of every hun- 
dred years a man should come and rub against it once 
with a silken cloth. Then that huge rock would wear off 
and disappear quicker than a world-period. But of such 
world-periods, O monks, many have passed away, 
many hundreds, many thousands, many hundred thous- 
ands. And how is this possible? Inconceivable, 
O monks, is this samsara (q.v.), not to be discovered is 
any first beginning of beings, who obstructed by ignor- 
ance and ensnared by craving, are hurrying and hasten- 
ing through this round of rebirths." 


Compare here Grimm's German fairy-tale of the 
little shepherdboy: 'In Farther Pommerania there is the 
diamond-mountain, one hour high, one hour wide, one 
hour deep. There every hundred years a little bird 
comes and whets its little beak on it. And when the 
whole mountain is ground off, then the first second of 
eternity has passed." 

karma (Sanskrit), Pali: kamma: 'action', correctly 
speaking denotes the wholesome and unwholesome 
volitions (kusala- and akusala-cetand) and their con- 
comitant mental factors, causing rebirth and shaping 
the destiny of beings. These karmical volitions (kamma 
cetand) become manifest as wholesome or unwhole- 
some actions by body (kaya-kamma) , speech (yacl- 
kammd) and mind {mano-kamma) . Thus the Buddhist 
term 'karma' by no means signifies the result of actions, 
and quite certainly not the fate of man, or perhaps even 
of whole nations (the so-called wholesale or mass- 
karma), misconceptions which, through the influence of 
theosophy, have become widely spread in the West. 

"Volition (cetand), O monks, is what I call action 
{cetanaham bhikkhave kammam vadami), for through 
volition one performs the action by body, speech or 
mind.. There is karma (action), O monks, that ripens in 
hell.... Karma that ripens in the animal world.. Karma 
that ripens in the world of men. . . . Karma that ripens in 
the heavenly world.... Threefold, however, is the fruit 
of karma: ripening during the life-time (dittha-dhamma- 
vedanlya-kamma) , ripening in the next birth (upapajja- 
vedamya-kammd) , ripening in later births (aparapariya- 
vedanlya kamma) . . . ." (A.VI, 63) . 


The 3 conditions or roots (mula, q.v.) of unwhole- 
some karma (actions) are greed, hatred, delusion 
(lobha, dosa, mohd); those of wholesome karma are: 
unselfishness (alobha), hatelessness (adosa = mettd, 
good-will), undeludedness (amoha = pannd, 
knowledge) . 

"Greed, O monks, is a condition for the arising of 
karma; hatred is a condition for the arising of karma; 
delusion is a condition for the arising of karma...." 
(A. Ill, 109). 

"The unwholesome actions are of 3 kinds, condit- 
ioned by greed, or hate, or delusion. 

"Killing... stealing... unlawful sexual intercourse... 
lying... slandering... rude speech... foolish babble, if 
practised, carried on, and frequently cultivated, leads to 
rebirth in hell, or amongst the animals, or amongst the 
ghosts" (A. Ill, 40). "He who kills and is cruel goes 
either to hell or, if reborn as man, will be short-lived. 
He who torments others will be afflicted with disease. 
The angry one will look ugly, the envious one will be 
without influence, the stingy one will be poor, the stub- 
born one will be of low descent, the indolent one will 
be without knowledge. In the contrary case, man will 
be reborn in heaven or reborn as man, he will be long- 
lived, possessed of beauty, influence, noble descent 
and knowledge" (cf. M. 135). 

For the above 10-fold wholesome and unwhole- 
some course of action, see kamma-patha. For the 
5 heinous crimes with immediate result, s. dnantarika- 


"Owners of their karma are the beings, heirs of their 
karma, their karma is their womb from which they are 
born, their karma is their friend, their refuge. Whatever 
karma they perform, good or bad, thereof they will be 
the heirs" (M. 135). 

With regard to the time of the taking place of the 
karma-result (yipaka), one distinguishes, as mentioned 
above, 3 kinds of karma: 

1. karma ripening during the life-time (dittha- 
dhamma-vedanlya kamma) ; 

2. karma ripening in the next birth (upapajja- 
vedanlya-kamma) ; 

3. karma ripening in later births (aparapariya- 
vedanlya-kamma) . 

The first two kinds of karma may be without karma- 
result (yipaka), if the circumstances required for the 
taking place of the karma-result are missing, or if, 
through the preponderance of counteractive karma and 
their being too weak, they are unable to produce any 
result. In this case they are called ahosi-kamma, 
lit. 'karma that has been', in other words, ineffectual 

The third type of karma, however, which bears fruit 
in later lives, will, whenever and wherever there is an 
opportunity, be productive of karma-result. Before its 
result has ripened, it will never become ineffective as 
long as the life-process is kept going by craving and 

According to the Com., e.g. Vis.M. XIX, the 1st of 
the 7 karmical impulsive-moments (kamma javana; 

-151 - 

s. javand) is considered as 'karma ripening during the 
life-time', the 7th moment as 'karma ripening in the 
next birth', the remaining 5 moments as 'karma ripening 
in later births'. 

With regard to their functions one distinguishes: 

1. regenerative (or productive) karma (janaka- 

2. supportive (or consolidating) karma 
(upatthambhaka-kamma) , 

3. counteractive (suppressive or frustrating) karma 
(upapllaka-kamma) , 

4. destructive (or supplanting) karma (upaghataka- 
or upacchedaka-kamma) . 

(1) produces the 5 groups of existence (corporeal- 
ity, feeling, perception, mental formations, conscious- 
ness) at rebirth as well as during life-continuity. 

(2) does not produce karma-results but is only able 
to maintain the already produced karma-results. 

(3) counteracts or suppresses the karma-results. 

(4) destroys the influence of a weaker karma and 
effects only its own result. 

With regard to the priority of their result one 

1 . weighty karma (garuka-kamma) , 

2. habitual karma (acinnaka- or bahula-kammd) , 

3. death-proximate karma (mar anas anna-kammd) , 

4. stored-up karma (katatta-kamma) . 

(1,2) The weighty {garukd) and the habitual 
(bahula) wholesome or unwholesome karma are 
ripening earlier than the light and rarely performed 


karma. (3) The death-proximate (mar anas anna) karma 
- i.e. the wholesome or unwholesome volition present 
immediately before death, which often may be the re- 
flex of some previously performed good or evil action 
(kamma), or of a sign of it (kamma-nimittd) , or of a 
sign of the future existence (gati-nimitta) - produces 
rebirth. (4) In the absence of any of these three actions 
at the moment before death, the stored-up {katatta) 
karma will produce rebirth. 

A real, and in the ultimate sense true, understand- 
ing of Buddhist karma doctrine is possible only through 
a deep insight into the impersonality (s. anatta) and 
conditionality (s. paticcasamuppada, paccaya) of all 
phenomena of existence. "Everywhere, in all the forms 
of existence. . . such a one is beholding merely mental 
and physical phenomena kept going by their being 
bound up through causes and effects. 

"No doer does he see behind the deeds, no recip- 
ient apart from the karma-fruit. And with full insight he 
clearly understands that the wise ones are using merely 
conventional terms when, with regard to the taking 
place of any action, they speak of a doer, or when they 
speak of a receiver of the karma-results at their arising. 
Therefore the ancient masters have said: 

'No doer of the deeds is found, 
No one who ever reaps their fruits; 
Empty phenomena roll on: 

This view alone is right and true. 

'And whilst the deeds and their results 

Roll on, based on conditions all, 

There no beginning can be seen, 

Just as it is with seed and tree.'" (Vis.M. XIX) 


Karma (kamma-paccaya) is one of the 24 conditions 
(paccaya, q.v.) (App.: Kamma). 

Literature: Karma and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka 
(Wheel 9); Survival and Karma in Buddhist Perspective, by 
K.N. Jayatilleke (Wheel 141/143); Kamma and its Fruit 
(Wheel 221/224). 

karma-accumulation: dyuhana (q.v.). 

karma-formations: sankhdra, i.e. wholesome or un- 
wholesome volitions (cetand) manifested as actions of 
body, speech or mind, form the 2nd link of the formula 
of dependent origination (paticca-samuppdda, q.v.) . 

karma-process: s. bhava, paticcasamuppdda. 

karma-produced corporeality: s. samutthdna. 

karma-result: vipdka (q.v.) . 

karma-round: kamma vatta (s. vatta). 

karmically acquired corporeality: 

upddinnarupa (q.v.) . 

karmically wholesome, unwholesome, neutral: 

kusala (q.v.), akusala (q.v.), avydkata (q.v.); cf. Tab. I. 

karuna: 'compassion', is one of the 4 sublime abodes 
(brahma-vihdra, q.v.) . 

kasina: (perhaps related to Sanskrit krtsna, 'all, com- 
plete, whole'), is the name for a purely external device 
to produce and develop concentration of mind and at- 
tain the 4 absorptions (jhdna q.v.) . It consists in concen- 
trating one's full and undivided attention on one visible 


object as preparatory image (parikamma-nimittd) , 
e.g. a colored spot or disc, or a piece of earth, or a pond 
at some distance, etc., until at last one perceives, even 
with the eyes closed, a mental reflex, the acquired 
image (uggaha-nimitta) . Now, while continuing to 
direct one's attention to this image, there may arise the 
spotless and immovable counter-image (patibhdga- 
nimittd), and together with it the neighbourhood-con- 
centration (upacdra-samddhi) will have been reached. 
While still persevering in the concentration on the 
object, one finally will reach a state of mind where all 
sense-activity is suspended, where there is no more 
seeing and hearing, no more perception of bodily 
impression and feeling, i.e. the state of the 1st mental 
absorption (jhdna, q.v.). 

The 10 kasinas mentioned in the Suttas are: earth- 
kasina, water, fire, wind, blue, yellow, red, white, 
space, and consciousness. "There are 10 kasina-spheres: 
someone sees the earth kasina, above, below, on all 
sides, undivided, unbounded... someone see the water- 
kasina, above, below, etc." (M. 77; D. 33) 
Cf. abhibhdyatan, bhdvand; further s. Fund. IV. 

For space and consciousness-kasina we find in 
Vis.M. V the names limited space-kasina 
(paricchinndkdsa-kasina;... s. App.) and light-kasina 
(dloka-kasina) . 

For full description see Vis.M. IV-V; also 
Atthasalini Tr. I, 248. 

katatta-kamma: 'stored-up karma'; s. karma. 


kaya (lit: accumulation) : 'group', 'body', may either 
refer to the physical body (rupa-kaya) or to the mental 
body (nama-kaya) . In the latter case it is either a col- 
lective name for the mental groups (feeling, percep- 
tion, mental formations, consciousness; s. khandha), or 
merely for feeling, perception and a few of the mental 
formations (s. nama), e.g. in kaya-lahuta, etc. 
(cf. Tab. II). Kaya has this same meaning in the stand- 
ard description of the 3rd absorption (jhana, q.v.) "and 
he feels joy in his mind or his mental constitution 
(kaya)", and (e.g. Pug. 1-8) of the attainment of the 
8 deliverances (yimokkha, q.v.) ; "having attained the 
8 deliverances in his mind, or his person (kaya) ." - 
Kaya is also the 5th sense-organ, the body-organ; 
s. ayatana, dhatu, indriya. 

kaya-gata-sati: 'mindfulness with regard to the body', 
refers sometimes (e.g. Vis.M. VIII, 2) only to the con- 
templation on the 32 parts of the body, sometimes 
(e.g. M. 119) to all the various meditations comprised 
under the 'contemplation of the body (kayanupassand), 
the 1st of the 4 'foundations of mindfulness' (sati- 
patthana, q.v.), consisting partly in concentration 
(samadhi) exercises, partly in insight (yipassand) exer- 
cises. On the other hand, the cemetery meditations 
(sivathika, q.v.) mentioned in the Satipatthana 
S.(M. 10) are nearly the same as the 10 contemplations 
of loathsomeness (asubha-bhavana, q.v.). of Vis.M. VI, 
whereas elsewhere the contemplation on the 32 parts 
of the body is called the 'reflection on impurity' 
(patikkula-sanna) . 

In such texts as: 'One thing, O monks, developed 
and repeatedly practised, leads to the attainment of 


wisdom. It is the contemplation on the body' (A. I), the 
reference is to all exercises mentioned in the 1st 

Vis.M. VIII, 2 gives a detailed description and ex- 
planation of the method of developing the contem- 
plation on the 32 parts of the body. This exercise can 
produce the 1st absorption only (jhdna, q.v.). The 
stereotype text given in the Satipatthdna Sutta and else- 
where - but leaving out the brain - runs as follows: 

"And further, O monks, the monk contemplates this 
body from the soles of the feet upward, and from the 
tops of the hairs downward, with skin stretched over it, 
and filled with manifold impurities: 'This body has hairs 
of the head, hairs of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, 
sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphr- 
agm, spleen, lungs, intestines, bowels, stomach, excre- 
ment, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, skin 
grease, spittle, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, and 

Vis.M. VIII, 2 says "By repeating the words of this 
exercise one will become well acquainted with the 
wording, the mind will not rush here and there, the 
different parts will become distinct and appear like a 
row of fingers, or a row of hedge-poles. Now, just as 
one repeats the exercise in words, one should do it also 
in mind. The repeating in mind forms the condition for 
the penetration of the characteristic marks.... He who 
thus has examined the parts of the body as to colour, 
shape, region, locality and limits, and considers them 
one by one, and not too hurriedly, as something loath- 
some, to such a one, while contemplating the body, all 


these things at the same time are appearing distinctly 
clear. But also when keeping one's attention fixed out- 
wardly (i.e. to the bodies of other beings), and when 
all the parts appear distinctly, then all men and animals 
moving about lose the appearance of living beings and 
appear like heaps of many different things. And it looks 
as if those foods and drinks, being swallowed by them, 
were being inserted into this heap of things. Now, while 
again and again one is conceiving the idea 'Disgusting! 
Disgusting!' - omitting in due course several parts - 
gradually the attainment - concentration (appand- 
samddhi, i.e. the concentration of the jhdnd) will be 
reached. In this connection, the appearing of forms... is 
called the acquired image (uggaha-nimittd) , the arising 
of loathsomeness, however, the counter-image 
(patibhdganimitta) ." 

kaya-kamma: 'bodily action'; s. karma, kammapatha. 

kaya-kammannata, k.-lahutd, k.-mudutd, 
k.-pdgunnatd, k.-passaddhi, k.-ujukatd; s. Tab. II. For 
passaddhi, s. further bojjhanga. 

kaya-lahuta: agility or lightness of mental factors 
(s. lahutd) . 

kayanupassana: 'contemplation of the body', is one of 
the 4 foundations of mindfulness; s. satipatthdna. 

kaya -passaddhi: tranquillity of mental factors, 
s. bojjhanga. 

kaya-sakkhi: 'body-witness', is one of the 7 noble dis- 
ciples (s. ariya-puggala, B.). He is one who "in his own 
person (lit. body) has attained the 8 deliverances 


(yimokkha, q.v.), and after wisely understanding the 
phenomena, the cankers have partly come to extinct- 
ion" (Pug. 32). In A. IX, 44 it is said: "A monk, 
O brother, attains the 1st absorption (jhdna, q.v.), and 
as far as this domain reaches, so far he has realized it in 
his own person. Thus the Blessed One calls such a per- 
son a body-witness in certain respects. (The same is 
then repeated with regard to the 7 higher absorptions). 
Further again, O brother, the monk attains the extinct- 
ion of perception and feeling (s. nirodha-samdpatti) , 
and after wisely understanding the phenomena, all the 
cankers come to extinction. Thus, O brother, the 
Blessed One calls such a person a body-witness in all 

kaya-vinnatti: s. vinnatti. 

khalu-paccha-bhattik'anga: s. dhutanga. 

khana: 'moment': s. citta-kkhana. 

khandha: the 5 'groups (of existence)' or 'groups of 
clinging' (updddnakkhandhd) ; alternative renderings: 
aggregates, categories of clinging's objects. These are 
the 5 aspects in which the Buddha has summed up all 
the physical and mental phenomena of existence, and 
which appear to the ignorant man as his ego, or 
personality, to wit: 

(1) the corporeality group (rupa-kkhandhd) , 

(2) the feeling group (yedand-kkhandha) , 

(3) the perception group (sannd-kkhandha) , 

(4) the mental-formation group (sankhdra- 

kkhandhd) , 

(5) the consciousness-group (yinfidna-kkhandhd) . 


"Whatever there exists of corporeal things, whether 
past, present or future, one's own or external, gross or 
subtle, lofty or low, far or near, all that belongs to the 
corporeality group. Whatever there exists of feeling. . . 
of perception... of mental formations... of conscious- 
ness... all that belongs to the consciousness-group" 
(S. XXII, 48). - Another division is that into the 

2 groups: mind (2-5) and corporeality (1) (ndma- 
rupd), whilst in Dhamma Sangani, the first book of the 
Abhidhamma, all the phenomena are treated by way of 

3 groups: consciousness (5), mental factors (2-4), cor- 
poreality (1), in Pali citta, cetasika, rupa. Cf. Guide I. 

What is called individual existence is in reality 
nothing but a mere process of those mental and phys- 
ical phenomena, a process that since time immemorial 
has been going on, and that also after death will still 
continue for unthinkably long periods of time. These 
5 groups, however, neither singly nor collectively con- 
stitute any self-dependent real ego-entity, or person- 
ality (attd), nor is there to be found any such entity 
apart from them. Hence the belief in such an ego-entity 
or personality, as real in the ultimate sense, proves a 
mere illusion. 

"When all constituent parts are there, 
The designation 'cart' is used; 
Just so, where the five groups exist, 
Of living being' do we speak." (S. V. 10) . 

The fact ought to be emphasized here that these 
5 groups, correctly speaking, merely form an abstract 
classification by the Buddha, but that they as such, 
i.e. as just these 5 complete groups, have no real exist- 


ence, since only single representatives of these groups, 
mostly variable, can arise with any state of conscious- 
ness. For example, with one and the same unit of cons- 
ciousness only one single kind of feeling, say joy or 
sorrow, can be associated and never more than one. 
Similarly, two different perceptions cannot arise at the 
same moment. Also, of the various kinds of sense-cog- 
nition or consciousness, only one can be present at a 
time, for example, seeing, hearing or inner conscious- 
ness, etc. Of the 50 mental formations, however, a 
smaller or larger number are always associated with 
every state of consciousness, as we shall see later on. 

Some writers on Buddhism who have not under- 
stood that the five khandha are just classificatory group- 
ings, have conceived them as compact entities ('heaps', 
'bundles'), while actually, as stated above, the groups 
never exist as such, i.e. they never occur in a simultan- 
eous totality of all their constituents. Also those single 
constituents of a group which are present in any given 
body- and -mind process, are of an evanescent nature, 
and so also their varying combinations. Feeling, percep- 
tion and mental formations are only different aspects 
and functions of a single unit of consciousness. They 
are to consciousness what redness, softness, sweet- 
ness, etc. are to an apple and have as little separate 
existence as those qualities. 

In S. XXII, 56, there is the following short definition 
of these 5 groups: 

"What, O monks, is the corporeality- group? The 
4 primary elements (mahd-bhuta or dhdtu) and 
corporeality depending thereon, this is called the 

-161 - 

"What, O monks, is the feeling-group? There are 
6 classes of feeling: due to visual impression, to sound 
impression, to odour impression, to taste impression, to 
bodily impression, and to mind impression.... 

"What, O monks, is the perception-group? There 
are 6 classes of perception: perception of visual objects, 
of sounds, of odours, of tastes, of bodily impressions, 
and of mental impressions. . . . 

"What, O monks, is the group of mental format- 
ions? There are 6 classes of volitional states (cetand): 
with regard to visual objects, to sounds, to odours, to 
tastes, to bodily impressions and to mind objects.... 

"What, O monks, is the consciousness-group? There 
are 6 classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear- 
consciousness, nose-consciousness, tongue-conscious- 
ness, body-consciousness, and mind-consciousness." 

About the inseparability of the groups it is said: 

"Whatever, O brother, there exists of feeling, of 
perception and of mental formations, these things are 
associated, not dissociated, and it is impossible to separ- 
ate one from the other and show their difference. For 
whatever one feels, one perceives; and whatever one 
perceives, of this one is conscious" (M. 43). 

Further: "Impossible is it for anyone to explain the 
passing out of one existence and the entering into a 
new existence, or the growth, increase and develop- 
ment of consciousness independent of corporeality, 
feeling, perception and mental formations" (S. XII, 53). 

For the inseparability and mutual conditionality of 
the 4 mental groups s. paccaya (6, 7) . 


Regarding the impersonality (anattd) and 
emptiness (sunnatd) of the 5 groups, it is said in 
S. XXII, 49: 

"Whatever there is of corporeality, feeling, percep- 
tion, mental formations and consciousness, whether 
past, present or future, one's own or external, gross or 
subtle, lofty or low, far or near, this one should under- 
stand according to reality and true wisdom: 'This does 
not belong to me, this am I not, this is not my Ego.'" 

Further in S. XXII, 95: "Suppose that a man who is 
not blind were to behold the many bubbles on the 
Ganges as they are driving along; and he should watch 
them and carefully examine them. After carefully ex- 
amining them, however, they will appear to him empty, 
unreal and unsubstantial. In exactly the same way does 
the monk behold all the corporeal phenomena... feel- 
ings... perceptions... mental formations... states of con- 
sciousness, whether they be of the past, present or 
future. . . far or near. And he watches them and exam- 
ines them carefully; and after carefully examining 
them, they appear to him empty, unreal and 

The 5 groups are compared, respectively, to a lump 
of froth, a bubble, a mirage, a coreless plantain stem, 
and a conjuring trick (S. XXII, 95). 

See the Khandha Samyutta (S. XXII); Vis.M. XIV. 


Summary of the 5 Groups 

I. Corporeality Group 


A. Underived (no-upddd) : 4 elements 

the solid, or earth-element 
the liquid, or water-element 
heat, or fire-element 
motion, or wind-element 


B. Derived (upada): 24 secondary phenomena 

Physical sense-organs of: seeing, hearing, smelling, 
tasting, body 

Physical sense-objects: form, sound, odour, taste, 
(bodily impacts) 

'Bodily impacts' (photthabbd) are generally omitted in 
this list, because these physical objects of body-sensitivity are 
identical with the afore-mentioned solid element, heat and 
motion element. Hence their inclusion under 'derived 
corporeality' would be a duplication. 


physical base of mind 
bodily expression 
verbal expression 
physical life 
space element 
physical agility 
physical elasticity 

(hadaya-vatthu, q.v.) 
(kdya-vinnatti; s. vinnatti) 
{rupa jlvita; s. jivita) 
(dkdsa-dhdtiL, q.v.) 
{rupassa lahuta) 
{rupassa muduta) 


physical adaptability (rupassa kammafinatd) 
physical growth (rupassa upacaya) 

physical continuity (rupassa santati; s. santana) 
decay (jam, q.v.) 

impermanence (aniccata) 

nutriment (ahara, q.v.) 

II. Feeling Group 


All feelings may, according to their nature, be classified 
as 5 kinds: 

bodily agreeable feeling : sukha = kayikd sukhd vedand 
bodily painful feeling : dukkha = kayikd dukkhd vedand 

mentally agreeable feeling : somanassa = cetasikd sukhd vedand 
mentally painful feeling : domanassa = cetasikd dukkhd vedand 
indifferent feeling : upekkhd = adukkha-m-asukhd vedand 

III. Perception Group 


All perceptions are divided into 6 classes: perception of 
form, sound, odour, taste, bodily impression, and men- 
tal impression. 

IV. Group of Mental Formations 


This group comprises 50 mental phenomena, of 
which 1 1 are general psychological elements, 25 lofty 
(sobhana) qualities, 14 karmically unwholesome 
qualities. Cf. Tab. 11. 


V. Consciousness Group 


The Suttas divide consciousness, according to the 
senses, into 6 classes: eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, 

The Abhidhamma and commentaries, however, 
distinguish, from the karmical or moral viewpoint, 
89 classes of consciousness. Cf. vinndna and Tab. 1. 

The moral quality of feeling, perception and con- 
sciousness is determined by the mental formations. 

khandha-parinibbana: s. nibbdna. 

khandha-santana: s. santdna. 

khanti: 'patience', forbearance', is one of the 
10 perfections (pdrami, q.v.). 

khayanupassana: 'contemplation of dissolution', is 
one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (s. vipassand). 

khidda-padosika deva: 'the celestial beings corrupt- 
ible by pleasures', are a class of devas (q.v.) of the 
sensuous sphere. They waste their time in merriment, 
play and enjoyment, and thereby become thoughtless, 
and in their thoughtlessness they fall from that world 
(D. 1;24). 

khlnasava: 'the one in whom all cankers are des- 
troyed' is a name for the Arahat, or Holy One; s. dsava. 

kicca 'function'. Regarding the 14 functions of 
consciousness, s. vinndna-kicca. 


kilesa: 'defilements', are mind-defiling, unwholesome 
qualities. Vis.M. XXII, 49, 65: "There are 10 defile- 
ments, thus called because they are themselves defiled, 
and because they defile the mental factors associated 
with them. They are: (1) greed (lobha), (2) hate 
(dosa), (3) delusion (moha), (4) conceit (mdna), 
(5) speculative views (ditthi), (6) skeptical doubt 
(yicikiccha) , (7) mental torpor (thina), (8) restlessness 
(uddhacca); (9) shamelessness (ahirika), (10) lack of 
moral dread or unconscientiousness (anottappa) ." For 
1-3, s. mula; 4, s. mdna; 5, s. ditthi; 6-8, s. nlvarana; 
9 and 10, s. ahirika-anottappa. 

The ten are explained in Dhs. 1229f and enumer- 
ated in Vibh. XII. No classification of the k. is found in 
the Suttas, though the term occurs quite often in them. 
For the related term, upakkilesa (q.v.; 'impurities') dif- 
ferent lists are given - (App.). 

kilesa-kama: 'sensuality considered as defilement' 
(s. kilesa) might well be called 'subjective sensuality', in 
contradistinction to 'objective sensuality' (yatthu- 
kama), i.e. the sensuous objects (kdma-guna) . Cf. kdma. 

kilesa-parinibbana: s. nibbdna (1). 

killing: s. karma, kammapatha, sikkhdpada. 

kificana: 'something', i.e. something evil that sticks or 
adheres to character. 'Evil appendant', is a name for the 
3 unwholesome roots (mula) . "There are 3 appen- 
dants: greed (lobha) is an appendant, hate (dosa) is an 
appendant, delusion (moha) is an appendant" (D. 33). 
'Freed from appendants' (akificana) is a term for the 
perfectly Holy One (Arahat) . 


kiriya (or kriya)-citta: 'functional consciousness' or 
'karmically inoperative consciousness', is a name for 
such states of consciousness as are neither karmically 
wholesome (kusala), nor unwholesome (akusala), nor 
karma-results (yipaka) ; that is, they function indepen- 
dently of karma. Thus are also called all those worldly 
mental states in the Arahat which are accompanied by 
2 or 3 noble roots (greedlessness, hatelessness, unde- 
ludedness), being in the Arahat karmically neutral and 
corresponding to the karmically wholesome states of a 
non-Arahat (s. Tab. 1-8 and 73-89), as well as the root- 
less mirth-producing (hasituppdda) mind-conscious- 
ness-element of the Arahat (Tab. 72); further, that 
mind-element (mano-dhdtu) which performs the 
function of advertence (dvajjana) to the sense object 
(Tab. 70), and that mind-consciousness-element 
(manovifindna-dhdtu) which performs the functions of 
deciding (yotthapand) and advertence to the mental 
object (Tab. 71). The last-named 2 elements, of course, 
occur in all beings. 

Together with karma-resultant consciousness 
(yipaka) it belongs to the group of 'karmically neutral 
consciousness' (avydkata) . See Tab. I (last column). - 

knowledge: cf. pannd, nana, vijjd, vipassand, abhinnd. 

kolankola: 'passing from one noble family to another', 
is the name for one of the 3 kinds of Sotdpanna (q.v.) . 

kriya-citta = kiriya (q.v.). 

kukkucca: lit. 'wrongly-performed-ness' (ka+krta+ya), 
i.e. scruples, remorse, uneasiness of conscience, worry, 


is one of the karmically unwholesome (akusald) mental 
faculties (Tab. II) which, whenever it arises, is associ- 
ated with hateful (discontented) consciousness (Tab. I 
and III, 30, 31). It is the 'repentance over wrong things 
done, and right things neglected' (Com. To A. I). Rest- 
lessness and scruples (uddhacca-kukkucca) , combined, 
are counted as one of the 5 mental hindrances 
(nlvarana, q.v.) . 

kuppa-dhamma 'liable to perturbation', is one who 
has not yet attained full mastery over the absorptions. 
In Pug. 3 it is said: "What person is liable to perturb- 
ation? Such a person gains the attainments of the fine- 
material and immaterial sphere (s. avacard) . But he 
does not gain them at his wish, nor without toil and 
exertion; and not at his wish as regards place, object 
and duration, does he enter them or arise from them. 
Thus it is well possible that in case of such a person, 
through negligence, the attainments will become per- 
turbed. This person is liable to perturbation." 

kusala: 'karmically wholesome' or 'profitable', 
salutary, morally good, (skillful) Connotations of the 
term, according to Com. (Atthasalini) , are: of good 
health, blameless, productive of favourable karma- 
result, skillful. It should be noted that Com. excludes 
the meaning 'skillful', when the term is applied to states 
of consciousness. 

It is defined in M. 9 as the 10 wholesome courses of 
action (s. kammapathd) . In psychological terms, 'kar- 
mically wholesome' are all those karmical volitions 
(kamma-cetand) and the consciousness and mental fact- 
ors associated therewith, which are accompanied by 


2 or 3 wholesome roots (s. mula), i.e. by greedlessness 
(alobha) and hatelessness (adosa) , and in some cases 
also by non-delusion (amoha: wisdom, understanding) . 
Such states of consciousness are regarded as 'karmically 
wholesome' as they are causes of favourable karma re- 
sults and contain the seeds of a happy destiny or re- 
birth. From this explanation, two facts should be noted: 
(1) it is volition that makes a state of consciousness, or 
an act, 'good' or 'bad'; (2) the moral criterion in Buddh- 
ism is the presence or absence of the 3 wholesome or 
moral roots (s. mulct) . 

The above explanations refer to mundane 
(lokiya, q.v.) wholesome consciousness. Supermundane 
wholesome (lokuttara-kusala) states, i.e. the four paths 
of sanctity (s. ariyapuggala) , have as results only the 
corresponding four fruitions; they do not constitute 
karma, nor do they lead to rebirth, and this applies also 
to the good actions of an Arahat (Tab. I, 73-80) and his 
meditative states (Tab. 1, 81-89), which are all karmic- 
ally inoperative (functional; s. kiriya). 

Kusala belongs to a threefold division of all con- 
sciousness, as found in the Abhidhamma (Dhs.), into 
wholesome (kusala), unwholesome (akusala) and 
karmically neutral (avyakata) , which is the first of the 
triads (tika) in the Abhidhamma schedule (matikd); 
s. Guide, pp. 4ff., 12ff; Vis.M. XIV, 83ff. 

kusala-kammapatha: 'wholesome course of action'; 
s. kammapatha. 

kusala-mula: the 'wholesome roots' or 'roots of 
wholesome action', are greedlessness (alobha), 
hatelessness (adosa), and non-delusion (amoha; 


s. muld) . They are identical with kusala-hetu 
(s.paccaya, 1). 

kusala-vipaka: the (mental) 'karma-result of 
wholesome karma' (s. karma). 

171 - 


lahuta: 'lightness', or 'agility', may be of 3 kinds: of 
corporeality {rupassa lahuta; s. khandha, I), of mental 
factors (kaya-lahutd) , and of consciousness (citta- 
lahutd). Cf. Tab. II. 

lakkhana: 'characteristics'. For the 3 ch. of existence, 
s. ti-lakkhana. 

law: dhamma (q.v.). 

learning, wisdom based on: s.pafina. 

liberality: dana (q.v.) , caga (q.v.) . 

liberation: s. vimokkha. 

life-infatuation: s. mada. 

light, perception of: s. aloka-sanna. 

light-kasina: s. kasina. 

lightness (of corporeality, mental factors and 
consciousness) : lahuta (q.v.) . 

loathsomeness (of the body) : s. asubha, sivathika, 

lobha: 'greed', is one of the 3 unwholesome roots 
(mula, q.v.) and a synonym of raga (q.v.) and 
tanha (q.v.). 

lobha-carita: 'greedy-natured', s. carita. 


lofty consciousness: s. sobhana. 

lohita-kasina: 'red-kasina', s. kasina. 

loka: 'world', denotes the 3 spheres of existence com- 
prising the whole universe, i.e. (1) the sensuous world 
(kdma-lokd) , or the world of the 5 senses; (2) the fine- 
material world (rupa-loka), corresponding to the 4 fine- 
material absorptions (s.jhdna 1-4); (3) the immaterial 
world (arupa-lokd) , corresponding to the 4 immaterial 
absorptions (s.jhdna, 5-8). 

The sensuous world comprises the hells {niraya), 
the animal kingdom (tiracchdna-yoni) , the ghost-realm 
(peta-loka), the demon world (asura-nikdya) , the 
human world (manussa-lokd) and the 6 lower celestial 
worlds (s. deva I) . In the fine-material world (s. deva II) 
still exist the faculties of seeing and hearing, which, 
together with the other sense faculties, are temporarily 
suspended in the 4 absorptions. In the immaterial 
world (s. deva III) there is no corporeality whatsoever, 
only the four mental groups (s. khandhd) exist there. 

Though the term loka is not applied in the Suttas to 
those 3 worlds, but only the term bhava, 'existence' 
(e.g. M. 43), there is no doubt that the teaching about 
the 3 worlds belongs to the earliest, i.e. sutta-period, of 
the Buddhist scriptures, as many relevant passages 

loka-dhamma: 'worldly conditions'. "Eight things are 
called worldly conditions, since they arise in connect- 
ion with worldly life, namely: gain and loss, honour 
and dishonour, happiness and misery, praise and 
blame" (Vis.M. XXII). Cf. also A. VIII, 5. 


lokiya: 'mundane', are all those states of consciousness 
and mental factors - arising in the worldling, as well as 
in the Noble One - which are not associated with the 
supermundane (lokuttara; s. the foil.) paths and fruit- 
ions of sotdpatti, etc. See ariyapuggala, A. 

lokuttara: 'supermundane', is a term for the 4 paths 
and 4 fruitions of sotdpatti, etc. (s. ariya-puggala) , with 
Nibbana as ninth. Hence one speaks of '9 supermun- 
dane things' (nava-lokuttara-dhamma) . Cf. prec. 

loving-kindness: mettd; s. brahmavihdra. 

lower fetters, the 5: s. samyojana. 

lower worlds, the 4: apdya (q.v.) . 

low speech: tiracchdna-kathd (q.v.). 

lust: s. rdga. 



macchariya: 'stinginess', avarice. "There are 5 kinds of 
stinginess, monks; regarding the dwelling place, 
regarding families, regarding gain, regarding recog- 
nition, regarding mental things' (A. IX, 49; Pug. 56). 

mada: Infatuation'. "Infatuation is of 3 kinds: youth- 
infatuation, health-infatuation, life-infatuation" (D. 33). 
"Infatuated by youth-infatuation, by health-infatuation 
and by life-infatuation, the ignorant worldling pursues 
an evil course in bodily actions, speech and thought, 
and thereby, at the dissolution of the body, after death, 
passes to a lower world, to a woeful course of exist- 
ence, to a state of suffering and hell" (A. Ill, 39). 

magga: 'path'. 1. For the 4 supermundane paths 
(lokuttara-maggd) , s. ariya-puggala - 2. The Eightfold 
Path (atthangika-maggd) is the path leading to the 
extinction of suffering, i.e. the last of the 4 Noble 
Truths (sacca, q.v.), namely: 

1. Right view (samma-ditthi) (^ III. Wisdom 

2. Right thought (samma-sankappa) j {pahha) 

3. Right speech (samma-vaca) 

4. Right bodily action (samma-kammanta) ^ I. Morality 

5. Right livelihood (samma-ajlva) j (slla) 

6. Right effort (samma-vayama) | 

7. Right mindfulness (samma-sati) MI. Concentration 

8. Right concentration (samma-samadhi)_J {samadhi) 


1 . Right view or right understanding (sammd-ditthi) 
is the understanding of the 4 Noble Truths about the 
universality of suffering (unsatisfactoriness), of its ori- 
gin, its cessation, and the path leading to that cessation. 
- See the Discourse on 'Right Understanding' (M. 9, tr. 
and Com. in 'R. Und.'). 

2. Right thought (sammd-sankappa) : thoughts free 
from sensuous desire, from ill-will, and cruelty. 

3. Right speech (sammd-vdcd) : abstaining from 
lying, tale-bearing, harsh language, and foolish babble. 

4 Right bodily action (sammd-kammantd) : abstain- 
ing from killing, stealing, and unlawful sexual inter- 

5. Right livelihood (sammd-djivd) : abstaining from 
a livelihood that brings harm to other beings, such as 
trading in arms, in living beings, intoxicating drinks, 
poison; slaughtering, fishing, soldiering, deceit, treach- 
ery soothsaying, trickery, usury, etc. 

6. Right effort (sammd-vdydmd) : the effort of 
avoiding or overcoming evil and unwholesome things, 
and of developing and maintaining wholesome things 
(s. padhdna) . 

7. Right mindfulness (sammd-sati) : mindfulness 
and awareness in contemplating body, feelings, mind, 
and mind-objects (s. sati, satipatthdna) . 

8. Right concentration (sammd-samddhi) : 
concentration of mind associated with wholesome 


(kusala) consciousness, which eventually may reach the 
absorptions (jhdna, q.v.). Cf. samddhi. 

There are to be distinguished 2 kinds of concentra- 
tion, mundane (lokiyd) and supermundane (lokuttara) 
concentration. The latter is associated with those states 
of consciousness known as the 4 supermundane paths 
and fruitions (s. ariya-puggala) . As it is said in M. 117: 

"I tell you, O monks, there are 2 kinds of right view: 
the understanding that it is good to give alms and offer- 
ings, that both good and evil actions will bear fruit and 
will be followed by results.... This, O monks, is a view 
which, though still subject to the cankers, is meritor- 
ious, yields worldly fruits, and brings good results. But 
whatever there is of wisdom, of penetration, of right 
view conjoined with the path - the holy path being 
pursued, this is called the supermundane right view 
(lokuttara-sammd-ditthi), which is not of the world, but 
which is supermundane and conjoined with the path." 

In a similar way the remaining links of the path are 
to be understood. 

As many of those who have written about the Eight- 
fold Path have misunderstood its true nature, it is there- 
fore appropriate to add here a few elucidating remarks 
about it, as this path is fundamental for the understand- 
ing and practice of the Buddha's teaching. 

First of all, the figurative expression 'path' should 
not be interpreted to mean that one has to advance 
step by step in the sequence of the enumeration until, 
after successively passing through all the eight stages, 


one finally may reach one's destination, Nibbana. If this 
really were the case, one should have realized, first of 
all, right view and penetration of the truth, even before 
one could hope to proceed to the next steps, right 
thought and right speech; and each preceding stage 
would be the indispensable foundation and condition 
for each succeeding stage. In reality, however, the links 
3-5 constituting moral training (slid), are the first 

3 links to be cultivated, then the links 6-8 constituting 
mental training (samddhi) , and at last right view, etc. 
constituting wisdom (pannci) . 

It is, however, true that a really unshakable and 
safe foundation to the path is provided only by right 
view which, starting from the tiniest germ of faith and 
knowledge, gradually, step by step, develops into pene- 
trating insight (yipassand) and thus forms the immedi- 
ate condition for the entrance into the 4 supermundane 
paths and fruits of holiness, and for the realization of 
Nibbana. Only with regard to this highest form of 
supermundane insight, may we indeed say that all the 
remaining links of the path are nothing but the out- 
come and the accompaniments of right view. 

Regarding the mundane (lokiya) eightfold path, 
however, its links may arise without the first link, right 

Here it must also be emphasized that the links of 
the path not only do not arise one after the other, as 
already indicated, but also that they, at least in part, 
arise simultaneously as inseparably associated mental 
factors in one and the same state of consciousness. 
Thus, for instance, under all circumstances at least 

4 links are inseparably bound up with any karmically 


wholesome consciousness, namely 2, 6, 7 and 8, 
i.e. right thought, right effort, right mindfulness and 
right concentration (M. 117), so that as soon as any 
one of these links arises, the three others also do so. On 
the other hand, right view is not necessarily present in 
every wholesome state of consciousness. 

Magga is one of the 24 conditions (s.paccaya 18). 

Literature: The Noble Eightfold Path and its Factors 
Explained, by Ledi Sayadaw (Wheel 245/247). - 
The Buddha's Ancient Path, by Piyadassi Thera (BPS).- 
The Noble Eightfold Path, by Bhikkhu Bodhi 
(Wheel 308/311). 

maggamagga-nanadassana-visuddhi: 'purification 
by knowledge of what is path and not-path', is one of 
the 7 stages of purification (yisuddhi V, q.v.). 

magga-paccaya: 'path as a condition', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

magical powers: s. iddhi; abhifind (1). 

maha-bhuta: the 4 'primary elements', is another 
name for the 4 elements (dhdtu) underlying all cor- 
poreality; s. dhdtu. 

maha-brahmano: the 'great gods', are a class of 
heavenly beings in the fine-material world; s. deva, II. 

mahaggata: lit., 'grown great', i.e. 'developed', exalted, 
supernormal. As mahaggata-citta, it is the state of 
'developed consciousness', attained in the fine-material 
and immaterial absorptions (s.jhdnd); it is mentioned 
in the mind-contemplation of the Satipatthana Sutta 
(M. 10). - As mahaggatdrammana, it is the 'developed 


mental object' of those absorptions and is mentioned in 
the 'object triad' of the Abhidhamma schedule and 
Dhs. (s. Guide, p. 6). 

mahapurisa-vitakka: the 8 'thoughts of a great man', 
are described in A. VIII, 30, and D. 34. 

maha-vipassana: the 18 'chief kinds of insight'; 
s. vipassand. 

maintain: effort to maintain wholesome things; 
s. padhdna. 

majjhima-patipada: 'Middle Path', is the Noble Eight- 
fold Path which, by avoiding the two extremes of sen- 
sual lust and self-torment, leads to enlightenment and 
deliverance from suffering. 

To give oneself up to indulgence in sensual pleas- 
ure (kdma-sukha) , the base, common, vulgar, unholy, 
unprofitable; and also to give oneself up to self-tor- 
ment (atta-kilamatha) , the painful, unholy, unprofit- 
able, both these two extremes the Perfect One has 
avoided and has found the Middle Path (s. maggd), 
which causes one both to see and to know, and which 
leads to peace, to discernment, to enlightenment, to 
Nibbana. It is the Noble Eightfold Path, the way that 
leads to the extinction of suffering, namely: right 
understanding, right thought, right speech, right bodily 
action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, 
and right concentration" (S. LVI, 11). 

mala: 'stains', is a name for the 3 karmically unwhole- 
some roots (akusala-mula) ; greed, hate and delusion 
(lobha, dosa, moha) . 


mana: 'conceit', pride, is one of the 10 fetters binding 
to existence (s. samyojand) . It vanishes completely only 
at the entrance to Arahatship, or Holiness (cf. asmi- 
mand) . It is further one of the proclivities (s. anusaya) 
and defilements (s. kilesa) . 

The (equality-) conceit (mana), the inferiority- 
conceit {omand) and the superiority-conceit (atimana) : 
this threefold conceit should be overcome. For, after 
overcoming this threefold conceit, the monk, through 
the full penetration of conceit, is said to have put an 
end suffering" (A. VI, 49). 

"Those ascetics and brahman priests who, relying 
on this impermanent, miserable and transitory nature 
of corporeality, feelings, perceptions, mental format- 
ions and consciousness, fancy: 'Better am Y, or 'Equal 
am I', or 'Worse am Y, all these imagine thus through 
not understanding reality" (S. XXII, 49). 

In reality no ego-entity is to be found. Cf. anatta. 

manasikara: 'attention', 'mental advertence', 

1. As a psychological term, attention belongs to the 
formation- group (sankhara-kkhandha; s. Tab. II) and is 
one of the 7 mental factors {cetasika) that are insepar- 
ably associated with all states of consciousness 
(s. cetand). In M. 9, it is given as one of the factors 
representative of mind (namd) It is the mind's first 
'confrontation with an object' and 'binds the associated 
mental factors to the object.' It is, therefore, the promi- 
nent factor in two specific classes of consciousness: 
i.e. 'advertence (avajjana, q.v.) at the five sense-doors' 

-181 - 

(Tab. I, 70) and at the mind-door (Tab. I, 71). These 
two states of consciousness, breaking through the sub- 
conscious life-continuum (bhavangd), form the first 
stage in the perceptual process (citta-vlthi; s. vinndna- 
kicca). See Vis.M. XIV, 152. 

2. In a more general sense, the term appears fre- 
quently in the Suttas as yoniso-manasikdra, 'wise (or 
reasoned, methodical) attention' or 'wise reflection'. It 
is said, in M. 2, to counteract the cankers {dsava, q.v.); it 
is a condition for the arising of right view (s. M. 43), of 
Stream-entry (s. sotdpattiyangd) , and of the factors of 
enlightenment (s. S. XLVI, 2.49,51). - 'Unwise atten- 
tion' (ayoniso-manasikdrd) leads to the arising of the 
cankers (s. M. 2) and of the five hindrances 
(s. S. XLVI, 2.51). 

manayatana: 'mind-base', is a collective term for all 
the different states of consciousness; s. dyatana. 

mangala: means, in general usage, anything regarded 
as 'auspicious' 'lucky', or a 'good omen'. Against the con- 
temporary superstitions notions about it, the Buddha, in 
the Maha-mangala Sutta (Sn., w. 258 ff.), set forth 
36 'blessings' that are truly auspicious, i.e. conducive to 
happiness, beginning with the 'avoidance of bad com- 
pany' and ending with a 'serene mind'. It is one of the 
most popular Suttas in Buddhist countries, and a funda- 
mental text on Buddhist lay ethics. 

Tr. in Everyman's Ethics (Wheel 14). See Life's Highest 
Blessings, by Dr. R. L. Soni. (Wheel 254/256). 


mano: 'mind', is in the Abhidhamma used as synonym 
of vinndna (consciousness) and citta (state of con- 
sciousness, mind). According to the Com. to Vis.M., it 
sometimes means sub-consciousness (s. bhavanga-sota) . 

mano-dhatu: 'mind-element', is one of the 18 ele- 
ments (s. dhdtu II). This term, unlike mandyatana, does 
not apply to the whole of consciousness, but designates 
only that special element of consciousness which first, 
at the beginning of the process of sense-perception, 
performs the function of advertence (dvajjana; 
Tab. I, 70) to the sense-object and, then after twice 
having become conscious of it performs the function of 
reception (sampaticchana; Tab I 39, 55) into mind- 
consciousness. See vinfidna-kicca. 

mano-kamma: 'mental action'; s. karma, kammapatha. 

manomaya iddhi: s. iddhi. 

manopadosika-deva: 'the celestial beings corruptible 
by temper', are a class of devas (q.v.) of the sensuous 
sphere. "They spend their time in becoming annoyed 
with one another, and getting into a temper, and thus 
by being bodily and mentally exhausted, they pass 
from that world" (D. 1; 24). 

manopavicara: 'mental indulging'. There are men- 
tioned 18 ways of indulging: 6 in gladness 
(somanassupavicdra) , 6 in sorrow (domanassa) , 6 in 
indifference (upekkhd) . "Perceiving with the eye a 
visible form. . . hearing with the ear a sound. . . being in 
mind conscious of an object, one indulges in the joy- 
producing object, the sorrow-producing object, the 


indifference-producing object..." (M. 137; A. Ill, 61). - 
In the Com. to A., upavicdra is said to be identical with 
vitakka-vicdra (q.v.) . 

mano-sancetana: 'mental volition'; s. dhdra. 

manovinnana-dhatu: 'mind-consciousness element', 
one of the 18 'elements' (s. dhdtu II). This term is 
generally used as a name for that consciousness- 
element which performs the functions of investigation 
(santirana), determining (yotthapana) , registering 
(taddrammand) , etc. See Tab. I, 40, 41, 56, 71, 72. 

Mara: (lit. 'the killer'), is the Buddhist 'Tempter-figure. 
He is often called 'Mara the Evil One' (pdpimd mdro) or 
Namuci (lit. 'the non-liberator', i.e. the opponent of 
liberation). He appears in the texts both as a real per- 
son (i.e. as a deity) and as personification of evil and 
passions, of the totality of worldly existence, and of 
death. Later Pali literature often speaks of a 'fivefold 
Mara' (pafica-mdra) : 1. M. as a deity (devaputta-mdra) , 
2. the M. of defilements (kilesa-m.) , 3. the M. of the 
aggregates (khandha-m.), 4. the M. of the karma-form- 
ations (kamma-m.) , and 5. Mara as death (maccu-m.) . 
As a real person, M. is regarded as the deity ruling 
over the highest heaven of the sensuous sphere 
(kdmdvacara) , that of the paranimmitavasavatti-devas, 
the 'deities wielding power over the creations of others' 
(Com. to M. 1). According to tradition, when the Bodhi- 
satta was seated under the Bodhi-tree, Mara tried in 
vain to obstruct his attainment of Enlightenment, first 
by frightening him through his hosts of demons, etc., 
and then by his 3 daughters' allurements. This episode 


is called 'Mara's war' (mdra-yuddhd) . For 7 years 
M. had followed the Buddha, looking for any weakness 
in him; that is, 6 years before the Enlightenment and 
one year after it (Sn. v. 446). He also tried to induce 
the Buddha to pass away into Parinibbana without 
proclaiming the Dhamma, and also when the time for 
the Buddha's Parinibbana had come, he urged him on. 
But the Buddha acted on his own insight in both cases. 
See D. 16. 

For (3) M. as the aggregates, s. S. XXIII, 1, 11, 
12, 23. See Padhana Sutta (Sn. v. 425ff.); Mara 
Samyutta(S. IV). 

marana: 'death', in ordinary usage, means the disap- 
pearance of the vital faculty confined to a single life- 
time, and therewith of the psycho -physical life-process 
conventionally called 'man, animal, personality, 
ego', etc. Strictly speaking, however, death is the 
continually repeated dissolution and vanishing of each 
momentary physical -mental combination, and thus it 
takes place every moment. About this momentaneity of 
existence, it is said in Vis.M. VIII: 

"In the absolute sense, beings have only a very 
short moment to live, life lasting as long as a single 
moment of consciousness lasts. Just as a cart-wheel, 
whether rolling or whether at a standstill, at all times 
only rests on a single point of its periphery, even so the 
life of a living being lasts only for the duration of a 
single moment of consciousness. As soon as that 
moment ceases, the being also ceases. For it is said: 
'The being of the past moment of consciousness has 
lived, but does not live now, nor will it live in future. 


The being of the future moment has not yet lived, nor 
does it live now, but it will live in the future. The being 
of the present moment has not lived, it does live just 
now, but it will not live in the future.'" 

In another sense, the coming to an end of the 
psycho -physical life-process of the Arahat, or perfectly 
Holy One, at the moment of his passing away may be 
called the final and ultimate death, as up to that 
moment the psycho -physical life-process was still going 
on from life to life. 

Death, in the ordinary sense, combined with old 
age, forms the 12th link in the formula of dependent 
origination (paticca-samuppdda q.v.) . 

For death as a subject of meditation, 
s. marandnussati; as a function of consciousness, 
s. vinndna-kicca. 

maranasanna-kamma: s. karma. 

marananussati: 'recollection of death', is one of the 
10 recollections treated in detail in Vis.M. VIII: 

"Recollection of death, developed and frequently 
practised, yields great reward, great blessing, has 
Deathlessness as its goal and object. But how may such 
recollection be developed? 

"As soon as the day declines, or as the night van- 
ishes and the day is breaking, the monk thus reflects: 
'Truly, there are many possibilities for me to die: I may 
be bitten by a serpent, or be stung by a scorpion or a 
centipede, and thereby I may lose my life. But this 
would be an obstacle for me. Or I may stumble and fall 
to the ground, or the food eaten by me may not agree 


with my health; or bile, phlegm and piercing body 
gases may become disturbing, or men or ghosts may 
attack me, and thus I may lose my life. But this would 
be an obstacle for me.' Then the monk has to consider 
thus: 'Are there still to be found in me unsubdued evil, 
unwholesome things which, if I should die today or 
tonight, might lead me to suffering?' Now, if he under- 
stands that this is the case, he should use his utmost 
resolution, energy, effort, endeavour, steadfastness, 
attentiveness and clear-mindedness in order to over- 
come these evil, unwholesome things" (A. VIII, 74) . 

In Vis.M. VIII it is said: 'He who wishes to develop 
this meditation, should retreat to solitude, and whilst 
living secluded he should thus wisely reflect: 'Death 
will come to me! The vital energy will be cut off!' Or: 
'Death! Death!' To him, namely, who does not wisely 
reflect, sorrow may arise by thinking on the death of a 
beloved person, just as to a mother whilst thinking on 
the death of her beloved child. Again, by reflecting on 
the death of a disliked person, joy may arise, just as to 
enemies whilst thinking on the death of their enemies. 
Through thinking on the death of an indifferent person, 
however, no emotion will arise, just as to a man whose 
work consists in cremating the dead at the sight of a 
dead body. And by reflecting on one's own death fright 
may arise. . . just as at the sight of a murderer with 
drawn sword one becomes filled with horror. Thus, 
whenever seeing here or there slain or other dead 
beings, one should reflect on the death of such deceas- 
ed persons who once lived in happiness, and one 
should rouse one's attentiveness, emotion and know- 
ledge and consider thus: 'Death will come, etc.'.... Only 


in him who considers in this way, will the hindrances 
(mvarana, q.v.) be repressed; and through the idea of 
death attention becomes steadfast, and the exercise 
reaches neighbourhood-concentration {upacara- 
samddhi) ." 

According to Vis.M. VIII, one may also reflect on 
death in the following various ways: one may think of it 
as a murderer with a drawn sword standing in front of 
oneself; or one may bear in mind that all happiness 
ends in death; or that even the mightiest beings on this 
earth are subject to death; or that we must share this 
body with all those innumerable worms and other tiny 
beings residing therein; or that life is something depen- 
dent on in-and-out breathing, and bound up with it; or 
that life continues only as long as the elements, food, 
breath, etc. are properly performing their functions; or 
that nobody knows when, where, and under what cir- 
cumstances, death will take place, and what kind of fate 
we have to expect after death; or, that life is very short 
and limited. As it is said: 'Short, indeed, is this life of 
men, limited, fleeting, full or woe and torment; it is just 
like a dewdrop that vanishes as soon as the sun rises; 
like a water-bubble; like a furrow drawn in the water; 
like a torrent dragging everything along and never 
standing still; like cattle for slaughter that every 
moment look death in the face" (A. VII, 74) . 

"The monk devoted to this recollection of death is 
at all time indefatigable, gains the idea of disgust with 
regard to all forms of existence, gives up delight in life, 
detests evil, does not hoard up things, is free from 
stinginess with regard to the necessities of life, the idea 


of impermanence (aniccd) becomes familiar to him; 
and through pursuing it, the idea of misery (dukkha) 
and of impersonality {anatta) become present to 
him. . . . Free from fear and bewilderment will he pass 
away at death; and should he not yet realize the Death- 
less State in his life-time, he will at the dissolution of 
the body attain to a happy course of existence" 

See Buddhist Reflections on Death, by V. F. Gunaratna 
(Wheel 102/103). Buddhism and Death, by M.Q.C. Walshe 
(Wheel. 260). 

marvel: s. pdtihdriya. 

mastery (regarding the absorptions) : s. vast. - 8 stages 
of: abhibhdyatana (q.v.) . 

material food: kabalinkdrdhdra (q.v.). 

matter (corporeality) : s. khandha, rupa-kaldpa. 

matured one, the: gotrabhu (q.v.). 

maturity-knowledge: gotrabhu-ndna; s.visuddhi (VII). 

meaning: evident, and to be inferred: 
s. neyyatthadhamma. 

meat-eating. Just as the karmical, i.e. moral, quality of any act- 
ion is determined by the quality of volition (cetand) 
underlying it, and independently of this volition noth- 
ing whatever can be called karmically wholesome or 
unwholesome (kusala, akusala) , just so it is with the 
merely external act of meat-eating, this being as such 
purely non-moral, i.e. karmically neutral (avydkata). 


"In 3 circumstances meat-eating is to be rejected: if 
one has seen, or heard, or suspects (that the animal has 
been slaughtered expressly for one's own sake)" 
(M. 55). For if in such a case one should partake of the 
meat, one would as it were approve the murder of ani- 
mals, and thus encourage the animal-murderer in his 
murderous deeds. Besides, that the Buddha never ob- 
jected, in ordinary circumstances, to meat-eating may 
be clearly understood from many passages of the Suttas 
(e.g. A. V. 44; VIII, 12; M. 55, etc.), as also from the 
Vinaya, where it is related that the Buddha firmly 
rejected Devadatta's proposal to forbid meat-eating to 
the monks; further from the fact that 10 kinds of meat 
were (for merely external reasons) forbidden to the 
monks, namely from elephants, tigers, serpents, etc. 

See Amagandha Sutta (Sn.). Early Buddhism and the 
Taking of Life, by I. B. Horner (Wheel 104). 

meditation: s. bhdvand, jhdna, samddhi. 

mental action: mano-kamma; s. karma. 

mental advertence: mano-dvdrdvajjana; s. dvajjana. 

mental formation: sankhdra (q.v.). s. Tab. II. 

mental function: citta-sankhdra; s. sankhdra (2). 

mental image: s. nimitta, kasina, samddhi. 

mental obduracy: ceto-khila (q.v.). 

merit, the 4 streams of: pufina-dhdrd (q.v.). - For 
transference of merit, s. patti-ddna. 


meritorious action: s. punna, punna-kiriya-vatthu. 

message, the 9-fold: of the Buddhasdsana, s. sdsana. 

messengers, the 3 divine: s. deva-duta. 

method, the right: fidya, is a name for the 8-fold path 
(s. magga) 

metta: 'loving-kindness', is one of the 4 sublime abodes 
(brahma-vihdra, q.v.) . 

miccha-ditthi, °sankappa, °vaca etc.: s. foil. 

miccha-magga, Atthangika: the 'eightfold wrong path', 
i.e. (1) wrong view (miccha-ditthi), (2) wrong thought 
(micchd-sankappa) , (3) wrong speech (micchd-vdcd) , 

(4) wrong bodily action (micchd-kammantd) , 

(5) wrong livelihood (micchd-djlvd) , (6) wrong effort 
(micchd-vdydma) , (7) wrong mindfulness (micchd-sati) , 
(8) wrong concentration (micchd-samddhi) . Just as the 
Eightfold Right Path (sammd-magga) , so also here the 

8 links are included in the group of mental formations 
(sankhdra-kkhandha; s. khandha). The links 2, 6, 7, 8, 
are inseparably bound up with every karmically- 
unwholesome state of consciousness. Often are also 
present 3, 4, or 5, sometimes link 1. 

micchatta: 'wrongnesses' = prec. 

middha: 'sloth': Combined with thina, 'torpor', it forms 
one of the 5 hindrances {mvarana, q.v.). Both may be 
associated with greedy consciousness (s. Tab. Ill and 

middle path: majjhima-patipadd (q.v.). 

-191 - 

mind: mano (q.v.); cf. noma. 

mind and corporeality: ndma-rupa (q.v.) . 

mind-base: manayatana; s. ayatana. 

mind-consciousness-element: mano-vinndna- 
dhdtu (q.v.). 

mind-element: mano-dhdtu (q.v.). 

mindfulness: sati (q.v.); s. satipatthdna. - Right m.: 
s. sacca, magga. 

mind-object: dhamma; s. ayatana. - Contemplation of 
the, s. satipatthdna (4) . 

mind-training, 'higher': adhicitta-sikkhd, s. sikkhd. 

miracle: s. pdtihdriya. 

mirth (in the Arahat) : s. hasituppdda-citta. 

misapprehension: s. pardmdsa. 

misery, contemplation of: dukkhdnupassand; 
s. ti-lakkhana. 

moha: 'delusion', is one of the 3 unwholesome roots 
(mula, q.v.). The best known synonym is avijjd (q.v.). 

moha-carita the 'deluded-natured'; s. carita. 

momentaneity (of existence) : s. marana. 

monkhood, the fruits of; sdmanna-phala (q.v.). 

monks' community: Sangha (q.v.) ; further s. pabbajjd, 
progress of the disciple. 


morality: sila (q.v.) . - Contemplation on, 
s. anussati (4) . 

morality-training, higher: adhislla-sikkhd; s. sikkhd. 

moral rules, the 5, 8 or 10: s. sikkhdpada. 

muccitu-kamyata-nana: 'knowledge consisting in the 
desire for deliverance'; s. visuddhi (VI. 6). 

mudita: 'altruistic (or sympathetic) joy', is one of the 
4 sublime abodes (brahma-vihdra, q.v.) . 

muduta (rupa, kdya, citta) : 'elasticity' (of corporeality, 
mental factors, consciousness); s. khandha (I) and 
Tab. II. 

mula: 'roots', also called hetu (q.v.; s.paccaya, 1), are 
those conditions which through their presence deter- 
mine the actual moral quality of a volitional state 
(cetand), and the consciousness and mental factors 
associated therewith, in other words, the quality of 
karma (q.v.) . There are 6 such roots, 3 karmically 
wholesome and 3 unwholesome roots, viz.,: greed, 
hate, delusion (lobha, dosa, moha), and greedlessness, 
hatelessness, undeludedness (alobha, adosa, amoha) . 
In A. Ill, 68 it is said that greed arises through un- 
wise reflection on an attractive object, hate through 
unwise reflection on a repulsive object. Thus, greed 
(lobha or rdga) comprises all degrees of 'attractedness' 
towards an object from the faintest trace of a longing 
thought up to grossest egoism, whilst hatred (dosa) 
comprises all degrees of 'repulsion' from the faintest 
trace of ill-humor up to the highest pitch of hate and 


The 3 wholesome (kusala) roots, greedlessness, 
etc., though expressed in negative terms, nevertheless 
possess a distinctly positive character, just as is also 
often the case with negative terms in other languages, 
for example, the negative term 'immorality', which has 
a decidedly positive character. 

Thus, greedlessness (alobhd) is a name for unself- 
ishness, liberality, etc., hatelessness {adosa) for kind- 
ness or goodwill (mettd), undeludedness (amohd) for 
wisdom (panna) . 

"The perception of impurity is to be developed in 
order to overcome greed (lust); loving-kindness in 
order to overcome hate; wisdom in order to overcome 
delusion" (A. VI, 107). 

"Killing, stealing, unlawful sexual intercourse, ly- 
ing, tale-bearing, harsh language, frivolous talk, covet- 
ousness, ill-will and wrong views (s. kammapathd) , 
these things are due either to greed, or hate, or 
delusion" (A. X, 1 74) . 

"Enraptured with lust (greed), enraged with hate, 
blinded by delusion, overwhelmed, with mind ensnar- 
ed, man aims at his own ruin, at others' ruin, at the ruin 
of both, and he experiences mental pain and grief. And 
he follows evil ways in deeds, words and thought.... 
And he really knows neither his own welfare, nor the 
welfare of others, nor the welfare of both. These things 
make him blind and ignorant, hinder his knowledge, 
are painful, and do not lead him to peace." 

The presence or absence of the 3 unwholesome 
roots forms part of the mind contemplation in the Sati- 
patthana Sutta (M. 10). They are also used for the 
classification of unwholesome consciousness (s. Tab. I). 


See The Roots of Good and Evil, by Nyanaponika Thera 
(Wheel 251/253). 

multiformity-perceptions: ndnatta-sannd; 
s.jhdna (5). 

mundane: lokiya (q.v.). 

mutability: Contemplation of: viparindmanupassand: 
see vipassand. 



nama: (lit. 'name'): 'mind', mentality. This term is 
generally used as a collective name for the 4 mental 
groups (arupino khandhd), viz. feeling (yedand), per- 
ception {sanna), mental formations (sankhdrd) and 
consciousness (yinndnd) . Within the 4th link (ndma- 
rupa) in the formula of the paticcasamuppdda (q.v.), 
however, it applies only to karma-resultant (yipdka) 
feeling and perception and a few karma-resultant 
mental functions inseparable from any consciousness. 
As it is said (M. 9; D. 15; S. XII, 2): "Feeling (vedand), 
perception {sanna), volition (cetand), impression 
{phassa) , mental advertence {manasikdra) : this, 
O brother, is called mind {noma) ." With the addition of 
2 more mental factors, namely, mental vitality (jivitd) 
and concentration (samddhi), here 'stationary phase of 
mind' (cittatthiti) , these 7 factors are said in the Abhi- 
dhammattha Sangaha to be the inseparable mental 
factors in any state of consciousness. 

For the complete list of all the 50 mental form- 
ations of the sankhdra-kkhandha (not including feeling 
and perception), s. Tab. II. 

nama-kaya: the 'mind-group' (as distinguished from 
rupa-kdya, the corporeality-group) comprises the 
4 immaterial groups of existence (arupino khandhd; 
s. khandhd) . This twofold grouping, frequent in Com., 
occurs first in D. 15, also in Pts.M. (1, 183); nama-kaya 
alone is mentioned in Sn. 1074. 


nama-rupa (lit. 'name and form') : 'mind-and-body', 
mentality and corporeality. It is the 4th link in the 
dependent origination (s. paticcasamuppdda 3, 4) 
where it is conditioned by consciousness, and on its part 
is the condition of the sixfold sense-base. In two texts 
(D. 14, 15), which contain variations of the dependent 
origination, the mutual conditioning of consciousness 
and mind-and-body is described (see also S. XII, 67), 
and the latter is said to be a condition of sense-impress- 
ion (phassa); so also in Sn. 872. 

The third of the seven purifications (s. visuddhi), 
the purification of views, is defined in Vis.M. XVIII as 
the "correct seeing of mind-and-body," and various 
methods for the discernment of mind-and-body by way 
of insight-meditation (yipassand, q.v.) are given there. 
In this context, 'mind' (noma) comprises all four mental 
groups, including consciousness. - See ndma. 

In five-group-existence (panca-vokdra-bhava, q.v.), 
mind-and body are inseparable and interdependent; 
and this has been illustrated by comparing them with 
two sheaves of reeds propped against each other: when 
one falls the other will fall, too; and with a blind man 
with stout legs, carrying on his shoulders a lame cripple 
with keen eye-sight: only by mutual assistance can they 
move about efficiently (s. Vis.M. XVIII, 32ff). On their 
mutual dependence, see also paticcasamuppdda (3) . 

With regard to the impersonality and dependent 
nature of mind and corporeality it is said: 

"Sound is not a thing that dwells inside the conch- 
shell and comes out from time to time, but due to both, 


the conch-shell and the man that blows it, sound comes 
to arise: Just so, due to the presence of vitality, heat 
and consciousness, this body may execute the acts of 
going, standing, sitting and lying down, and the 5 sense- 
organs and the mind may perform their various 
functions" (D. 23). 

"Just as a wooden puppet though unsubstantial, 
lifeless and inactive may by means of pulling strings be 
made to move about, stand up, and appear full of life 
and activity; just so are mind and body, as such, some- 
thing empty, lifeless and inactive; but by means of their 
mutual working together, this mental and bodily com- 
bination may move about, stand up, and appear full of 
life and activity." 

nana: 'knowledge, comprehension, intelligence, 
insight', is a synonym for panfid (q.v.); see also 

nanadassana-visuddhi: 'purification of knowledge 
and vision', is the last of the 7 purifications and a name 
for path-knowledge (maggandna) , i.e. the penetrating 
realization of the path of Stream- winning, Once-return- 
ing, Non-returning or Arahatship. Vis.M. XXII furnishes 
a detailed explanation of it (s. visuddhi, VII). 

In A. IV, 41 fidnadassana apparently means the 
divine eye (dibbacakkhu, s. abhifind), being produced 
through concentrating the mind on light. 

nanatta-sanna: The 'variety (or multiformity) - 
perceptions are explained under jhdna (q.v.). 


nana-vipphara iddhi: the 'power of penetrating 
knowledge', is one of the magical powers (iddhi, q.v.) . 

nata-parinna: 'full understanding (or comprehension) 
of the known', is one of the 3 kinds of full understand- 
ing (parinnd q.v.) . 

natthika-ditthi: 'nihilistic view' (a doctrine that all 
values are baseless, that nothing is knowable or can be 
communicated, and that life itself is meaningless), 
s. ditthi. 

natthi-paccaya: 'absence-condition', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

natural morality: pakati-slla (q.v.) . 

navanga-buddha (or satthu)- sasana: s. sasana. 

nava-sattavasa: s. sattdvdsa. 

naya-vipassana: s. kaldpa (2). 

naya: 'right method', is often used as a name for the 
Noble Eightfold Path (s. magga), e.g. in the Sati- 
patthana Sutta (M. 10, D. 22). 

neighbourhood-concentration: upacdra- 
samddhi (q.v.). 

nekkhamma: 'freedom from sensual lust', renunci- 
ation. Though apparently from nir + Vkram, 'to go 
forth (into the homeless state of a monk)', this term is 
in the Pali texts nevertheless used as if it were derived 
from kdma, lust, and always as an antonym to kdma. It 
is one of the perfections (s. pdrami) . N. sankappa, 


thought free from lust, or thought of renunciation, is 
one of the 3 kinds of right thought (sammd-sankappd) , 
the 2nd link of the Noble Eightfold Path (s. magga, 2), 
its antonym being kdmasankappa, lustful thought. 

nesajjikanga: one of the 13 dhutanga (q.v.). 

neutral, karmically: avydkata (q.v.) ; n. feelings, 
s. vedand. 

n'eva-sanna-n'asannayatana: The 'sphere of neither- 
perception-nor-non-perception', is the name for the 
fourth absorption of the immaterial sphere 
(arupdvacard) , a semi-conscious state, which is sur- 
passed only by the state of complete suspense of con- 
sciousness, called 'attainment of extinction' (nirodha- 
samdpatti, q.v.). Seejhdna (8). 

n'eva-sekha-n'asekha: 'neither in training nor beyond 
training', i.e. neither learner nor master. Thus is called 
the worldling (puthujjana, q.v.), for he is neither pur- 
suing the 3 -fold training (sikkhd q.v.) in morality, men- 
tal culture and wisdom, on the level of the first 3 paths 
of sanctity, nor has he completed his training as an 
Arahat. See sekha. - (App.). 

neyya: 'requiring guidance', is said of a person "who 
through advice and questioning, through wise consider- 
ation, and through frequenting noble-minded friends, 
having intercourse with them, associating with them, 
gradually comes to penetrate the truth" (Pug. 162). 
Cf. ugghatitannu. 

neyya ttha-dhamma: A 'teaching the meaning of which 
is implicit, or has to be inferred' as contrasted with a 


'teaching with an explicit or evident meaning' (riitattha- 
dhammd). In A. I, 60 (PTS) it is said: "Whoso declares a 
sutta with an implicit meaning as a sutta with explicit 
meaning (and conversely), such a one makes a false 
statement with regard to the Blessed One." - See 

Nibbana, (Sanskrit nirvana): lit. 'extinction' {nir + Vva, 
to cease blowing, to become extinguished); according 
to the commentaries, 'freedom from desire' (nir + vana) . 
Nibbana constitutes the highest and ultimate goal of all 
Buddhist aspirations, i.e. absolute extinction of that life- 
affirming will manifested as greed, hate and delusion, 
and convulsively clinging to existence; and therewith 
also the ultimate and absolute deliverance from all fut- 
ure rebirth, old age, disease and death, from all suffer- 
ing and misery. Cf. Parinibbana. 

"Extinction of greed, extinction of hate, extinction 
of delusion: this is called Nibbana" (S. XXXVIII. 1). 

The 2 aspects of Nibbana are: 

(1) The full extinction of defilements (kilesa-pari- 
nibbana), also called sa-upadi-sesa-nibbana (s. It. 41), 
i.e. 'Nibbana with the groups of existence still remain- 
ing' (s. upadi). This takes place at the attainment of 
Arahatship, or perfect holiness (s. ariya-puggala) . 

(2) The full extinction of the groups of existence 
(khandha-parinibbana) , also called an-upadi-sesa- 
nibbana (s. It. 41, A. IV, 118), i.e. 'Nibbana without the 
groups remaining', in other words, the coming to rest, 
or rather the 'no-more-continuing' of this physico- 

201 - 

mental process of existence. This takes place at the 
death of the Arahat. - (App.: Nibbana). 

Sometimes both aspects take place at one and the 
same moment, i.e. at the death of the Arahat; 
s. sama-slsi. 

"This, O monks, truly is the peace, this is the high- 
est, namely the end of all formations, the forsaking of 
every substratum of rebirth, the fading away of craving, 
detachment, extinction, Nibbana" (A. Ill, 32). 

"Enraptured with lust {ragd), enraged with anger 
(dosd), blinded by delusion (mo/ia), overwhelmed, 
with mind ensnared, man aims at his own ruin, at the 
ruin of others, at the ruin of both, and he experiences 
mental pain and grief. But if lust, anger and delusion 
are given up, man aims neither at his own ruin, nor at 
the ruin of others, nor at the ruin of both, and he 
experiences no mental pain and grief. Thus is Nibbana 
visible in this life, immediate, inviting, attractive, and 
comprehensible to the wise" (A. Ill, 55). 

"Just as a rock of one solid mass remains unshaken 
by the wind, even so neither visible forms, nor sounds, 
nor odours, nor tastes, nor bodily impressions, neither 
the desired nor the undesired, can cause such a one to 
waver. Steadfast is his mind, gained is deliverance" 
(A. VI, 55). 

"Verily, there is an Unborn, Unoriginated, Uncreat- 
ed, Unformed. If there were not this Unborn, Unorigin- 
ated, Uncreated, Unformed, escape from the world of 


the born, the originated, the created, the formed, 
would not be possible" (Ud. VIII, 3). 

One cannot too often and too emphatically stress 
the fact that not only for the actual realization of the 
goal of Nibbana, but also for a theoretical understand- 
ing of it, it is an indispensable preliminary condition to 
grasp fully the truth oianattd (q.v.), the egolessness 
and insubstantiality of all forms of existence. Without 
such an understanding, one will necessarily miscon- 
ceive Nibbana - according to one's either materialistic 
or metaphysical leanings - either as annihilation of an 
ego, or as an eternal state of existence into which an 
ego or self enters or with which it merges. Hence it is 

"Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found; 
The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there; 
Nibbana is, but not the man that enters it; 
The path is, but no traveler on it is seen." 

(Vis.M. XVI) 

Literature: For texts on Nibbana, see Path, 36ff. - See 
Vis.M. XVI. 64ff. -Anatta and Nibbana, by Nyanaponika 
Thera (Wheel 11); The Buddhist Doctrine of Nibbana, by 
Ven. P. Vajiranana & F. Story (Wheel 165/166). 

nibbatti: 'arising', 'rebirth', is a synonym for 
patisandhi (q.v.). 

nibbedha-bhagiya-sila (samddhi, -pannd) : 'morality 
(concentration, wisdom) connected with penetration'; 
s. hdna-bhdgiya-slla. 


nibbidanupassana-nana: 'contemplation of aversion', 
is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight; s. vipassand (4), 
samatha-vipassand (2), visuddhi (VI, 5). 

nicca-sanna (-citta, -ditthi) : perception (or conscious- 
ness, or view) of permanency, is one of the 4 perversions 
(vipalldsa, q.v.) . 

nihilistic view: natthika-ditthi; s. ditthi. 

nlla-kasina: 'blue-kasina exercise' s. kasina. 

nimitta: mark, sign; image; target, object; cause, con- 
dition. These meanings are used in, and adapted to, 
many contexts of which only the doctrinal ones are 
mentioned here. 

1. 'Mental (reflex-) image', obtained in meditation. 
In full clarity, it will appear in the mind by successful 
practice of certain concentration-exercises and will then 
appear as vividly as if seen by the eye. The object per- 
ceived at the very beginning of concentration is called 
the preparatory image (parikamma-nimittd) . The still 
unsteady and unclear image, which arises when the 
mind has reached a weak degree of concentration, is 
called the acquired image (uggaha-nimitta) . An entirely 
clear and immovable image arising at a higher degree 
of concentration is the counter-image (patibhdga- 
nimittd) . As soon as this image arises, the stage of 
neighbourhood (or access) concentration {upacdra- 
samddhi) is reached. For further details, s. kasina, 

2. 'Sign of (previous) kamma' (kamma-nimittd) and 
'sign of (the future) destiny' (gati-nimitta) ; these arise 


as mental objects of the last karmic consciousness 
before death (maranasanna-kamma; s. karma, III, 3) . 

Usages (1) and (2) are commentarial (s. App.). In 
sutta usage, the term occurs, e.g. as: 

3. 'Outward appearance': of one who has sense- 
control it is said- that "he does not seize upon the 
general appearance' of an object (na nimittaggdhi; 
M. 38, D. 2; expl. VisM. I, 54f; see slla). 

4. 'Object': the six objects, i.e. visual, etc. (rupa- 
nimitta; S. XXII, 3). Also, when in explanation of 
animitta-cetovimutti, signless deliverance of mind 

(s. cetovimutti, vimokkhd), it is said, l sabba-nimittdnam 
amanasikdra! , it refers to the 6 sense-objects (Com. to 
M. 43), and has therefore to be rendered "by paying no 
attention to any object (or object-ideas) ." - A pleasant 
or beautiful object (subha-nimitta, q.v.) is a condition 
to the arising of the hindrance of sense-desire; a 
'repellent object' (patigha-nimittd) for the hindrance of 
ill-will; contemplation on the impurity of an object 
(asubha-nimitta; s. asubhd) is an antidote to sense- 

5. In Pts.M. II, in a repetitive series of terms, nimitta 
appears together with uppddo (origin of existence), 
pavattam (continuity of existence), and may then be 
rendered by 'condition of existence' (s. Path, 194f.). 

nimmana-rati: the name of a class of heavenly beings 
of the sensuous sphere; s. deva. 

nine abodes of beings: s. sattdvdsa. 


ninefold dispensation: s. sasana. 

nippapanca: s.papanca. 

nipphanna-rupa: 'produced corporeality', is identical 
with rupa-rupa, 'corporeality proper', i.e. material or 
actual corporeality, as contrasted with 'unproduced 
corporeality' (anipphanna-rupd) , consisting of mere 
qualities or modes of corporeality, e.g. impermanence, 
etc., which are also enumerated among the 28 pheno- 
mena of the corporeality group. See khandha, 
Summary I; Vis.M. XIV, 73. 

niraya: lit. 'the downward-path', the nether or infernal 
world, usually translated by 'hell', is one of the 4 lower 
courses of existence (apdya, q.v.) . The Buddhists are 
well aware that on account of the universal sway of 
impermanence a life in hell, just as in heaven, cannot 
last eternally, but will after exhaustion of the karma 
which has caused the respective form of rebirth, necess- 
arily be followed again by a new death and a new re- 
birth, according to the stored-up karma. 

nirodha: 'extinction'; s. nirodha-samdpatti, anupubba- 

nirodhanupassana: 'contemplation of extinction', is 
one of the 18 chief kinds of insight (yipassand q.v.). See 
dndpdnasati (15). 

nirodha-samapatti: 'attainment of extinction' 
(S. XIV, 11), also called sannd-vedayita-nirodha, 
'extinction of feeling and perception', is the temporary 
suspension of all consciousness and mental activity, 
following immediately upon the semi-conscious state 


called 'sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-percept- 
ion' (s.jhdna, 8). The absolutely necessary pre-condit- 
ions to its attainment are said to be perfect mastery of 
all the 8 absorptions (jhdnd), as well as the previous 
attainment of Anagami or Arahatship (s. ariya-puggald) . 

According to Vis.M. XXIII, the entering into this 
state takes place in the following way: by means of 
mental tranquillity (samatha) and insight (yipassand) 
one has to pass through all the 8 absorptions one after 
the other up to the sphere of neither-perception-nor- 
non-perception and then one has to bring this state to 
an end. If, namely, according to the Vis.M., the disciple 
(Anagami or Arahat) passes through the absorption 
merely by means of tranquillity, i.e. concentration, he 
will only attain the sphere of neither-perception-nor- 
non-perception, and then come to a standstill; if, on the 
other hand, he proceeds only with insight, he will reach 
the fruition (phald) of Anagami or Arahatship. He, how- 
ever, who by means of both faculties has risen from 
absorption to absorption and, having made the necess- 
ary preparations, brings the sphere of neither-percep- 
tion-nor-non-perception to an end, such a one reaches 
the state of extinction. Whilst the disciple is passing 
through the 8 absorptions, he each time emerges from 
the absorption attained, and regards with his insight all 
the mental phenomena constituting that special absorp- 
tion, as impermanent, miserable and impersonal. Then 
he again enters the next higher absorption, and thus, 
after each absorption practising insight, he at last 
reaches the state of neither-perception-nor-non-percep- 
tion, and thereafter the full extinction. This state, accor- 
ding to the Com., may last for 7 days or even longer. 


Immediately at the rising from this state, however, there 
arises in the Anagami the fruition of Anagamiship 
(andgdmi-phald) , in the Arahat the fruition of Arahat- 
ship (arahatta-phala) . 

With regard to the difference existing between the 
monk abiding in this state of extinction on the one 
hand, and a dead person on the other hand, M. 43 says: 
"In him who is dead, and whose life has come to an 
end, the bodily (in-and-outbreathing), verbal (thought- 
conception and discursive thinking), and mental 
functions (s. sankhdra, 2) have become suspended and 
come to a standstill, life is exhausted, the vital heat 
extinguished, the faculties are destroyed. Also in the 
monk who has reached 'extinction of perception and 
feeling' (safind-vedayita-nirodhd) , the bodily, verbal 
and mental functions have been suspended and come 
to a standstill, but life is not exhausted, the vital heat 
not extinguished, and the faculties are not destroyed." 

For details, see Vis.M. XXIII; for texts s. Path 206. 

nirutti-patisambhida: the 'analytical knowledge of 
language', is one of the 4 patisambhidd (q.v.). 

nirvana: (Sanskrit=) Nibbdna (q.v.). 

nissarana-pahana: 'overcoming by escape', is one of 
the 5 kinds of overcoming (pahdna q.v.) . 

nissaya: 'foundation'. The 2 wrong foundations of 
morality are craving (tanhd-nissayd) and views (ditthi- 
nissayd). Hence there are two wrong bases of morality: 
morality based on craving (tanhd-nissita-sild) and 
morality based on views (ditthi-nissita-sila) . (App.) 


"'Based on craving' is that kind of morality which 
has come about by the desire for a happy existence, 
e.g.: 'O that by this morality I might become a godlike 
or heavenly being!' (A. IX, 172). 'Based on views' is that 
morality which has been induced by the view that 
through the observation of certain moral rules purific- 
ation may be attained" (Vis.M. I). 

nissaya-paccaya: 'support', base, foundation, is one of 
the 24 conditions (s. paccaya, 8) . 

nltattha-dhamma: A 'doctrine with evident meaning', 
contrasted with a 'doctrine with a meaning to be infer- 
red' (neyyattha-dhamma, q.v.) . See also paramattha. 

nlvarana: 'hindrances', are 5 qualities which are obsta- 
cles to the mind and blind our mental vision. In the 
presence of them we cannot reach neighbourhood- 
concentration (upacdra-samddhi) and full concentra- 
tion (appand-samddhi) , and are unable to discern 
clearly the truth. They are: 

1. sensuous desire (kdmacchanda) , 

2. ill-will (yydpddd), 

3. sloth and torpor (thina-middhd) , 

4. restlessness and scruples (uddhacca-kukkucca) , 
& 5. skeptical doubt (yicikicchd; q.v.). 

In the beautiful similes in A. V, 193, sensuous desire 
is compared with water mixed with manifold colours, 
ill-will with boiling water, sloth and torpor with water 
covered by moss, restlessness and scruples with agita- 
ted water whipped by the wind, skeptical doubt with 
turbid and muddy water. Just as in such water one can- 
not perceive one's own reflection, so in the presence of 


these 5 mental hindrances, one cannot clearly discern 
one's own benefit, nor that of others, nor that of both. 

Regarding the temporary suspension of the 5 hind- 
rances on entering the first absorption, the stereotype 
sutta text (e g. A. IX, 40) runs as follows: 

"He has cast away sensuous desire; he dwells with a 
heart free from sensuous desire; from desire he 
cleanses his heart. 

"He has cast away ill-will; he dwells with a heart 
free from ill-will, cherishing love and compassion to- 
ward all living beings, he cleanses his heart from ill- 

"He has cast away sloth and torpor; he dwells free 
from sloth and torpor; loving the light, with watchful 
mind, with clear consciousness, he cleanses his mind 
from sloth and torpor. 

"He has cast away restlessness and scruples; 
dwelling with mind undisturbed, with heart full of 
peace, he cleanses his mind from restlessness and 

"He has cast away skeptical doubt; dwelling free 
from doubt, full of confidence in the good, he cleanses 
his heart from doubt. 

"He has put aside these 5 hindrances, and come to 
know these paralysing defilements of the mind. And far 
from sensual impressions, far from unwholesome 
things, he enters into the first absorption, etc." 

The overcoming of these 5 hindrances by the 
absorptions is, as already pointed out, a merely tempor- 
ary suspension, called 'overcoming through repression' 
(yikkhambhana-pahdnd) . They disappear forever on 
entering the 4 supermundane paths (s. ariyapuggala) , 


i.e. skeptical doubt on reaching Sotapanship; sensuous 
desire, ill-will and mental worry on reaching Anagami- 
ship; sloth, torpor and restlessness on reaching Arahat- 

For their origination and their overcoming, 
s.A. I, 2; VI, 21;S.XLVI, 51. 

See The Five Mental Hindrances, by Nyanaponika Thera 
(Wheel 26). 

niyama: the 'fixedness of law' regarding all things; 
cf. tathatd. - Panca-niydma is a commentarial term, 
signifying the 'fivefold lawfulness' or 'natural order' that 
governs: (1) temperature, seasons and other physical 
events (utu-niydmd) ; (2) the plant life (bija-n.); 
(3) karma (kamma-n.); (4) the mind (citta-n.), e.g. the 
lawful sequence of the functions of consciousness 
(s. vinndna-kiccd) in the process of cognition; 
(5) certain events connected with the Dhamma 
(dhamma-n.) , e.g. the typical events occurring in the 
lives of the Buddhas. (App.). 

niyata-micchaditthi: 'wrong views with fixed destiny', 
are the views of uncausedness of existence (ahetuka- 
ditthi), of the inefficacy of action (akiriya-ditthi) , and 
nihilism (natthika-ditthi) . For details, s. ditthi; and 
M. 60, Com. (Wheel 98/99). - (App.) 

niyata-puggala: a 'person with a fixed destiny', may be 
either one who has committed one of the 5 'heinous 
deeds with immediate result' (dnantarika-kamma, q.v.) , 
or one who follows 'wrong views with fixed destiny' 
(niyata-micchd-ditthi, q.v.), or one who has reached 
one of the 4 stages of holiness (s. ariya-puggala) . About 

-211 - 

the latter cf. the frequent passage: "Those disciples in 
whom the 3 fetters (of personality-belief, sceptical 
doubt and attachment to mere rules and ritual; 
s. samyojana) have vanished, they all have entered the 
stream, have forever escaped the states of woe; fixed is 
their destiny {niyata), assured their final enlighten- 

noble abodes: s. vihdra. 

noble family, Passing from n.f. to n.f.: kolankola; 
s. sotdpannd. 

noble persons: ariya-puggala (q.v.). 

noble power: ariya iddhi; s. iddhi. 

noble truths, the 4: ariya-sacca; s. sacca. - The 2-fold 
knowledge of the n.t.; s. sacca-ndna. 

noble usages, the 4: ariya-vamsa (q.v.) . 

non-disappearance: avigata-paccaya, is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

non-violence: s. avihimsd. 

not-self: s. anattd. 

no-upada-rupa: 'underived corporeality', designates 
the 4 primary elements (mahdbhuta or dhdtu), as 
distinguished from the 'derived corporeality' {upddd- 
rupd), such as the sensitive organs, etc. Cf. khandha, I. 

nutriment: s. ojd, dhdra. - dhdra is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) - n.- produced 
corporeality; s. samutthdna. 



obduracies, the 5 mental: ceto-khila (q.v.). 

obhasa: 'effulgence of light', aura, appearing at times 
during deep insight (yipassand) , may become a 'defile- 
ment of insight' (yipassanupakkilesd) ; cf. visuddhi, V. 

object: drammana (q.v.); as condition s.paccaya (2). 

obstacles, the 10 o. of meditation :palibodha (q.v.); for 
the 5 mental obstacles, or hindrances, s. nlvarana. 

odata-kasina: 'white-kasina-exercise'; s. kasina. 

ogha: 'floods', is a name for the 4 cankers (dsava, q.v.). 

oja: 'nutriment' (synonym ofdhdra, q.v.), is one of 
those 8 minimal constituent parts, or qualities, of all 
corporeality, to wit: the solid, liquid, heat, motion; 
colour, odour, taste and nutriment. This is the 'octad 
with nutriment as the eighth (factor) ' (ojatthamaka- 
kaldpa), also called the 'pure eightfold unit' (suddha- 
tthaka-kaldpd) , being the most primitive material com- 
bination. For further details, s. rupa-kaldpa. 

okkanti: 'conception', lit. 'descent', designates the 
appearance of the embryo in the mother's womb, 
i.e. the beginning of the birth process (jdti, q.v.). 
"Through the concurrence of 3 circumstances arises the 
embryo. When father and mother have united,... and 
the mother has her time, and the 'genius' (metaphoric- 
ally for the karma energy) is ready; under these 
3 circumstances does the embryo appear" (M. 38). 


old age: jara (q.v.), is one of the 3 divine messengers 
(s. devaduta) . 

olfactory organ: s. ay ataxia. 

omana: 'inferiority-conceit'; s. mana. 

once-eater, the practice of the: s. dhutanga. 

one-group existence: eka-vokara-bhava (q.v.). 

one-pointedness of mind (citfekaggata) : a name for 
mental concentration (samadhi, q.v.). 

opapatika: lit. 'accidental' (from upapata, accident; not 
from upapatti, as PTS Diet, has); 'spontaneously born', 
i.e. born without the instrumentality of parents. This 
applies to all heavenly and infernal beings. "After the 
disappearing of the 5 lower fetters (samyojana, q.v.), he 
(the Anagami) appears in a spiritual world (opapatika) . . .." 

open air, practice of living in the: s. dhutanga. 

opposite: 'overcoming by the opposite,' s. pahana. 

orambhagiya-samyojana: the 'lower fetters', i.e. the 
first 5 fetters that bind to lower existence; s. samyojana. 

origination, dependent: paticcasamuppada (q.v.) . 

origination of corporeality: s. samutthana. 

ottappa: 'moral dread'; s. hiri-ottappa. 

overcoming, the 5 kinds of: s. pahana. - Full under- 
standing consisting in o.; s. parinna - the effort to 
overcome, s. padhana. - Overcoming doubt, the puri- 
fication by; s. visuddhi, IV. 



pabbajja: lit. 'the going forth', or more fully stated, 'the 
going forth from home to the homeless life' of a monk 
(agdrasmd anagdriyam pabbajja) , consists in severing 
all family and social ties to live the pure life of a monk, 
in order to realize the goal of final deliverance pointed 
out by the Enlightened One. Thus, p. has become the 
name for admission as a sdmanera, or novice, i.e. as a 
candidate for the Order of Bhikkhus, or monks. 

See Going Forth, by Sumana Samanera (Wheel 27/28) - 
Ordination in Theravdda Buddhism (Wheel 56). 

paccavekkhana-nana: 'retrospective knowledge', 
refers to the recollected mental image obtained in 
concentration, or to any inner experience just passed, 
as for instance, any absorption (jhdna q.v.), or any 
supermundane path, or fruition of the path, etc. 
(s. ariya-puggala) . As it is said: "At the end of fruitional 
consciousness, consciousness sinks into the subcons- 
cious stream of existence (bhavanga-sota, q.v.) . Then, 
breaking off the stream of existence, mental advertence 
(manodvdrdvajjana) arises at the mind-door, for the 
purpose of retro specting the (just passed) path- 
moment. Now, as soon as this stage has passed, 
7 moments of impulsive consciousness (javana-citta) , 
one after the other, flash up while retrospecting the 
path. After they again have sunk into the subconscious 
stream, there arise, for the purpose of retrospecting the 


fruition of the path the moments of advertence and 
impulsion, during whose arising the monk is retro - 
specting the path, retrospecting the fruition, retrospect- 
ing the abandoned defilements, retrospecting the still 
remaining defilements, retrospecting Nibbana as 
object.... 'This blessing have I attained'.... 'This and that 
defilement still remains in me'.... 'This object have I 
beheld in my mind', etc." (Vis.M. XXII). 

paccavekkhana-suddhi: 'purity of reflection', is a 
name for wise consideration in using the 4 requisites 
allowed to the monk, i.e. robes, food, dwelling, and 
medicine; s. slla (4). 

paccaya: 'condition', is something on which something 
else, the so-called 'conditioned thing', is dependent, 
and without which the latter cannot be. Manifold are 
the ways in which one thing, or one occurrence, may be 
the condition for some other thing, or occurrence. In 
the Patthana, the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka 
(comprising 6 large vols, in the Siamese edition), these 
24 modes of conditionality are enumerated and ex- 
plained, and then applied to all conceivable mental 
and physical phenomena and occurrences, and thus 
their conditioned nature is demonstrated. 

The first two volumes of the Patthana have been 
translated into English by the Venerable U Narada 
(Mulapatthana Sayadaw) of Burma, under the title 
Conditional Relations (Published by the Pali Text 
Society, London 1969, 1981). For a synopsis of this 
work, see Guide VII. 


The 24 modes of conditionality are: 

l.Root condition 

hetu paccaya 

2. Object 

drammana ' 

3. Predominance 


4. Priority " 


5. Contiguity " 

samanantara ' 

6. Co-nascence " 

sahajdta ' 

7. Mutuality 


8. Support " 

nissaya ! 

9. Decisive Support" 


10. Pre-nascence 


11. Post-nascence !i 

pacchdjdta ! 

12. Repitition " 


13. Karma " 


14. Karma-result " 

vipdka ! 

15. Nutriment " 


16. Faculty " 


17. Jhana " 

jhana ' 

18. Path 


19. Association " 


20. Dissociation 

vippayutta ' 

21. Presence 

atthi ' 

22. Absence " 


23. Disappearance " 

vigata ' 

24. Non- disappearance " 

avigata ' 

(1) Root-condition (hetu-paccaya) is that condition 
that resembles the root of a tree. Just as a tree rests on 
its root, and remains alive only as long as its root is not 
destroyed, similarly all karmically wholesome and un- 
wholesome mental states are entirely dependent on the 
simultaneity and presence of their respective roots, 


i.e. of greed (lobha), hate (dosa), delusion (moha), or 
greedlessness (alobha), hatelessness (adosa), undelud- 
edness (amohd) . For the definition of these 6 roots, 
s. mula. 

"The roots are a condition by way of root for the 
(mental) phenomena associated with a root, and for 
the corporeal phenomena produced thereby (e.g. for 
bodily expression)" (Patth.). 

(2) Object-condition (drammana-paccayd) is called 
something which, as object, forms the condition for 
consciousness and mental phenomena. Thus, the phys- 
ical object of sight consisting in colour and light ('light- 
wave'), is the necessary condition and the sine qua non 
for the arising of eye-consciousness (cakkhu-vinndna) , 
etc.; sound ('sound wave') for ear-consciousness (sotd- 
vinndnd), etc.; further, any object arising in the mind is 
the condition for mind-consciousness (mano-vifindnd) . 
The mind-object may be anything whatever, corporeal 
or mental, past, present or future, real or imaginary. 

(3) Predominance-condition (adhipati-paccaya) is 
the term for 4 things, on the preponderance and pre- 
dominance of which are dependent the mental pheno- 
mena associated with them, namely: concentrated 
intention (chanda, q.v.), energy (yiriya, q.v.), conscious- 
ness (cittd) and investigation (yimamsd) . In one and the 
same state of consciousness, however, only one of these 
4 phenomena can be predominant at a time. "When- 
ever such phenomena as consciousness and mental 
concomitants are arising by giving preponderance to 
one of these 4 things, then this phenomenon is for the 


other phenomena a condition by way of predomin- 
ance" (Patth.) . Cf. iddhi-pdda. 

(4-5) Proximity and contiguity (or immediacy) 
-condition (anantara and samanantara-paccaya) - both 
being identical - refer to any state of consciousness and 
mental phenomena associated with them, which are the 
conditions for the immediately following stage in the 
process of consciousness. For example, in the visual 
process, eye-consciousness is for the immediately 
following mind-element - performing the function of 
receiving the visible object - a condition by way of 
contiguity; and so is this mind-element for the next 
following mind-consciousness element, performing the 
function of investigating the object, etc. Cf. vinndna- 

(6) Co-nascence condition (sahajdta-paccayd) , 
i.e. condition by way of simultaneous arising, is a phen- 
omenon that for another one forms, a condition in such 
a way that, simultaneously with its arising, also the 
other thing must arise. Thus, for instance, in one and 
the same moment each of the 4 mental groups (feeling, 
perception, mental formations and consciousness) is for 
the 3 other groups a condition by way of co-nascence 
or co-arising; or again each of the 4 physical elements 
(solid, liquid, heat, motion) is such a condition for the 
other 3 elements. Only at the moment of conception in 
the mother's womb does corporeality (physical base of 
mind) serve for the 4 mental groups as a condition by 
way of conascence. 


(7) Condition by way of mutuality (anndmanna- 
paccayd) . All the just mentioned associated and co- 
nascent mental phenomena, as well as the 4 physical 
elements, are, of course, at the same time also condit- 
ioned by way of mutuality, "just like three sticks prop- 
ped up one by another." The 4 mental groups are one 
for another a condition by way of mutuality. So also 
are the 4 elements, and also mentality and corporeality 
at the moment of conception. 

(8) Support-condition (nissaya-paccaya) . This 
condition refers either to a pre-nascent (s. 10) or 
co-nascent (s. 6) phenomenon which is aiding other 
phenomena in the manner of a foundation or base, just 
as the trees have the earth as their foundation, or as the 
oil-painting rests on the canvas. In this way, the 5 sense- 
organs and the physical base of the mind are for the 
corresponding 6 kinds of consciousness a prenascent, 
i.e. previously arisen, condition by way of support. 
Further all co-nascent (s. 6) phenomena are mutually 
(s. 7) conditioned by each other by way of support. 

(9) Decisive-support (or inducement) condition 
(upanissaya-paccaya) is threefold, namely (a) by way 
of object (drammanupanissaya-paccaya), (b) by way of 
proximity (anantarupanissayd) , (c) natural decisive 
support (pakatupanissaya) . These conditions act as 
strong inducement or cogent reason. 

(a) Anything past, present or future, corporeal or 
mental, real or imaginary, may, as object of our think- 
ing, become a decisive support, or strong inducement, 
to moral, immoral or karmically neutral states of mind. 


Evil things, by wrong thinking about them, become an 
inducement to immoral life; by right thinking, an in- 
ducement to moral life. But good things may be an 
inducement not only to similarly good things, but also 
to bad things, such as self-conceit, vanity, envy, etc. 

(b) is identical with proximity condition (No. 4). 

(c) Faith, virtue, etc., produced in one's own mind, 
or the influence of climate, food, etc., on one's body 
and mind, may act as natural and decisive support- 
conditions. Faith may be a direct and natural induce- 
ment to charity, virtue to mental training, etc.; greed to 
theft, hate to murder; unsuitable food and climate to 
ill-health; friends to spiritual progress or deterioration. 

(10) Pre-nascence-condition (purejdta-paccaya) 
refers to something previously arisen, which forms a 
base for something arising later on. For example, the 

5 physical sense-organs and the physical base of mind, 
having already arisen at the time of birth, form the con- 
dition for the consciousness arising later, and for the 
mental phenomena associated therewith. 

(11) Post-nascence-condition (pacchd-jdta-paccaya) 
refers to consciousness and the phenomena therewith 
associated, because they are -just as is the feeling of 
hunger- a necessary condition for the preservation of 
this already arisen body. 

(12) Repetition-condition (asevana-paccaya) refers 
to the karmical consciousness, in which each time the 
preceding impulsive moments (javana-citta, q.v.) are for 
all the succeeding ones a condition by way of repetition 

-221 - 

and frequency, just as in learning by heart, through 
constant repetition, the later recitation becomes gradu- 
ally easier and easier. 

(13) Karma-condition (kamma-paccayd) . The pre- 
natal karma (i.e. karma-volitions, kamma-cetand, in a 
previous birth) is the generating condition (cause) of 
the 5 sense-organs, the fivefold sense-consciousness, 
and the other karma-produced mental and corporeal 
phenomena in a later birth. - Karmical volition is also a 
condition by way of karma for the co-nascent mental 
phenomena associated therewith, but these phenomena 
are in no way karma-results. 

(14) Karma-result-condition (yipdka-paccayd) . The 
karma-resultant 5 kinds of sense-consciousness are a 
condition by way of karma-result for the co-nascent 
mental and corporeal phenomena. 

(15) Nutriment-condition (dhdra-paccaya) . For the 
4 nutriments, s. dhdra. 

(16) Faculty-condition (indriya-paccaya) . This 
condition applies to 20 faculties (indriya, q.v.), leaving 
out No. 7 and 8 from the 22 faculties. Of these 

20 faculties, the 5 physical sense-organs (1-5), in their 
capacity as faculties, form a condition only for uncor- 
poreal phenomena (eye-consciousness etc.); physical 
vitality (6) and all the remaining faculties, for the 
co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena. 

(17) Jhana-condition (jhdna-paccaya) is a name for 
the 7 so-called jhana-factors, as these form a condition 
to the co-nascent mental and corporeal phenomena, to 


wit: (1) thought-conception (yitakka), (2) discursive 
thinking (yicdrd), (3) interest (piti), (4) joy (sukha), 

(5) sadness (domanassa) , (6) indifference (upekkhd), 
(7) concentration (samddhi). (For definition s. Pali 

1, 2, 3, 4, 7 are found in 4 classes of greedy 
consciousness (s. Tab. I. 22-25); 1, 2, 5, 7 in hateful 
consciousness (ib. 30, 31); 1, 2, 6, 7 in the classes of 
deluded consciousness (ib. 32, 33). 

This condition does not only apply to jhdna alone, 
but also to the general intensifying ('absorbing') impact 
of these 7 factors. 

(18) Path-condition (magga-paccaya) refers to the 
12 path-factors, as these are for the karmically whole- 
some and unwholesome mental phenomena associated 
with them, a way of escape from this or that mental 
constitution, namely: (1) knowledge (pannd = sammd- 
ditthi, right understanding), (2) (right or wrong) 
thought-conception (yitakka), (3) right speech 
(sammd-vdca) , (4) right bodily action (sammd- 
kammanta) , (5) right livelihood (sammd-djlva) , 

(6) (right or wrong) energy (viriya), (7) (right or 
wrong) mindfulness (sati), (8) (right or wrong) 
concentration (samddhi), (9) wrong views (micchd- 
ditthi), (10) wrong speech (micchd-vdca) , (11) wrong 
bodily action (micchd-kammanta) , (12) wrong liveli- 
hood (micchd-djiva) . Cf. magga. 

(19) Association-condition (sampayutta-paccaya) 
refers to the co-nascent (s. 6) and mutually (s. 7) con- 
ditioned 4 mental groups (khandha), "as they aid each 
other by their being associated, by having a common 


physical base, a common object, and by their arising 
and disappearing simultaneously" (Patth. Com.). 

(20) Dissociation-condition (vippayutta-paccaya) 
refers to such phenomena as aid other phenomena by 
not having the same physical base (eye, etc.) and 
objects. Thus corporeal phenomena are for mental 
phenomena, and conversely, a condition by way of 
dissociation, whether co-nascent or not. 

(21) Presence-condition (atthi-paccayd) refers to a 
phenomenon - being pre-nascent or co-nascent - which 
through its presence is a condition for other pheno- 
mena. This condition applies to the conditions Nos. 6, 

(22) Absence-condition (natthi-paccayd) refers to 
consciousness, etc., which has just passed, and which 
thus forms the necessary condition for the immediately 
following stage of consciousness by giving it an 
opportunity to arise. Cf. No. 4. 

(23) Disappearance-condition (yigata-paccaya) is 
identical with No. 22. 

(24) Non-disappearance-condition {avigata- 
paccayd) is identical with No. 21. 

These 24 conditions should be known thoroughly 
for a detailed understanding of that famous formula of 
the dependent origination (paticcasamuppdda, q.v.) . 
Cf. Fund. Ill, Guide p. 117 ff. (App.). 

See The Significance of Dependent Origination, by 
Nyanatiloka (Wheel 140). 


paccaya-sannissita-sila: 'morality consisting in the 
wise use of the monk's requisites'; s. sila (4) . 

pacceka-bodhi: Independent enlightenment'; s. the 
foil, and bodhi. 

pacceka-buddha: an 'Independently Enlightened 
One'; or Separately or Individually (=pacceka) 
Enlightened One (renderings by 'Silent' or 'Private 
Buddha' are not very apt). This is a term for an Arahat 
(s. ariya-puggald) who has realized Nibbana without 
having heard the Buddha's doctrine from others. He 
comprehends the 4 Noble Truths individually 
(pacceka), independent of any teacher, by his own 
effort. He has, however, not the capacity to proclaim 
the Teaching effectively to others, and therefore does 
not become a 'Teacher of Gods and Men', a Perfect or 
Universal Buddha (sammd-sambuddhd) . - Pacceka- 
buddhas are described as frugal of speech, cherishing 
solitude. According to tradition, they do not arise while 
the Teaching of a Perfect Buddha is known; but for 
achieving their rank after many aeons of effort, they 
have to utter an aspiration before a Perfect Buddha. 

Canonical references are few; Pug. 29 (defin.); 
A. II, 56; in M. 116, names of many Paccekabuddhas 
are given; in D. 16 they are said to be worthy of a thupa 
(dagobd); the Treasure-Store Sutta (Nidhikhandha 
Sutta, Khp.) mentions pacceka-bodhi; the C. Nidd. 
ascribes to individual Paccekabuddhas the verses of the 
Rhinoceros Sutta (Khaggavisana Sutta, Sn.) - See 


See The Paccekabuddha, by Ria Kloppenborg 
(Wheel 305/307). 

pacchajata-paccaya: 'post-nascence-condition', is one 
of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

padaka-jjhana: 'foundation-forming absorption', is an 
absorption used as a foundation, or starting point, for 
the higher spiritual powers (abhinnd, q.v.), or for in- 
sight (yipassand, q.v.), leading to the supermundane 
paths (s. ariya-puggala) . The foundation for the former 
is the 4th absorption; for insight, however, any absorp- 
tion is suitable. For details, s. samatha-vipassand. - 

pada-parama: 'one for whom the words are the ut- 
most attainment'. "Whoever, though having learned 
much, speaking much, knowing many things by heart, 
and discoursing much, has not penetrated the truth, 
such a man is called by that name" (Pug. 163). 

padhana: 'effort.' The 4 right efforts (samma- 
padhdnd), forming the 6th stage of the 8-fold Path 
(i.e. sammd-vdydma, s. maggd) are: (1) the effort to 
avoid (samvara-padhdna) , (2) to overcome (pahdna- 
padhdna), (3) to develop (bhdvand-padhdna) , (4) to 
maintain (anurakkhana-padhdncO , i.e. (1) the effort to 
avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil 
thoughts, etc. (2) to overcome unwholesome states, 
(3) to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such as the 
7 elements of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.) , (4) to 
maintain the wholesome states. 


"The monk rouses his will to avoid the arising of 
evil, unwholesome things not yet arisen... to overcome 
them. . . to develop wholesome things not yet arisen. . . 
to maintain them, and not to let them disappear, but to 
bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full per- 
fection of development. And he makes effort, stirs up 
his energy, exerts his mind and strives" (A. IV, 13). 

(1) "What now, O monks, is the effort to avoid? 
Perceiving a form, or a sound, or an odour, or a taste, 
or a bodily or mental impression, the monk neither 
adheres to the whole nor to its parts. And he strives to 
ward off that through which evil and unwholesome 
things might arise, such as greed and sorrow, if he re- 
mained with unguarded senses; and he watches over 
his senses, restrains his senses. This is called the effort 
to avoid. 

(2) "What now is the effort to overcome? The 
monk does not retain any thought of sensual lust, or 
any other evil, unwholesome states that may have 
arisen; he abandons them, dispels them, destroys them, 
causes them to disappear. This is called the effort to 

(3) "What now is the effort to develop? The monk 
develops the factors of enlightenment, bent on soli- 
tude, on detachment, on extinction, and ending in 
deliverance, namely: mindfulness (sad), investigation 
of the law (dhamma-vicaya) , energy (yiriya), rapture 
(piti), tranquillity (passaddhi), concentration 
{samadhi), equanimity (upekkha). This is called the 
effort to develop. 


(4) "What now is the effort to maintain? The monk 
keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concen- 
tration, such as the mental image of a skeleton, a corpse 
infested by worms, a corpse blueblack in colour, a 
festering corpse, a corpse riddled with holes, a corpse 
swollen up. This is called the effort to maintain" 
(A. IV, 14). 

padhaniyanga: 'elements of effort', are the following 
5 qualities: faith, health, sincerity, energy, and wisdom 
(M. 85, 90; A. V. 53). See pdrisuddhi-padhdniyanga. 

pagunnata: 'proficiency', namely, of mental concom- 
itants (kdya-pdgunnatd) , and of consciousness (citta- 
pdgunnatd), are 2 mental phenomena associated with 
all wholesome consciousness. Cf. Tab. II. 

pahana: 'overcoming', abandoning. There are 5 kinds 
of overcoming: (1) overcoming by repression 
(yikkhambhana-pahdnd) , i.e. the temporary suspension 
of the 5 hindrances {mvarana, q.v.) during the absorp- 
tions, (2) overcoming by the opposite (tadanga- 
pahdna), (3) overcoming by destruction (samuccheda- 
pahdnd), (4) overcoming by tranquil lization 
(patipassaddhi-pahdna) , (5) overcoming by escape 
(nissarana-pahdna) . 

(1) "Among these, 'overcoming by repression' is the 
pushing back of adverse things, such as the 5 mental 
hindrances (nivarana, q.v.), etc., through this or that 
mental concentration (samddhi, q.v.), just as a pot 
thrown into moss-clad water pushes the moss aside.... 


(2) "'Overcoming by the opposite' is the overcom- 
ing by opposing this or that thing that is to be over- 
come, by this or that factor of knowledge belonging to 
insight (yipassand q.v.), just as a lighted lamp dispels 
the darkness of the night. In this way, the personality- 
belief (sakkdyaditthi, s. ditthi) is overcome by deter- 
mining the mental and corporeal phenomena... the 
view of uncausedness of existence by investigation into 
the conditions... the idea of eternity by contemplation 
of impermanency. . . the idea of happiness by contemp- 
lation of misery.... 

(3) "If through the knowledge of the noble path 
(s. ariyapuggala) the fetters and other evil things can- 
not continue any longer, just like a tree destroyed by 
lightning, then such an overcoming is called 'overcom- 
ing by destruction' " (Vis.M. XXII, 110f.). 

(4) When, after the disappearing of the fetters at 
the entrance into the paths, the fetters, from the mom- 
ent of fruition (phald) onwards, are forever extinct and 
stilled, such overcoming is called the 'overcoming by 

(5) "The 'overcoming by escape' is identical with 
the extinction and Nibbana" (Pts.M. I. 27). (App.). 

pahana-parinna; s. parinnd. 

pain, feeling of: s. vedand. 

pakati-sila: 'natural or genuine morality', is distinct 
from those outward rules of conduct laid down for 
either laymen or monks. Those later are the so-called 
'prescribed morality' (panndttisila) . Cf. slla. 


pakati-upanissaya: 'direct inducement'; s.paccaya. 

palibodha: 'obstacles', is the term for the following 
things if they obstruct the monk in the strict practice of 
a subject of meditation: a crowded monastery, travel- 
ling, relatives, association with lay folk, gifts, pupils, 
repairs in the monastery, sickness, study, magical 
power. The latter, however, may become an obstacle 
only in developing insight (yipassand, q.v.) . See 
Vis.M. Ill, 29ff. - (App.) 

pamsukulik'anga: the 'vow to wear only robes made 
from picked-up rags', is one of the ascetic rules of 
purification; s. dhutanga. 

panatipata veramanl: 'abstaining from the killing of 
living beings', is the first of the 5 moral rules binding 
upon all Buddhists; s. sikkhdpada. 

pancadvaravajjana: 'advertence to the 5-sense-doors'; 
s. vinndna-kicca. 

panca-sila: s. sikkhdpada. 

panca-vokara-bhava: 'five-group existence', is a name 
for existence in the sensuous sphere (kdmdvacara) , or 
in the fine-material sphere (rupdvacara, s. avacara), 
since all the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) are 
found there. In the immaterial sphere {arupdvacara, 
s. avacara), however, only the 4 mental groups are 
found, and in the world of unconscious beings (asafind- 
satta, q.v.) only the one corporeality group. Cf. eka- 
vokdra-bhava and catu-panca-vokdra-bhava; further 
s. avacara. - (App.: vokdra). 


panha-byakarana: 'answering questions'. "There are, 
O monks, 4 ways of answering questions: there are 
questions requiring a direct answer; questions requiring 
an explanation; questions to be answered by counter- 
questions; questions to be rejected (as wrongly put) ." 
See D. 33; A. Ill, 68; A. IV, 42. 

panna: 'understanding, knowledge, wisdom, insight', 
comprises a very wide field. The specific Buddhist 
knowledge or wisdom, however, as part of the Noble 
Eightfold Path (magga, q.v.) to deliverance, is insight 
(yipassand, q.v.), i.e. that intuitive knowledge which 
brings about the 4 stages of holiness and the realization 
of Nibbana (s. ariyapuggald) , and which consists in the 
penetration of the impermanency {anicca, q.v.), misery 
(dukkha, s. saccd) and impersonality (anattd) of all 
forms of existence. Further details, s. under tilakkhana. 

With regard to the condition of its arising one 
distinguishes 3 kinds of knowledge: knowledge based 
on thinking (cintd-mayd-pannd) , knowledge based on 
learning (suta-mayd-pannd) , knowledge based on 
mental development (bhdvand-mayd-pannd) (D. 33). 

'"Based on thinking' is that knowledge which one 
has acquired through one's own thinking, without 
having learnt it from others. 'Based on learning' is that 
knowledge which one has heard from others and thus 
acquired through learning. 'Based on mental develop- 
ment' is that knowledge which one has acquired 
through mental development in this or that way, and 
which has reached the stage of full concentration" 
(appand, q.v.) (Vis.M. XIV). 

-231 - 

Wisdom is one of the 5 mental faculties (s. bald), 
one of the 3 kinds of training (sikkhd, q.v.) , and one of 
the perfections (s. pdrami). For further details, 
s. vipassand, and the detailed exposition in Vis.M. XIV, 

pannatti-sila: 'prescribed morality', is a name for the 
disciplinary rules of the monk or layman prescribed by 
the Buddha, as distinguished from natural or genuine 
morality (pakati-slla; s. slid) . 

panna-vimutti: 'deliverance through wisdom' (or 
understanding'), signifies, according to Com. to 
A.V, 142, the wisdom associated with the fruition of 
holiness (arahatta-phald) . In Pug. 31 and similarly in 
M. 70, it is said: "A monk may not have reached in his 
own person the 8 liberations (=jhdna, q.v.), but 
through his wisdom the cankers have come to extinct- 
ion in him. Such a person is called wisdom-liberated" 
(pannd-vimuttci) . - Com. to Pug.: "He may be one of 
five persons: either a practiser of bare insight {sukkha- 
vipassako, q.v.), or one who has attained to Holiness 
after rising from one of the absorptions." See S. XII, 70. 

The term is often linked with ceto-vimutti (q.v.), 
'deliverance of mind'. 

papanca: (Sanskrit prapaficd): In doctrinal usage, it 
signifies the expansion, differentiation, 'diffuseness' or 
'manifoldness' of the world; and it may also refer to the 
'phenomenal world' in general, and to the mental 
attitude of 'worldliness'. In A. IV, 173, it is said: "As far 
as the field of sixfold sense-impression extends, so far 
reaches the world of diffuseness (or the phenomenal 


world; papancassa gati) ; as far as the world of diffuse- 
ness extends, so far extends the field of sixfold sense- 
impression. Through the complete fading away and 
cessation of the field of sixfold sense-impression, there 
comes about the cessation and the coming-to-rest of the 
world of diffuseness (papanca-nirodho papanca- 
vupasamo)" The opposite term nippapanca is a name 
for Nibbana (S. LIII), in the sense of 'freedom from 
samsaric diffuseness'. - Dhp. 254: "Mankind delights in 
the diffuseness of the world, the Perfect Ones are free 
from such diffuseness" (papancabhirata paja, 
nippapanca tathagatd). - The 8th of the 'thoughts of a 
great man' (mahd-purisa-vitakka; A. VIII, 30) has: "This 
Dhamma is for one who delights in non-diffuseness (the 
unworldly, Nibbana); it is not for him who delights in 
worldliness (papanca)." - For the psychological sense 
of 'differentiation', see M. 18 (Madhupindika Sutta): 
"Whatever man conceives (yitakketi) that he different- 
iates (papanceti); and what he differentiates, by reason 
thereof ideas and considerations of differentiation 
{papanca-sannd-sankha) arise in him." On this text and 
the term papanca, see Dr. Kurt Schmidt in German 
Buddhist Writers (Wheel 74/75) p. 61ff. - See D. 21 
(Sakka's Quest; Wheel 10, p. 

In the commentaries, we often find a threefold 
classification tanhd-, ditthi-, mdna-papanca, which 
probably means the world's diffuseness created by 
craving, false views and conceit. - See M. 123; 
A. IV, 173; A. VI, 14, Sn. 530, 874, 916. 

Nanananda Bhikkhu, in Concept and Reality: An Essay on 
Papanca and Papahca-sahha-sankha (Kandy 1971, Buddhist 
Publication Society), suggests that the term refers to man's 


"tendency towards proliferation in the realm of concepts" 
and proposes a rendering by "conceptual proliferation," 
which appears convincing in psychological context, e.g. in 
two of the texts quoted above, A. IV, 173 and M. 18. - The 
threefold classification of papanca, by way of craving, false 
views and conceit, is explained by the author as three 
aspects, or instances, of the foremost of delusive 
conceptualisations, the ego-concept. 

paramasa: 'adherence', attachment, 'misapprehension', 
is according to Vis.M. XXII a name for wrong views; in 
that sense it occurs in Dhs. 1174 ff. - See silabbata- 

paramattha (sacca, -vacana, -desana) : 'truth (or term, 
exposition) that is true in the highest (or ultimate) 
sense', as contrasted with the 'conventional truth' 
(yohdra-saccd) , which is also called 'commonly accept- 
ed truth' (sammuti-sacca; in Skr: samvrti-satyd) . The 
Buddha, in explaining his doctrine, sometimes used 
conventional language and sometimes the philosoph- 
ical mode of expression which is in accordance with 
undeluded insight into reality. In that ultimate sense, 
existence is a mere process of physical and mental 
phenomena within which, or beyond which, no real 
ego-entity nor any abiding substance can ever be 
found. Thus, whenever the suttas speak of man, woman 
or person, or of the rebirth of a being, this must not be 
taken as being valid in the ultimate sense, but as a mere 
conventional mode of speech (yohdra-vacand) . 

It is one of the main characteristics of the Abhi- 
dhamma Pitaka, in distinction from most of the Sutta 
Pitaka, that it does not employ conventional language, 
but deals only with ultimates, or realities in the highest 


sense (paramattha-dhammd) . But also in the Sutta 
Pitaka there are many expositions in terms of ultimate 
language (paramattha-desand) , namely, wherever these 
texts deal with the groups (khandhd), elements (dhdtu) 
or sense-bases (dyatand), and their components; and 
wherever the 3 characteristics (ti-lakkhana, q.v.) are 
applied. The majority of Sutta texts, however, use the 
conventional language, as appropriate in a practical or 
ethical context, because it "would not be right to say 
that 'the groups' (khandhd) feel shame, etc." 

It should be noted, however, that also statements 
of the Buddha couched in conventional language, are 
called 'truth' (yohdra-saccd) , being correct on their own 
level, which does not contradict the fact that such state- 
ments ultimately refer to impermanent and impersonal 

The two truths - ultimate and conventional - 
appear in that form only in the commentaries, but are 
implied in a sutta-distinction of 'explicit (or direct) 
meaning' (nltattha, q.v.) and 'implicit meaning (to be 
inferred)' (neyyatthd) . Further, the Buddha repeatedly 
mentioned his reservations when using conventional 
speech, e.g. in D. 9: "These are merely names, express- 
ions, turns of speech, designations in common use in 
the world, which the Perfect One (Tathagata) uses 
without misapprehending them." See also S. I. 25. 

The term paramattha, in the sense here used, 
occurs in the first para, of the Kathavatthu, a work of 
the Abhidhamma Pitaka (s. Guide, p. 62). (App: 
vohara) . 

The commentarial discussions on these truths 
(Com. to D. 9 and M. 5) have not yet been translated in 


full. On these see K N. Jayatilleke, Early Buddhist 
Theory of Knowledge (London, 1963), pp. 361ff. 

In Mahayana, the Madhyamika school has given a 
prominent place to the teaching of the two truths. 

parami = paramita: 'perfection'. Ten qualities leading 
to Buddhahood: (1) perfection in giving (or liberality; 
ddna-pdrami) , (2) morality (sila-p.), (3) renunciation 
(nekkhamma-p.) , (4) wisdom (pannd-p.), (5) energy 
(yiriya-p.), (6) patience (or forbearance; khanti-p.), 
(7) truthfulness (sacca-p.), (8) resolution 
(adhitthdna-p.) , (9) loving-kindness (mettd-p.), 
(10) equanimity (upekkhd-p.). 

These qualities were developed and brought to 
maturity by the Bodhisatta in his past existences, and 
his way of practising them is illustrated in many of the 
Birth Stories (Jataka), of which, however, only the ver- 
ses are regarded as canonical. Apart from the latter, the 
10 pdranii are mentioned in only two other canonical 
works which are probably apocryphal, the Buddha- 
vamsa (in the Story of Sumedha) and the Cariyapitaka. 
A long and methodical exposition of the parami is given 
in the concluding Miscellaneous Section 
(pakinnakakathd) of the Com. to Cariyapitaka 

In Vis.M. IX it is said that through developing the 
4 sublime states (loving-kindness, compassion, altruistic 
joy, equanimity; s. brahma-vihdrd) , one may reach 
these 10 perfections, namely: 

"As the Great Beings (mahd-satta; a synonym often 
found in the Mahayana scriptures for Bodhisatta (q.v.), 
i.e. 'Enlightenment Being or Being destined for Buddha- 


hood) are concerned about the welfare of living beings, 
not tolerating the suffering of beings, wishing long dur- 
ation to the higher states of happiness of beings, and 
being impartial and just to all beings, therefore (1) they 
give alms (ddna, q.v.) to all beings so that they may be 
happy, without investigating whether they are worthy 
or not. (2) By avoiding to do them any harm, they ob- 
serve morality (sila q.v.). (3) In order to bring morality 
to perfection, they train themselves in renunciation 
(nekkhamma) . (4) In order to understand clearly what 
is beneficial and injurious to beings, they purify their 
wisdom (panfid). (5) For the sake of the welfare and 
happiness of others they constantly exert their energy 
(yiriyd) . (6) Though having become heroes through 
utmost energy, they are nevertheless full of forbear- 
ance (khanti) towards the manifold failings of beings. 

(7) Once they have promised to give or do something, 
they do not break their promise ('truthfulness'; sacca) . 

(8) With unshakable resolution (adhitthdnd) they work 
for the weal and welfare of beings. (9) With unshak- 
able kindness (mettd) they are helpful to all. (10) By 
reason of their equanimity (upekkhd) they do not ex- 
pect anything in return" (Vis.M. IX. 24). 

In the Mahayana scriptures, where the pdrami 
occupy a much more prominent place, a partly differing 
list of six is given: liberality, morality, patience, energy, 
meditation, and wisdom. 

Literature: Ten Jataka Stories (illustrating the 
10 pdrami), by I. B. Horner (London 1957, Luzac & Co.); 
Buddhavamsa & Cariyapitaka. tr. by I. B. Horner (Minor 
Anthologies III, Sacred Books of the Buddhists. PTS). - 
Narada Thera, The Buddha & His Teachings, Ch. 41; Parami 


(BPS) - The treatise on the perfections from the Com. to 
Cariyapitaka has been translated in The Discourse on the 
Ail-Embracing Net of Views (Brahmajala Sutta, with Com.), 
tr. by Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS). 

paranimmita-vasavatti-deva: 'heavenly beings with 
power over the productions of others', constitute a class 
of heavenly beings in the sensuous sphere (kama-loka) . 
Mara (q.v.) is said to be their ruler. Cf. loka, deva I. 

parassa ceto-pariya-nana: 'penetration of the mind of 
others', is one of the higher powers (abhinna, q.v.) . 

paricchinnakasa-kasina: 'limited-space kasina' = 
space kasina; s. kasina. (App.). 

parihana-dhamma: 'liable to decline'. "Now, someone 
reaches the attainments (absorptions: jhana, q.v.) of the 
fine-material or immaterial sphere (s. avacard) . But he 
does not reach them according to his wish, and not 
without trouble and exertion; and not according to his 
wish with regard to place, object and duration, does he 
enter them, or rise therefrom. Therefore it is well pos- 
sible that such a monk, through negligence, may lose 
these attainments. Such a person is said to be liable to 
decline" (Pug. 5). 

parikamma: 'preparatory-moment': s.javana. 

parikamma-nimitta: 'preparatory image'; s. nimitta, 

parikamma-samadhi: 'preparatory concentration', 
is the initial and still undeveloped concentration of 
mind; s. samadhi. 


parinibbana: 'full Nibbana', is a synonym for Nibbana; 
this term, therefore, does not refer exclusively to the 
extinction of the 5 groups of existence at the death of 
the Holy One, though often applied to it. Cf. nibbana. 

parinna: 'full understanding', full comprehension. 
There are 3 kinds of mundane f.u. (lokiya-p.), namely: 
full understanding of the known (fiata-p.), f.u. as 
investigating (tirana-p.), and f.u. as overcoming 
(pahana-p.) In Vis.M. XX, 3 it is said: 

"Full understanding of the known is the knowledge 
consisting in the discernment of the specific character- 
istics of such and such phenomena, as: 'Corporeality 
has the characteristic of being oppressed; feeling has 
the characteristic of being felt, etc' 

"Full understanding by investigating is that insight- 
wisdom (yipassana-panna; s. vipassand), which has the 
3 general characteristics (impermanence, suffering, not- 
self) as its objects, and which arises when attributing a 
general characteristic to (physical and mental) pheno- 
mena, as for instance: 'Corporeality is impermanent, 
feeling is impermanent, etc' 

"Full understanding by overcoming is that insight- 
wisdom which has the above mentioned general char- 
acteristics as its objects, and arises after overcoming the 
idea of permanence, etc." - (App.). 

parisuddhi-padhaniyanga: the 4 'elements of the 
effort for purity', are: effort for purity of morality {slla- 
parisuddhi-padhaniyanga) , for purity of mind (citta), of 
view {ditthi), of deliverance (yimutti). Cf. A. IV, 194. - 
Another 9 factors are enumerated in D. 34, namely the 


7 'stages of purification (s. visuddhi) and the effort for 
purity of (higher) knowledge (yijja-p.-p.) and of 
deliverance (yimutti-p.-p.). 

parisuddhi-sila: 'morality consisting in purity', is 
fourfold: restraint with regard to the monks' 
Disciplinary Code, sense restraint, purity of livelihood, 
morality with regard to the monks' 4 requisites; for 
details, s. slla. 

parittabha and paritta-subha are 2 classes of heaven- 
ly beings of the fine-material sphere; s. deva (II). 

pariyatti: 'learning the doctrine', the 'wording of the 
doctrine'. In the 'progress of the disciple' (q.v.), 3 stages 
may be distinguished: theory, practice, realization, 
i.e. (1) learning the wording of the doctrine (pariyatti), 
(2) practising it (patipatti), (3) penetrating it 
(pativedha) and realising its goal. (App.). 

pasada-rupa: 'sensitive corporeality', is a name for the 
5 physical sense-organs responding to sense-stimuli. 
Cf. ay ataxia. 

passaddhi-sambojjhanga: 'tranquillity, as factor of 
enlightenment', consists in tranquillity of mental factors 
(kaya-passaddhi) and tranquillity of consciousness 
(citta-passaddhi) . Cf. bojjhanga; further Tab. II. 

patched-up robes, the practice of wearing: is one of 
the ascetic rules of purification (dhutanga, q.v.) . 

path and not-path, the knowledge and vision regard- 
ing: s. visuddhi (V). 


pathavT-dhatu: 'earth-element', or 'solid element'. It is 
cognizable through the sensations of pressure, touch, 
cold, heat, pain, etc. - About the 4 elements, s. dhdtu, 
khandha (LA.). 

pathavT-kasina: 'earth-kasina' (s. kasind). 

path-condition: magga-paccaya, is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

path-knowledge, the 4 kinds of: s. visuddhi (VII) . 

path-result (fruition) : phala (q.v.). 

patibhaga-nimitta: s. nimitta, kasina, samddhi. 

patibhana-patisambhida: the 'analytical knowledge 
of ready wit': s. patisambhidd. 

paticcasamuppada: 'dependent origination', is the 
doctrine of the conditio nality of all physical and 
psychical phenomena, a doctrine which, together with 
that of impersonality (anattd q.v.) , forms the indispen- 
sable condition for the real understanding and realiz- 
ation of the teaching of the Buddha. It shows the con- 
ditionality and dependent nature of that uninterrupted 
flux of manifold physical and psychical phenomena of 
existence conventionally called the ego, or man, or 
animal, etc. 

Whereas the doctrine of impersonality, or anattd, 
proceeds analytically, by splitting existence up into the 
ultimate constituent parts, into mere empty, unsubstan- 
tial phenomena or elements, the doctrine of dependent 
origination, on the other hand, proceeds synthetically, 
by showing that all these phenomena are, in some way 

-241 - 

or other, conditionally related with each other. In fact, 
the entire Abhidhamma Pitaka, as a whole, treats really 
of nothing but just these two doctrines: phenomenality 
- implying impersonality and conditionality of all 
existence. The former or analytical method is applied in 
Dhammasangani, the first book of the Abhidhamma 
Pitaka; the latter or synthetical method, in Patthana, 
the last book of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. For a synopsis 
of these two works, s. Guide I and VII. 

Though this subject has been very frequently treat- 
ed by Western authors, by far most of them have com- 
pletely misunderstood the true meaning and purpose of 
the doctrine of dependent origination, and even the 
12 terms themselves have often been rendered 

The formula of dependent origination runs as 

1. Avijid-paccayd sankhdrd: "Through ignorance are 
conditioned the sankharas," i.e. the rebirth-producing 
volitions (cetand), or 'karma-formations'. 

2. Sankhdra-paccayd vinndnam: "Through the karma- 
formations (in the past life) is conditioned conscious- 
ness (in the present life)." 

3. Vifindna-paccayd ndma-rupam: "Through conscious- 
ness are conditioned the mental and physical phenom- 
ena (ndma-rupd) ," i.e. that which makes up our so- 
called individual existence. 

4. Ndma-rupa-paccayd saldyatanam: "Through the 
mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the 
6 bases," i.e. the 5 physical sense-organs, and con- 
sciousness as the sixth. 


5. Salayatana-paccaya phasso: "Through the six bases 
is conditioned the (sensorial mental) impression." 

6. Phassa-paccayd vedand: "Through the impression is 
conditioned feeling." 

7. Vedand-paccayd tanhd: "Through feeling is condit- 
ioned craving." 

8. Tanhd-paccayd updddnam: "Through craving is con- 
ditioned clinging." 

9. Updddna-paccayd bhavo: "Through clinging is con- 
ditioned the process of becoming," consisting in the 
active and the passive life process, i.e. the rebirth-pro- 
ducing karma-process (kamma-bhavd) and, as its result, 
the rebirth-process (upapatti-bhavd) . 

10. Bhava-paccayd jdti: "Through the (rebirth-produc- 
ing karma-) process of becoming is conditioned re- 

11. Jdti-paccaydjardmaranam, etc.: "Through rebirth 
are conditioned old age and death (sorrow, lamen- 
tation, pain, grief and despair) . Thus arises this whole 
mass of suffering again in the future." 

The following diagram shows the relationship of 
dependence between three successive lives: 


1 Ignorance (avijjd) 

2 Karma-formations 



5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10 



3 Consciousness 


4 Mind & Matter 


5 Six Bases (dyatana) 

6 Impression (phassa) 

7 Feeling (yedand) 



5 results: 3-7 

8 Craving (tanhd) 

9 Clinging (updddnd) 

10 Process of Becoming 




5 causes: 1,2,8,9,10 


11 Rebirth (jdti) 

12 Old Age and Death 




5 results: 3-7 

Before taking up the study of the following 
exposition, it is suggested that the reader first goes 
thoroughly through the article on the 24 conditions 
(s. paccaya) . For a thorough understanding of the 
paticcasamuppdda he should know the main modes of 
conditioning, as decisive support, co-nascence, pre- 
nascence, etc. 

For a closer study of the subject should be con- 
sulted: Vis.M. XVII; Fund. Ill; Guide (Ch. VII and 
Appendix) ; Dependent Origination, by Piyadassi Thera 
(Wheel 15); The Significance of Dependent Origination 
(Wheel 140). 


(1.) "Through ignorance are conditioned the 
karma-formations" (avijjd-paccayd sankhdrd) , i.e. all 
wholesome and unwholesome actions (karma, q.v.) of 
body, speech and mind, are conditioned through ignor- 
ance. By 'karma-formations' are meant karmically 
wholesome and unwholesome volitions (cetand), or 
volitional activities, in short karma (q.v., and Fund. II). 

In view of the many misconceptions current in the 
West, it is necessary to repeat here that karma (q.v.), as 
a technical term, never signifies anything but moral or 
immoral action, i.e. the above mentioned volitional 
activities, or karma-formations, as either causing results 
in the present life or being the causes of future destiny 
and rebirth. Thus karma, as a philosophical term, never 
means the result of action, as often wrongly conceived 
by Western authors. 

Now, in what way are the karma-formations con- 
ditioned through ignorance? As concerns the unwhole- 
some karma-formations associated with greed, hate or 
delusion (lobha, dosa, mohd), these are always and in 
all circumstances, conditioned through the simultan- 
eous ignorance inseparably associated therewith. Thus, 
ignorance is for the unwholesome karma-formations a 
condition by way of conascence (sahajdta-paccaya) , 
association (sampayutta-paccaya) , presence (atthi- 
paccayd), etc. Ignorance further may be for them a 
condition by way of decisive support or inducement 
(upanissaya-paccaya) , if, for instance, ignorance 
coupled with greed induces a man to commit evil 
deeds, such as killing, stealing, unlawful sexual inter- 
course, etc. In these cases, therefore, ignorance is a 
'natural decisive support' or 'direct inducement' (pakati- 


upanissaya-paccayd) . It also may become an indirect 
inducement, by way of object (drammanupanissaya- 
paccayd) of our thinking. This takes place, if, for 
example, someone remembers a former state of 
ignorance combined with sensual enjoyment, and in 
doing so karmically unwholesome states spring up, 
such as sensual desire, grief, etc. 

For the wholesome (kusala) karma-formations, 
ignorance can only be a condition by way of decisive 
support (upanissaya) , never by way of co-nascence 
(sahajdtd) , etc., since wholesome consciousness at that 
very moment, of course, cannot be associated with any 
unwholesome phenomenon, such as ignorance. Ignor- 
ance is a 'natural decisive support' or 'direct induce- 
ment' (pakatapanissaya) , for example, if, induced by 
ignorance and vanity, one exerts oneself to attain the 
absorptions, and thus finally, through perseverance, 
reaches these wholesome states of mind. Ignorance 
may also be for wholesome karma-formations a 
'decisive support' or 'inducement by way of object' 
(drammanupanissayd) , if, for example, one reflects on 
ignorance as the root of all misery in the world, and 
thus finally attains insight and entrance into one of the 
4 supermundane paths of holiness. 

For ignorance, s. avijjd; for karma-formations, 
s. sankhdra. 

(2.) "Through the karma-formations is conditioned 
consciousness" (sankhdra-paccayd vinndnam). This pro- 
position teaches that the wholesome and unwholesome 
karma-formations are the causes of future rebirth in an 


appropriate sphere (gati) . The karma-formations of the 
previous life condition the budding in a new mother's 
womb of a fresh psycho -physical aggregation of the 
5 groups of existence (s. khandhd), which here are 
represented by consciousness (yinnand) . All such 
karma-resultant (yipdka) consciousness, however, such 
as eye-consciousness (seeing), etc., as well as all the 
mental phenomena associated therewith (feeling, etc.), 
are karmically neutral. It should be understood that 
already from the very first moment of conception in the 
mother's womb, this karma resultant consciousness of 
the embryonic being is functioning. 

Against Dr. Paul Dahlke's misconception of the 
paticcasamuppdda as "one single karmical moment of 
personal experience," and of the 'simultaneity' of all the 
12 links of this formula, I should like to state here dis- 
tinctly that the interpretation of the p. given here as 
comprising 3 successive lives not only agrees with all 
the different schools of Buddhism and all the ancient 
commentaries, but also is fully identical with the ex- 
planations given already in the canonical suttas. Thus, 
for example, it is said verbatim in Nidana-Samyutta 
(S. XII, 51): "Once ignorance (1) and clinging (9) are 
extinguished, neither karmically meritorious, nor 
demeritorious, nor imperturbable karma-formations 
(2 = 10) are produced, and thus no consciousness 
(3 = 11) will spring up again in a new mother's womb." 
And further: "For, if consciousness were not to appear 
in the mother's womb, would in that case mentality and 
corporeality (4) arise?" Cf. above diagram. 

The purpose of the Buddha in teaching the p. was 
to show to suffering mankind how, depending on ignor- 


ance and delusion, this present existence and suffering 
has come about, and how through extinction of ignor- 
ance, and of the craving and clinging conditioned there- 
by, no more rebirth will follow, and thus the standstill 
of the process of existence will have been realized and 
therewith the extinction of all suffering. 

(3.) "Through consciousness are conditioned cor- 
poreality and mentality" (yinndna-paccayd ndma- 
rupam). This proposition implies that without con- 
sciousness there can be no mental and physical process 
of existence. By mentality (ndma) is here to be under- 
stood the karma-resultant (yipdkd) mental phenomena, 
such as feeling (yedand), perception (sannd), volition 
(cetand: non-karmical volition is here meant), con- 
sciousness-impression (phassd), advertence 
(manasikdra) (M. 9; S. XII, 2). For the basic 7 mental 
phenomena inseparably associated with every state of 
consciousness, s. ndma. By corporeality (rupa) is meant 
the 4 physical elements (s. dhdtu) and the corporeality 
dependent thereon (s. khandha, I). 

Mentality is always conditioned through conscious- 
ness; i.e. consciousness (vinfidna) is for mentality 
(ndma) a condition by way of conascence (sahajdta) , 
mutuality (annamafind) , association (sampayutta) , etc., 
since the 4 mental groups at all times form an insepar- 
able unit. 

Consciousness (vinndnd) is for corporeality (rupd) 
a condition by way of co-nascence only at the moment 
of conception, thereafter a condition by way of post- 


nascence (pacchdjdta-paccaya; paccaya 11) and nutri- 
ment (d/idra), i.e. as a support. Just as the repeatedly 
arising hunger is a condition and support for the pre- 
arisen body, so is the consciousness arising afterwards a 
condition and support for the maintenance of this pre- 
arisen body. 

(4.) "Through mentality and corporeality are 
conditioned the 6 bases (ndma-rupa paccayd 
saldyatanam) . The 6 bases are a name for the 
5 physical sense-organs and, as 6th, the mind-base 
(mandyatana) , i.e. consciousness. 

Mentality (ndma; s. 3) is for the 5 physical bases 
(dyatand), or sense-organs, a condition by way of post- 
nascence. Cf. end of 3. 

Mentality (noma), i.e. feeling, etc., is for the 
6th base, or consciousness - as being always insepar- 
ably associated therewith a condition by way of co- 
nascence, etc. 

Corporeality {rupa), here the 4 elements, are for 
the 5 physical bases {dyatana), or sense-organs, a 
condition by way of support {nissaya) . 

Corporeality {rupa), here the 5 physical sense- 
organs, are for the 6th base {dyatana), i.e. conscious- 
ness, a condition by way of support and pre-nascence 
(purejdta-paccaya) . 


(5.) "Through the 6 bases is conditioned the 
(sensorial and mental) impression" (saldyatana-paccayd 
phasso), for without the 5 physical bases, or sense- 
organs, there can be no sense-impressions; and without 
the 6th base, or consciousness, there can be no mental 

Thus, the 5 physical bases, eye, etc., are for the 
corresponding 5 sense-impressions (visual impress- 
ion, etc.) a condition by way of support (nissayd) and 
pre-nascence (purejdtd) , whereas the 6th, the mind- 
base (consciousness), is for the mental impression a 
condition by way of co-nascence, association, 
mutuality, etc. 

(6.) "Through impression is conditioned feeling" 
(phassa-paccayd vedand), i.e. the sensorial and the 
mental impressions are for the feeling associated 
therewith a condition by way of co-nascence, associ- 
ation, mutuality, etc. 

(7.) "Through feeling is conditioned craving" 
(vedand-paccayd tanha) . Any (karma-resultant) feeling, 
whether agreeable, disagreeable or neutral, bodily or 
mental, past or expected, may become for craving a 
condition of decisive support by way of object 
(drammanupanissaya) . Even physically and mentally 
painful feeling may, through the desire to be released 


therefrom, become for craving a condition of decisive 
support by way of object (drammanupanissayd) . 

(8.) "Through craving is conditioned clinging" 
(tanhd-paccayd updddnam) . 'Clinging' is explained as an 
intensified form of craving. It is of 4 kinds: (1) clinging 
to sensuality, (2) to erroneous views, (3) to rules and 
ritual, (4) to personality-belief. Sensuous craving is to 
(1) a condition of natural decisive support 
(pakatupanissaya) . For (2-4), craving is a condition by 
way of co-nascence, mutuality, root (hetu), etc. It also 
may be a condition of natural decisive support. For 
example, through craving for heavenly rebirth, etc. 
people often may be induced to cling to certain rules 
and rituals, with the hope of reaching thereby the 
object of their desires. 

(9.) "Through clinging is conditioned the process of 
becoming" (updddna-paccayd bhavo), i.e. the whole- 
some and unwholesome active karma-process of be- 
coming (kamma-bhava), as well as the karma-resultant 
(yipdka) passive process, the so-called 'rebirth-process' 
(upapatti-bhavd) . The karma-process (kammabhavd) 
comprises the 5 karmical causes: ignorance, karma- 
formations, craving, clinging, karma-process (s. 1, 2, 8, 
9, 10, of the diagram); the rebirth-process (upapatti- 
bhava) comprises the 5 karma-results (s. 3-7 of the 
diagram) . 

-251 - 

The karma-process is here, correctly speaking, a 
collective name for generative karmic volition (kamma- 
cetana) and all the mental phenomena associated 
therewith, whilst the 2nd link (karma-formations) 
designates only karmic volition (s. dyuhand). Both, 
however, i.e. the 2nd and 10th proposition, practically 
state one and the same thing, namely, that karma is the 
cause of rebirth, as we shall see under 10. 

Clinging (updddnd) may be an inducement of deci- 
sive support (upanissayd) to many kinds of wholesome 
and unwholesome karma. Sensuous clinging 
(kdmupdddna) , i.e. clinging to sensuous objects, for 
example, may be a direct inducement to murder, theft, 
unlawful intercourse with the other sex, evil words and 
thoughts, etc. Clinging to rules and ritual 
(sllabbatupaddna) may lead to self-complacency, 
fanaticism, cruelty, etc. Clinging is also for the evil 
karma associated therewith, a condition by way of 
co-nascence, association, etc. 

(10.) "Through the process of becoming is condit- 
ioned rebirth" (bhava-paccayd jdti) , i.e. through the 
wholesome and unwholesome karma-process (kamma- 
bhavd) is conditioned the rebirth-process (upapatti- 
bhavd). The 2nd and 10th propositions, as already 
pointed out, practically teach one and the same thing, 
namely, that karma is the cause of rebirth; in other 
words, that the karmical volition (cetcmd) is the seed 
out of which springs the new life, just as from the 
mango-seed is generated the new mango-tree. 


Hence, the 5 karmical causes (ignorance, etc.) of 
the past birth are the condition for the karma-results of 
the present birth; and the 5 karmical causes of the 
present birth are the condition for the 5 karma-results 
of the next birth (s. diagram). As it is said in Vis.M. XVII: 

"Five causes were there in the past, 
Five fruits we find in present life; 
Five causes do we now produce, 
Five fruits we reap in future life." 

Now, just as in this process of continually changing 
mental and bodily phenomena, nothing can be found 
that would pass from one moment to the next moment, 
so also there is no enduring entity, ego, or personality, 
within this process of existence that would transmigrate 
from one life to the next (s. ndma-rupa, anattd, 
patisandhi, khandhd) . "No being and no living soul 
passed from the former life to this life, and yet this 
present embryo could not have entered into existence 
without the preceding causes" (Vis.M. XVII). "Many 
things may serve to illustrate this fact, as for example 
the echo, the light of a lamp, the impression of a seal, 
or the image produced by a mirror" (ib.). 

"Whosoever is in the dark with regard to the con- 
ditionally arisen things, and does not understand that 
karma originates from ignorance, etc., he thinks that it 
must be his ego that knows or does not know, acts and 
causes to act, and that arises at rebirth. Or he thinks 
that the atoms, or a creator, with the help of this em- 
bryonic process, must have formed this body, or that it 
is the ego endowed with faculties that has impressions, 


feels, desires, clings, continues and enters again into 
existence in a new birth. Or he thinks that all beings 
have been born through fate, or fortuitously" 

Now, on hearing that Buddhism teaches that every- 
thing whatever in the world is determined by condit- 
ions some might come to the conclusion that Buddhism 
teaches some sort of fatalism, and that man has no free 
will, or that will is not free. 

The problem 'whether man has a free will' does not 
exist for, the Buddhist, since he knows that, apart from 
these ever-changing mental and physical phenomena, 
no such entity as 'man' can be found, and that 'man' is 
merely a name not relating to any reality. And the 
question, 'whether will is free', must be rejected for the 
reason that 'will', or volition, is a mental phenomenon 
flashing forth only for a moment, and that as such it 
had not any existence at the preceding moment. For of 
a thing which is not, or is not yet, one cannot, properly 
speaking, ask whether it is free or unfree. The only 
admissible question would be whether the arising of 
'will' is independent of conditions, or whether it is 
conditioned. But the same question would equally 
apply also to all the other mental phenomena, as well 
as to all physical phenomena, in other words: to every- 
thing and every occurrence whatever. And the answer 
would be: whether will arises, or whether feeling 
arises, or whether any other mental or any physical 
phenomenon arises, the arising of anything whatsoever 
is dependent on conditions, and without conditions 
nothing ever can arise or enter into existence. 


According to Buddhism, everything mental or 
physical happens in accordance with laws and condi- 
tions; and if it were otherwise, chaos and blind chance 
would reign. But such a thing is impossible and 
contradicts all laws of thinking. Cf. Fund. Ill (end). 

(11.) "Through rebirth are conditioned old age and 
death" (jdtipaccayd jard-maranam) . Without birth there 
can be no old age and death, no suffering and misery. 
Thus rebirth is to old age and death, etc. a condition by 
way of decisive support (upanissaya) . 

The Buddha has said (D. 15): "Profound, Ananda. 
is this dependent origination, and profound does it 
appear. It is through not understanding, not penetrat- 
ing, this law that this world resembles a tangled ball of 
thread, a bird's nest, a thicket of sedge or reed, and that 
man does not escape from the lower states of existence, 
from the course of woe and perdition, suffering from 
the round of rebirth." And further (M. 28): 'Whoso 
understands the dependent origination understands the 
Dhamma; and whoso understands the Dhamma under- 
stands the dependent origination." 

patience, or forbearance (khanti) : one of the 
10 perfections (pdraml, q.v.). 

patigha: - 1. In an ethical sense, it means: 'repug- 
nance', grudge, resentment, anger, and is a synonym of 
vydpdda, 'ill-will' (s. nlvarana) and dosa, 'hate' 
(s. mula). It is one of the proclivities (anusaya, q.v.). 


2. '(Sense-) reaction'. Applied to five-sense cognit- 
ion, p. occurs in the following contexts: 

(a) as patigha-sanna, 'perception of sense-reaction', 
said to be absent in the immaterial absorptions 
(s.jhdna 5). Alternative renderings: resistance-percept- 
ion, reflex-perception; 

(b) as patigha-samphassa, '(mental) impression 
caused by 5-fold sensorial reaction' (D. 15); s.phassa; 

(c) as sappatigha-rupa, 'reacting corporeality', and 
appatigha, 'not reacting', which is an Abhidhammic 
classification of corporeality, occurring in Dhs. 659, 
1050. S appatigha are called the physical sense-organs 
as reacting (or responding) to sense stimuli; and also 
the physical sense-objects as impinging (or making an 
impact) on the sense-organs. All other corporeality is 
appatigha, non-reacting and non-impinging. These 

2 terms have been variously rendered as resistant and 
not, responding and not, with and without impact. 

patihariya: 'miracle', marvel. Three marvels are 
ascribed to the Buddha: the marvel of magic (iddhi-p.), 
the marvel of mind-reading (adesana-p.) and the 
marvel of instruction (anusasarii-p.). In D. 11, the 
Buddha says that he sees danger in the first two and 
therefore abhors them. In A. Ill, 61, the 'marvel of 
instruction' is called the one 'more noble and sublime'. 
For iddhi-patihariya, see D. 25. See also yamakapatihariy a. 

patikkula-sanna: s. kayagata-sati. 

patimokkha: 'Disciplinary Code', is the name of the 
code of monk's rules, which on all full-moon and new 


moon days is recited before the assembled community 
of fully ordained monks (bhikkhu). 

See The Patimokkha, Romanized Pali text and transl. by 
Nanamoli Thera (Bangkok 1966, Mahamakut Buddhist 

patimokkha-samvara-sila: 'morality consisting in 
restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code' 
(Patimokkha, s. prec). For details, s. slla. 

patinissagganupassana: 'contemplation on 
abandonment', is one of the 18 kinds of insight 
(yipassana q.v.). Further cf. the 16th exercise of 
anapana-sati (q.v.). 

patipada: 1. 'Road', 'path'; for instance in 
dukkhanirodha-gamim-patipada, 'the road leading to 
the extinction of suffering' (= 4th Noble Truth); 
majjhima-patipada, 'the Middle Way'. 

2. 'Progress' (see also the foil, article). There are 
4 modes of progress to deliverance: (1) painful 
progress with slow comprehension (dukkha patipada 
dandhabhinna) , (2) painful progress with quick 
comprehension, (3) pleasant progress with slow 
comprehension, (4) pleasant progress with quick 
comprehension. In A. IV, 162 it is said: 

(1) "Some person possesses by nature excessive 
greed, excessive hate, excessive delusion, and thereby 
he often feels pain and sorrow; and also the 5 mental 
faculties, as faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration 
and wisdom (s. indriya 15-19) are dull in him; and by 
reason thereof he reaches only slowly the immediacy 
(anantariya, q.v.) to the cessation of all cankers. 


(2) "Some person possesses by nature excessive 
greed, etc., but the 5 mental faculties are sharp in him 
and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the 
immediacy to the cessation of all cankers. . . . 

(3) "Some person possesses by nature no excessive 
greed, etc., but the 5 mental faculties are dull in him, 
and by reason thereof he reaches slowly the immediacy 
to the cessation of all cankers.... 

(4) 'Some person possesses by nature no excessive 
greed, etc., and the mental faculties are sharp in him, 
and by reason thereof he reaches quickly the 
immediacy to the cessation of all cankers. . . . 

See A. IV, 162, 163, 166-169; Dhs. 176ff; 
Atthasalini Tr. I, 243; 11, 291, 317. 

patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi: 'purification by 
knowledge and vision of the path-progress' forms the 
6th stage of purification (visuddhi, q.v.). 

patipannaka: 'path-attainer', is he who had reached 
one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness (s. ariya- 
puggald). -(App.) 

patipatti: practice, or 'pursuance' of the teaching, as 
distinguished from the mere theoretical knowledge of 
its wording (pariyatti, q.v.). 

patipassaddhi-pahana: 'overcoming (of 
defilements) by tranquillization' (s. pahdnd) . 

patisambhida: 'analytical knowledge' or 'discrimin- 
ation', is of 4 kinds: analytical knowledge of the true 
meaning (attha-patisambhidd) , of the law (dhamma- 


patisambhidd) , of language (nirutti-patisambhida) , of 
ready wit (patibhana-patisambhida) . 

As an alternative rendering of the fourth term 
(patibhana) , Bhikkhu Nanamoli proposes: perspicuity 
(in expression and knowledge) . 

1. The analytical knowledge of the meaning 
(attha-p.) is the knowledge with regard to the sense. 

2. The analytical knowledge of the law 
(dhamma-p.) is the knowledge with regard to the law. 

3. The analytical knowledge of language 
(nirutti-p.) is the knowledge of the language with 
regard to those former 2 things. 

4. The analytical knowledge of ready-wit 
(patibhana-p.) is the knowledge about the (former 3) 
kinds of knowledge" (Vibh. XV). 

"(1) attha (Sanskrit artha, Var, to reach; result, 
meaning, purpose, true substance) designates, in short, 
the fruit (phala) of a cause (hetu); for since the fruit of 
a cause results from adhering to the cause, and is 
reached and effected thereby, therefore it is called 
result {attha). In particular, however, 5 things are 
considered as attha, namely: everything dependent on 
conditions, Nibbana, the meaning of words, karma- 
result, and functional consciousness. When anyone 
reflects on that meaning any knowledge of his, falling 
within the category concerned with meaning (or 
result) , is the 'analytical knowledge' of meaning. 

"(2) dhamma (Sanskrit dharma, Vdhar, to bear; 
bearer, condition, law, phenomenon, thing) is, in short, 
a name for condition (paccaya) .... In particular, how- 


ever, 5 things are considered as dhamma, namely: 
every cause (hetu) producing a result, the noble path, 
the spoken word, the karmically wholesome, the kar- 
mically unwholesome. When anyone reflects on that 
law, any knowledge of his, falling within the category 
concerned with law (or cause), is the 'analytical know- 
ledge' of the law. 

In Vibh. it is further said: 'The knowledge of suffer- 
ing is the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning 
(attha-patisambhidd) , the knowledge of its origin is the 
'analytical knowledge' of the law (dhamma- 
patisambhidd) . The knowledge of the cause is the 
'analytical knowledge' of the law (dhamma- 
patisambhidd) , the knowledge of the result of the cause 
is the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning (attha- 
patisambhidd) .... That the monk knows the law, the 
sunas etc. this is called the 'analytical knowledge' of the 
law (dhamma-patisambhidd); if however, he under- 
stands the meaning of this or that speech. . . it is called 
the 'analytical knowledge' of the true meaning (attha- 
patisambhidd) .' 

(3) '"The knowledge of the language concerning 
those things' means: the language corresponding to 
reality, and the unfailing mode of expression concern- 
ing the true meaning and the law. 

(4) '"Knowledge about the kinds of knowledges' is 
that knowledge which has all knowledges as object and 
considers them. Or, the analytical knowledge of ready 
wit (patibhdna-patisambhidd) means the knowledge of 
the above mentioned 3 kinds of knowledge, in all their 
details, with their objects, functions, etc." (Vis.M. XIV). 


On the 7 qualities leading to the attainment of the 
4 'analytical knowledge', s. A. VII, 37 - See Vis.M. XIV, 
21ff; Vibh. XV; Pts.M. Patisambhida Katha. 

patisandhi: lit. 'reunion, relinking', i.e. rebirth, is one 
of the 14 functions of consciousness (yinndna- 
kicca, q.v.). It is a karma-resultant type of consciousness 
and arises at the moment of conception i.e. with the 
forming of new life in the mother's womb. Immediately 
afterwards it sinks into the subconscious stream of 
existence (bhavangasota, q.v.), and conditioned thereby 
ever and ever again corresponding states of subcon- 
sciousness arise. Thus it is really rebirth-consciousness 
that determines the latent character of a person. 

"Neither has this (rebirth-) consciousness transmi- 
grated from the previous existence to this present exist- 
ence, nor did it arise without such conditions, as karma, 
karma-formations, propensity, object, etc. That this con- 
sciousness has not come from the previous existence to 
this present existence, yet that it has come into exist- 
ence by means of conditions included in the previous 
existence, such as karma (q.v.), etc., this fact may be 
illustrated by various things, such as the echo, the light 
of a lamp, the impression of a seal, or the image pro- 
duced by a mirror. For just as the resounding of the 
echo is conditioned by a sound, etc., and nowhere a 
transmigration of sound has taken place, just so it is 
with this consciousness. Further it is said: 'In this con- 
tinuous process, no sameness and no otherness can be 
found.' For if there were full identity (between the dif- 
ferent stages), then also milk never could turn into 
curd. And if there were a complete otherness, then curd 

-261 - 

could never come from milk. ... If in a continuity of ex- 
istence any karma-result takes place, then this karma- 
result neither belongs to any other being, nor does it 
come from any other (kamma), because absolute same- 
ness and otherness are excluded here" (Vis,XVTI 164ff). 

In Mil. it is said: 

"Now, Venerable Nagasena, the one who is reborn, 
is he the same as the one who has died, or is he 

"Neither the same, nor another" (na ca so na ca 
anno) . 

"Give me an example." 

"What do you think, O King: are you now, as a 
grown-up person, the same that you had been as a 
little, young and tender babe? " 

"No, Venerable Sir. Another person was the little, 
young and tender babe, but quite a different person am 
I now as a grown-up man.". . . 

". . .Is perhaps in the first watch of the night one 
lamp burning, another one in the middle watch, and 
again another one in the last watch?" 

"No, Venerable Sir. The light during the whole 
night depends on one and the same lamp." 

"Just so, O King, is the chain of phenomena linked 
together. One phenomenon arises, another vanishes, 
yet all are linked together, one after the other, without 
interruption. In this way one reaches the final state of 
consciousness neither as the same person, nor as 
another person." 

According to the nature of their rebirth cons- 
ciousness, beings divide into the following 3 groups: 


1. ahetu-patisandhika: a 'being reborn without root- 
conditions', is a being whose consciousness at the mom- 
ent of rebirth was not accompanied by any of the 

3 noble root-conditions, viz. greedlessness, hateless- 
ness, undeludedness (s. mula), i.e. selflessness, kind- 
ness, intelligence. Such beings are found in the 4 lower 
worlds (apdya, q.v.), in which case the function of re- 
birth is exercised by the class of consciousness listed in 
Tab. I as No. 56. But if such beings are born in the sen- 
suous sphere as humans, they will be crippled, blind, 
deaf, mentally deficient, etc. (Rebirth-consciousness = 
Tab. I, No. 41) 

2. dvihetu (or duhetu)-patisandhika: a 'being 
reborn with only 2 (noble) root-conditions', 

i.e. greedlessness and hatelessness. (Rebirth- 
consciousness = Tab. I, Nos. 44, 45, 48 or 49.) 

3. tihetiL-patisandhika: a 'being reborn with 

3 (noble) root-conditions'. Such a being can be found 
only among men. (Rebirth-consciousness = Tab. 1, 
Nos. 42, 43, 46, or 47) and higher heavenly beings. 

On these 3 types of rebirth, See Atthasalini Tr. 11, 
354 - 379. (App.: patisandhika) . 

In the suttas, the terms for rebirth are chiefly 
punabbhava (q.v.) , 'renewed existence', and 
abhinibbatti 'arising'; or both combined as 
punabbhavdbhinibbatti. - (App.: patisandhi). 

Literature: Vis.M. XVII, 133f, 164f, 189f, 289f; 
Vis.M. XIX, 22f. - Karma and Rebirth, by Nyanatiloka Thera 
(Wheel 9). - The Case for Rebirth, by Francis Story 
(Wheel 12/13). - Survival and Karma in Buddhist 
Perspective, by K. N. Jayatilleke (Wheel 141/143). - 
Rebirth Explained, by V. F. Gunaratna (Wheel 167/169). 


patisankhana-bala and bhavana-bala: 'power of 
reflection', and 'power of mental development'. About 
these 2 powers it is said in A. II, 10: 

"What, O monks, is the power of reflection? If, 
O monks, someone thinks thus: 'Bad conduct in deeds, 
words and thoughts verily bears bad fruits both in this 
life, as well as in the next life', and in consequence of 
this consideration, he abandons bad conduct in deeds, 
words and thoughts, follows good conduct, and keeps 
his heart pure, this, O monks, is the power of reflection. 

"What, O monks, is the power of mental 
development? If, O monks, a monk develops the factors 
of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), bent on solitude, on 
detachment, on extinction, and ending in deliverance, 
namely: mindfulness, investigating of the law, energy, 
rapture, tranquillity, concentration, and equanimity, 
this, O monks, is the power of mental development." 

patisankhanupassana-nana: 'knowledge consisting in 
reflective contemplation"; is one of the 9 knowledges 
constituting the 'purification by knowledge and vision 
of the path-progress' (patipadd-ndnadassanavisuddhi; 
s. visuddhi VI), and one of the 18 chief kinds of insight 
(mahdvipassand; s. vipassana) . 

pativedha: 'penetration', signifies the realization of the 
truth of the Dhamma, as distinguished from the mere 
acquisition of its wording (pariyatti) , or the practice 
(patipatti) of it, in other words, realization as distin- 
guished from theory and practice. Cf. pariyatti. 

patta-pindik'anga: the 'exercise of the bowl-eater', is 
one of the 13 ascetic purification-exercises 


(dhutanga, q.v.), consisting in the vow of using only the 
alms-bowl for eating, and the rejection of any other 

patti-dana: lit. 'giving of the acquired', i.e. 'transference 
of merit.' Though in the older texts very seldom men- 
tioned (e.g. A. VII, 50), it is, however, a widespread 
custom in all Buddhist countries. It is presumed that 
moral merit, especially that acquired through giving 
alms, can be transferred to others, apparently for the 
reason that one's own good deeds may become to 
others, especially to departed relatives and friends 
reborn in the ghost realm, an inducement to a happy 
and morally wholesome state of mind. Transference of 
merit is advocated (though without mentioning the 
term patti-dand) in the Tirokudda Sutta (Khp. and 
Petavatthu) and its Com. (Khp. Tr.). It is one of the ten 
'bases of meritorious action' (punnakiriyavatthu, q.v.), 
called there pattdnuppaddna. (App.). 

See 'The Doctrine of Reversible Merit' by F. L. 
Woodward. Buddhist Review (London), Vol. I (1914), p. 38. 

penetration s. pativedha, pariyatti. - For the power of 
penetrating (yipphdra) knowledge and concentration, 
s. iddhi. - For morality combined with penetration 
(nibbedha), s. hdna-bhdgiya-slla, etc. - For penetration 
(pariya) of the mind of others, s. abhinnd. 

perfections, the 10: pdraml (q.v.). 

perfect one, the: tathdgata (q.v.). 

performance and avoidance: cdritta-vdritta (q.v.). 


permanency, idea of: s. vipallasa. 

personality: s. sakkdya. For personality-belief, 

s. sakkdya ditthi, ditthi, attd, satta, puggala, vipallasa. 

perversions, the 4: vipallasa (q.v.) . 

peta (Sanskrit pre to): lit. 'departed spirit', ghost; s. loka. 

petti- visaya: 'ghost realm'; s. loka. 

phala: lit. 'fruit'. - 1. result, effect (often together with 
hetu, cause); 2. benefit (e.g. in SamaMa-phala Sutta, 
'The Results, or Benefits, of Recluseship'; D. 2). 

2. As 'path-result', or 'fruition', it denotes those 
moments of supermundane consciousness which flash 
forth immediately after the moment of path-conscious- 
ness (s. ariya-puggald) and which, till the attainment of 
the next higher path, may during the practice of insight 
(yipassand, q.v.) still recur innumerable times. If thus 
repeated, they are called the 'attainment of fruition 
(phalasamdpatti) , which is explained in detail in 
Vis.M. XXIII. 

phassa (fr. phusati, to touch) : 'sense-impression', 
contact. The term samphassa is used in compounds, 
e.g. in the following: "There are 6 classes of sense- 
impression: visual impression (cakkhu-samphassa) , 
impressions of hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily 
(tactile) impression and mental impression" (M. 9). 
A twofold division occurs in D. 15: patigha (q.v.) 
-samphassa, 'impression by sensorial reaction', and 
adhivacana-samphassa, 'verbal (or conceptual, 
i.e. mental) impression'. 


Phassa does not signify physical impact, but is one 
of the 7 constant mental concomitants of consciousness 
{cetasika) and belongs to the group of mental form- 
ations (sankhdra-kkhandhd) . In lists of both these 
categories it is generally mentioned first (e.g. Dhs. 1: 
M. 9), due to its fundamental position in the cognitive 
process In M. 18 it is thus defined: "Dependent on the 
eye and the forms, eye-consciousness arises; the 
coming- together of the three is sense-impression" 
(similarly stated in the case of the other 5 senses, 
including mind) . In the dependent origination, it is 
conditioned by the six sense-bases and is a conditioning 
factor of feeling (s. paticca-samuppdda 5, 6). Its relation 
to mind-and-body (ndma-rupd) is described in D. 15, 
and its influence on feeling and wrong views, in D. 1 (at 
the end). - It is one of the 4 nutriments (dhdra, q.v.), 
and the first factor in the pentad of sense -impression 
(phassa-pancamaka) , together with feeling, perception, 
volition and consciousness (see Abh. St., p. 47ff). 

Being a key function in the mind's contact with the 
world of objects and being a potential source of defile- 
ments, sense-impression is an important subject for re- 
flective insight contemplation as succinctly formulated 
in many verses of the Sn.: 736/7, 778, 851, 870/72, 923. 

picked-up rags, wearing robes made from: 
s. dhutanga. 

pindapatik'anga: The 'practice of going for alms', is 
one of the 13 ascetic purification-exercises 
(s. dhutanga). 

267 - 

pita-kasina: l ye\\ow-kasina\ is one of the kasina- 
exercises; s. kasina. 

piti: rapture, enthusiasm (rendered also by joy, happi- 
ness); interest it is one of the mental factors or concom- 
itants (cetasika) and belongs to the group of mental 
formations (sankhdra-kkhandha) . As, in sutta texts, it is 
often linked in a compound word, with 'gladness' 
(pdmojjd) or 'happiness' (sukhd), some Western trans- 
lations have wrongly taken it as a synonym of these two 
terms. Piti, however, is not a feeling or a sensation, and 
hence does not belong to the feeling-group (yedand- 
kkhandhd), but may be described psychologically as 
'joyful interest'. As such it may be associated with 
wholesome as well as with unwholesome and neutral 
states of consciousness. 

A high degree of rapture is characteristic of certain 
stages in meditative concentration, in insight practice 
(yipassand) as well as in the first two absorptions 
(jhdna, q.v.). In the latter it appears as one of the fact- 
ors of absorption (jhdnanga; s. jhdna) and is strongest 
in the 2nd absorption. Five degrees of intensity in medi- 
tative rapture are described in Vis.M. IV. 94ff. It is one 
of the factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.) . 

planes of existence, the 3: s. avacara. 

pleasantness, idea of: s. vipalldsa, subhanimitta. 

pondering: s. vimamsd. 

post-nascence: pacchdjdta-paccaya, one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

postures, the 4 bodily: iriydpatha (q.v.). 


powers, the 5 spiritual: s. bala. - For the 6 higher p., 
s. abhinnna. For the 10 p. of a Buddha, s. dasabala. - 
For the 4 roads to p., s. iddhipdda. For magical p., 
s. iddhi. 

practice: For theory, practice and realization, 

predominance and pre-nascence: adhipati,purejdta, 
are 2 of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

preparatory concentration (and preparatory 
image, etc.): s. samddhi, javana. 

prescribed moral rules: pannatti-sila (q.v.). 

proclivities: s. anusaya. 

produced corporeality: nipphanna-rupa (q.v.) . 

productive (or regenerative) karma; s. karma. 

proficiency (of mental factors and consciousness) : 
pdgunnatd (q.v.) 

progress: s. patipadd, abhabbagamana - p. in morality, 
etc., s. hdnabhdgiya, etc. - Purification by knowledge 
and vision of path-progress, s. visuddhi (VI). - p. of the 
disciple, s. foil. 

progress of the disciple, Gradual development of the 
Eightfold Path in the: In many suttas occurs an identical 
passage that outlines the gradual course of develop- 
ment in the progress of the disciple. There it is shown 
how this development takes place gradually, and in 
conformity with laws, from the very first hearing of the 


doctrine, and from germinating faith and dim compre- 
hension, up to the final realization of deliverance. 

"After hearing the law, he is filled with confidence, 
and he thinks: 'Full of hindrances is household life, a 
refuse heap; but the homeless life (of a monk) is like 
the open air. Not easy is it, when one lives at home, to 
fulfill in all points the rules of the holy life. How if now 
I were to cut off hair and beard, put on the yellow 
robe, and go forth from home to the homeless life?' 
And after a short time, having given up his possessions, 
great or little, having forsaken a circle of relations, 
small or large, he cuts off hair and beard, puts on the 
yellow robe, and goes forth from home to the homeless 

Having thus left the world, he fulfills the rules of 
the monks. He avoids the killing of living beings and 
abstains from it; without stick or sword, conscientious, 
full of sympathy, he is desirous of the welfare of all 
living beings. He avoids stealing. . . avoids unchastity . . . 
avoids lying... tale-bearing... harsh language... vain 

"He abstains from destroying vegetal germs and 
plants; eats only at one time of the day; keeps aloof 
from dance, song, music and the visiting of shows; 
rejects floral adornment, perfumes, ointment, as well as 
any other kind of adornment and embellishment. High 
and gorgeous beds he does not use. Gold and silver he 
does not accept. . . keeps aloof from buying and selling 

"He contents himself with the robe that protects his 
body, and with the alms-bowl with which he keeps him- 
self alive. Wherever he goes, he is provided with these 


two things, just as a winged bird in flying carries its 
wings along with him. 

"By fulfilling this noble domain of morality (slid) 
he feels in his heart an irreproachable happiness." 

In what follows thereafter it is shown how the dis- 
ciple watches over his 5 senses and his mind, and by 
this noble restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara) 
feels in his heart an unblemished happiness; how in all 
his actions he is ever mindful and clearly conscious; 
and how, being equipped with this lofty morality (slid), 
and with this noble restraint of the senses (indriya- 
samvard), and with mindfulness and clear conscious- 
ness (sati-sampajanna) , he chooses a secluded dwell- 
ing, and freeing his mind from the 5 hindrances 
(nlvarana, q.v.) he reaches full concentration 
(samadhi, q.v.); and how thereafter, by developing 
insight (yipassand q.v.) with regard to the imperman- 
ency (aniccd), misery (dukkhd) and impersonality 
(anattd, q.v.) of all phenomena of existence, he finally 
realizes deliverance from all cankers and defilements, 
and thus the assurance arises in him: 

"For ever am I liberated, 
This is the last time I am born, 
No new existence waits for me." 

Cf. D.l, 2f; M. 27, 38, 51, 60, 76; A. IV, 198; X, 99: 
Pug. 239, etc. 

proximity: anantara, is one of the 24 conditions 
(paccaya, q.v.) . 

271 - 

pubbenivasanussati: 'remembrance of former births', 
is one of the higher powers (abhinnd, q.v.), and a factor 
of threefold knowledge (tevijja, q.v.). 

puggala: 'individual', 'person', as well as the synonyms: 
personality, individuality, being (satta), self (atta), etc., 
in short all terms designating a personal entity, hence 
also: I, you, he, man, god, etc., all these, according to 
Buddhism, are mere names for certain combinations of 
material and mental processes, and apart from them 
they have no real existence. They are to be considered 
as mere 'conventional modes of expression' (vohara- 
vacand), and on that level they may be used, and are so 
used in the sutta texts, if taken "without misapprehend- 
ing them" (s. quote from D. 9 under paramattha) . With 
such tacit reservations, the term puggala occurs quite 
frequently in the suttas. 

In the ultimate sense (paramattha, q.v.), however, 
there exist only ever-changing physical and mental 
phenomena, flashing up and dying every moment. - 
Kath., in its first section, discusses the question whether 
"in the absolute sense, any personality (puggala) can be 
found" (s. Guide, pp. 62ff). - See paramattha, anatta. 

puja: (1) honour, respect, homage, (2) worship, 
devotional observances, devotional offerings; also 
offerings to monks. 

(1) The Maha-mangala Sutta (Sn. 259) says that 
"Honour and respect towards those worthy of it, is 
conducive to great blessing" (puja capujaniyesu etam 
mangalam uttamam). See Dhp. 195f. 


(2) The Buddha did not think much of mere outer 
worship. "Not thus, Ananda, is the Tathagata respected, 
venerated, esteemed, worshipped and honoured in the 
highest degree. But, Ananda, whatsoever bhikkhu or 
bhikkhuni, lay man or lay woman, abides by the 
Teaching, lives uprightly in the Teaching, walks in the 
way of the Teaching, it is by him that the Tathagata is 
respected, venerated, esteemed, worshipped and 
honoured in the highest degree" (D. 16). - "There are 
two kinds of worship: in a material way (dmisa-pujd) 
and through (practice of) the Dhamma (dhamma-pujd) . 
The worship through (practice of) the Dhamma is the 
better of the two" (A. II). 

punabbhava: lit.: re-becoming; 'renewed existence', is 
a sutta term for 'rebirth', which, in later literature most- 
ly is called patisandhi (q.v.) . The attainment of Saint- 
hood (arahattd), implying the end of future rebirths, is 
often expressed in the words: "This is the last birth. 
Now there is no more a renewed existence!" (natthi 
'ddni punabbhavo) (M. 26; D. 15; Therag. 87, 339; 
Sn. 502). - The term is often linked with abhinibbatti 
('arising') . 

"But how, O brother, does it come to renewed 
existence and arising in the future (dyatim 
punabbhavdbhinibbatti)? Because beings, obstructed by 
ignorance and fettered by craving, find ever fresh 
delight now here, now there, for this reason there is 
renewed existence and arising in the future" (M. 43). 
See also S.XII. 38. Abhinibbatti also stands sometimes 
alone in signifying 'rebirth', e.g. in A. VI, 61; X, 65. 

Cf., in the 2nd Truth, the adj. ponobhavika, 'leading 
to renewed existence'. 


See A. Ill, 76; Sn. 163, 273, 514, 733; S. VII, 12; 
X, 3. 

punna: merit, meritorious, is a popular term for karm- 
ically wholesome (kusald) action. Opposite terms: 
apufina, 'demerit'; papa, 'bad', 'evil', The value of meri- 
torious action is often stressed, e.g., in the Treasure 
Store Sutta (s. Khp. Tr.), Dhp 18, 118, 122. - The 
Community of Holy Monks (ariya-sangha) , the third 
Refuge (s. ti-sarana), is said to be "the incomparable 
field of merit in the world" (anuttaram pufinakkhettam 
lokassa); s. anussati 3. The Arahats, however, having 
transcended all life-affirming and rebirth-producing 
actions, are said to be "beyond merit and demerit"; see 
Sn. 520, 547, 636, 790. - See foil. 3 articles. 

punnabhisankhara: 'meritorious karma-formations' of 
the sensuous and fine-material sphere; s. sankhara 1. 1. 

punna-dhara: 'streams of merit'. It is said that one 
produces 4 streams of merit by offering the 4 requisites 
(robes, almsfood, dwelling, medicine) to a monk who 
has reached the conditio nless deliverance of mind; 
further by being filled with unshakable faith in the 
Buddha, his doctrine and community of disciples, and 
by being perfect in morality (A. IV, 51, 52). A. VIII, 39 
describes 4 further streams of merit. 

punna-kiriya-vatthu: 'bases of meritorious action'. In 
the suttas, 3 are mentioned consisting of giving 
(liberality; dana-maya-p.), of morality (sila-maya-p.) 
and of mental development (meditation; bhavana- 
maya-p.). See D. 33; It. 60; expl. in A. VIII, 36. 


Commentaries have a list often (dasap.) which is 
very popular in Buddhist countries: (l)-(3) as above, 
(4) reverence (apaciti), (5) service (veyydvacca) , 

(6) transference of merit (pattdnuppaddna) , 

(7) rejoicing in others' merit (abbhdnumodand) , 

(8) expounding the Doctrine (desand), (9) listening to 
the Doctrine (savand), (10) straightening one's right 
views (rectification of views; ditthujukammd) . - Expl. in 
Atthasalini Tr. 209ff. 

See 'The Advantages of Merit', by Bhikkhu Khantipalo 
(Bodhi Leaves B. 38). 

pure abodes: suddhdvdsa (q.v.). 

purejata-paccaya: 'pre-nascence', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

purification, the 7 stages of; s. visuddhi. 

purisindriya: Virility'; s. bhdva, khandha. 

purity, the elements of the effort for: 
pdrisuddhipadhdniyanga (q.v.) . 

puthujjana: lit.: 'one of the many folk', 'worldling', 
ordinary man, is any layman or monk who is still poss- 
essed of all the 10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.) binding to 
the round of rebirths, and therefore has not yet reached 
any of the 4 stages of holiness (s. ariya-puggala) . 

"Whoso is neither freed from the 3 fetters (person- 
ality-belief, sceptical doubt, attachment to mere rule 
and ritual), nor is on the way to lose these 3 things, 
such a one is called a worldling" (Pug. 9) . 


According to Com. to M. 9, a 'worldling' may be 
(1) an outsider (a non-Buddhist) who, if he believed in 
moral causation, may be said to have right view to that 
extent; but he has not the 'knowledge conforming to 
the Truths' (saccdnulomika-ndnci) , as has (2) the 
'worldling inside the Buddha's Dispensation' (sasanikd) . 
A worldling who professes Buddhism, may be either a 
'blind worldling' (andha-p.) who has neither know- 
ledge of, nor interest in the fundamental teaching (the 
Truths, groups, etc.); or he is a 'noble worldling' 
(kalydna-p.), who has such knowledge and earnestly 
strives to understand and practise the Teaching. - See 
Atthasalini Tr. II, 451 (tr. by 'average man'); Com. to 
M. 1,D. 1. 



questions and answers: panha-byakarana (q.v.), 


radiant gods: abhassara; cf. deva. 

raga: 'lust', 'greed', is a synonym oflobha (s. mula), 
tanhd (q.v.) and abhijjhd (s. kammapatha) . For kdma-, 
rupa-, arupa-rdga, s. samyojana. 

raga-carita: the 'greedy-natured'; s. carita. 

rapture: piti (q.v.); further s. bojjhanga. 

reaction, sense-: s.patigha. 

ready-wit: s. patisambhidd. 

reality: s. paramattha. - Vision and knowledge accord- 
ing to r.- s. vipassand 15. 

realization: For theory, practice and r., s.pariyatti. 

rebirth: s.patisandhi,paticcasamuppdda (3,10), karma, 

277 - 

receptive consciousness: sampaticchana-citta 
(s. vinndnakicca) . 

recollections: s. anussati. 

red-kasina exercise: s. kasina. 

reflecting contemplation: patisankhdnupassand 
(s. vipassand, 1 7) . 

reflection, power of: patisankhdna-bala (q.v.) . 

reflex-perceptions: s.patigha (2a). 

refuge-formula, the 3-fold: ti-sarana (q.v.). 

regenerating process: upapatti-bhava (s. bhavd). 

regenerative karma: janaka-kamma (s. karma). 

registering consciousness: taddrammana-citta 
(s. vinndna-kicca) . 

relative truth: cf. puggala, paramattha-sacca, desand, 
anattd, satta. 

remembrance, of former existences: s. abhifind 4. 

remorse: kukkucca (q.v.). 

repetition: dsevana-paccaya, is one of the 24 conditions 
(paccaya, q.v.) . 

repression, overcoming by: vikkhambhana-pahdna 

repugnance: patigha (q.v.) . 

resistance-perceptions: s.patigha (2a). 


restlessness: uddhacca (q.v.). 

retrospective knowledge: paccavekkhana-ndna (q.v.). 

reversible merit: patti-ddna (q.v.) . 

right understanding (or r. view), r. thought, etc.: 
s. magga. 

rise and fall (of phenomena) : the knowledge consist- 
ing in the contemplation of r. and f., s. visuddhi VI, 1. 

round of rebirth: s. vatta (2) , samsdra. - The 3-fold 
r. of r. (s. vatta, 1). 

rukkha mulik'anga: s. dhutanga. 

rules and ritual, clinging to mere: (s. samyojana, 
updddna) . 

ruminating-natured: vitakka-carita (s. carita). 

rupa: (1) corporeality (s. khandha 1); (2) visual object 
(s. dyatana); (3) fine-material (s. avacara, jhdna) . 

rupa-jjhana: s. jhdna. 

rupa-kalapa: 'corporeal group', material unit, desig- 
nates a combination of several physical phenomena 
constituting a temporary unity. Thus, for instance, the 
so-called 'dead matter' forms the most primitive group, 
consisting only of 8 physical phenomena, called the 
'pure eightfold unit' or 'octad' (suddhatthakakaldpa) , to 
wit: the 4 elements (the solid, fluid, heat, motion); 
colour, smell, taste, nutriment (pathavl, dpo, tejo, vdyo; 
vanna, gandha, rasa, oja). In Vis.M., and elsewhere, it is 


also called ojatthamaka-kalapa, 'the octad with nutri- 
ment as the 8th factor'. 

The simplest form of living matter is the '9-fold 
vitality unit' or 'life-ennead' (jivita-navaka-kaldpa) , 
formed by adding 'vitality' to the octad. Seven decades, 
or units often (dasaka-kaldpa) , are formed by adding to 
the 9-fold unit one of the following corporeal phenom- 
ena: heart (physical seat of mind), sex, eye, ear, nose, 
tongue or body. - See Vis.M. XVIII, 4; Compendium of 
Buddhist Philosophy (PTS), p. 164, 250; Atthasalini Tr., 

rupa-kaya: 'body-group', as distinguished from ndma- 
kdya, 'mind-group' (q.v.). See ndma-rupa. 

rupa-kkhandha: 'corporeality group'; s. khandha (1). 

rupa loka: 'fine-material world'; s. loka. 

ruparammana: 'visual object', designates the external 
of visual physical phenomenon ('lightwave') that forms 
the base consciousness. Cf. dyatana (2). 

rupa-rupa = nipphanna-rupa (q.v.) . 

rupavacara: s. avacara. 

rupayatana: s. dyatana (2). 



sabba-loke anabhirati-sanna: 'contemplation on dis- 
interestedness regarding the whole world', described in 
A. X., 60 in the following words: "If, Ananda, the monk 
gives up his tenacious clinging to the world, his firm 
grasping and his biases and inclinations of the mind, 
and turns away from these things, does not cling to 
them, this, Ananda, is called the contemplation on 
disinterestedness regarding the whole world." 

sabbupadhi-patinissagga: s. upadhi. 

sacca: 'Truth'. - 1. On the 'two truths', conventional 
and ultimate, see paramattha. 

2. 'The Four Noble Truths' (ariya-saccd) are the 
briefest synthesis of the entire teachings of Buddhism, 
since all those manifold doctrines of the threefold 
canon are, without any exception, included therein. 
They are: the truth of suffering, of the origin of suffer- 
ing, of the extinction of suffering, and of the Eightfold 
Path leading to the extinction of suffering. 

I. The 1st truth, briefly stated, teaches that all forms 
of existence whatsoever are unsatisfactory and subject 
to suffering (dukkha) . 

-281 - 

II. The 2nd truth teaches that all suffering, and all 
rebirth, is produced by craving (tanha). 

III. The 3rd truth teaches that extinction of craving 
necessarily results in extinction (nirodha) of rebirth and 
suffering, i.e. nibbdna (q.v.). 

IV. The 4th truth of the Eightfold Path (magga) 
indicates the means by which this extinction is attained. 

The stereotype text frequently recurring in the 
Sutta Pitaka, runs as follows: 

I. "But what, O monks, is the noble truth of suffer- 
ing? Birth is suffering, decay is suffering, death is suf- 
fering; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair are 
suffering; in short, the 5 groups of existence connected 
with clinging are suffering (cf. dukkha, dukkhatd) . 

II. "But what, O monks, is the noble truth of the 
origin of suffering? It is that craving which gives rise to 
fresh rebirth and, bound up with lust and greed, now 
here, now there, finds ever fresh delight. It is the 
sensual craving (kdma-tanhd) , the craving for existence 
(bhava-tanha) , the craving for non-existence or self- 
annihilation (yibhava-tanhd) . 

III. "But what, O monks, is the noble truth of the 
extinction of suffering? It is the complete fading away 
and extinction of this craving, its forsaking and giving 
up, liberation and detachment from it. 

IV. "But what, O monks, is the noble truth of the 
path leading to the extinction of suffering? It is the 
Noble Eightfold Path (ariya-atthangika-maggd) that 
leads to the extinction of suffering, namely: 


1. Right view (samma-ditthi) I III. Wisdom 

2. Right thought (sammd-sankappa) f (panna) 

3. Right speech (sammd-vdcd) 

4. Right action (sammd-kammanta) 

5. Right livelihood (sammd-djiva) 

6. Right effort (sammd-vdydma) 

7. Right mindfulness (sammd-sati) 

8. Right concentration {samm.d-sam.ddhi) 

I. Morality 

II. Concentration 


1 . "What now, O monks, is right view (or right 
understanding)? It is the understanding of suffering, of 
the origin of suffering, of the extinction of suffering, 
and of the path leading to the extinction of suffering. 

2. "What now, O monks, is right thought? It is a 
mind free from sensual lust, ill-will and cruelty. 

3. "What now, O monks, is right speech? Abstaining 
from lying, tale-bearing, harsh words, and foolish 
babble (cf. tiracchdnakathd) . 

4. "What now, O monks, is right action? Abstaining 
from injuring living beings, from stealing and from 
unlawful sexual intercourse (s. kdmesu micchdcdra). 

5. "What now, O monks, is right livelihood? If the 
noble disciple rejects a wrong living, and gains his 
living by means of right livelihood (s. magga, 5). 

6. "What now, O monks, is right effort? If the dis- 
ciple rouses his will to avoid the arising of evil, demeri- 
torious things that have not yet arisen; ... if he rouses 
his will to overcome the evil, demeritorious things that 
have already arisen;... if he rouses his will to produce 


meritorious things that have not yet arisen; ... if he 
rouses his will to maintain the meritorious things that 
have already arisen and not to let them disappear, but 
to bring them to growth, to maturity and to the full 
perfection of development; he thus makes effort, stirs 
up his energy, exerts his mind and strives (s. padhdnd) . 

7. "What now, O monks is right mindfulness? If the 
disciple dwells in contemplation of corporeality. . . of 
feeling... of mind... of the mind-objects, ardent, clearly 
conscious, and mindful after putting away worldly 
greed and grief (s. satipatthdna) . 

8. "What now, O monks, is right concentration? If 
the disciple is detached from sensual objects, detached 
from unwholesome things, and enters into the first 
absorption... the second absorption... the third absorp- 
tion... the fourth absorption" (s.jhdnd). 

In the Buddha's first sermon, the Dhammacakka- 
ppavattana Sutta, it is said that the first truth (suffering) 
is to be fully understood; the second truth (craving) to 
be abandoned; the third truth (Nibbana) to be real- 
ized; the fourth truth (the path) to be cultivated. 

"The truth of suffering is to be compared with a 
disease, the truth of the origin of suffering with the 
cause of the disease, the truth of extinction of suffering 
with the cure of the disease, the truth of the path with 
the medicine" (Vis.M. XVI). 

"In the ultimate sense, all these 4 truths are to be 
considered as empty of a self, since there is no feeling 
agent, no doer, no liberated one. no one who follows 
along the path. Therefore it is said: 


'Mere suffering exists, no sufferer is found. 
The deed is, but no doer of the deed is there. 
Nibbana is, but not the man that enters it. 
The path is, but no traveller on it is seen. 

'The first truth and the second truth are empty 
Of permanency, joy, of self and beauty; 
The Deathless Realm is empty of an ego, 
And free from permanency, joy and self, the path.' 

(Vis.M. XVI) 

It must be pointed out that the first truth does not 
merely refer to actual suffering, i.e. to suffering as 
feeling, but that it shows that, in consequence of the 
universal law of impermanency, all the phenomena of 
existence whatsoever, even the sublimest states of 
existence, are subject to change and dissolution, and 
hence are miserable and unsatisfactory; and that thus, 
without exception, they all contain in themselves the 
germ of suffering. Cf. Guide, p. lOlf. 

Regarding the true nature of the path, s. magga. 

Literature: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (in 
Wheel 17 and Bodhi Leaves); M. 141; Sacca-Samyutta 
(S. LVI); Sacca Vibhanga; W. of B.; Vis.M. XVI: The Four 
Noble Truths by Francis Story (Wheel 34/35); The 
Significance of the 4 Noble Truths by V. F. Gunaratna 
(Wheel 123). 

sacca-nana: 'knowledge of the truth' (s. prec), maybe 
of 2 kinds: (1) knowledge consisting in understanding 
(anubodha-ndncO and (2) knowledge consisting in 
penetration (pativedha-ndnd) , i.e. realization. 


"Amongst these, (1) 'knowledge consisting in 
understanding' is mundane (lokiya, q.v.), and its arising 
with regard to the extinction of suffering, and to the 
path, is due to hearsay etc. (therefore not due to one's 
realization of the supermundane path; s. ariya-puggald) 
(2) 'Knowledge consisting in penetration', however, is 
supermundane (lokuttara) , with the extinction of 
suffering ( = nibbdnd) as object, it penetrates with its 
functions the 4 truths (in one and the same moment), 
as it is said (S. LVI, 30): whosoever, O monks, under- 
stands suffering, he also understands the origin of 
suffering, the extinction of suffering, and the path lead- 
ing to the extinction of suffering'" (Vis.M. XVI, 84). See 
visuddhi (end of article) . 

"Of the mundane kinds of knowledge, however, the 
knowledge of suffering by which (various) prejudices 
are overcome, dispels the personality-belief {sakkdya- 
ditthi, s. ditthi). The knowledge of the origin of suffer- 
ing dispels the annihilation- view (uccheda-ditthi, 
s. ditthi)', the knowledge of extinction of suffering, the 
eternity -view {sassata- ditthi, s. ditthi)', the knowledge 
of the path, the view of inefficacy of action {akiriya- 
ditthi, s. ditthi)" (Vis.M. XVI, 85). 

saccanulomika-nana: anuloma-ndna (q.v.), 

sacchikaranlya dhamma: 'things to be realized'. 
Recollection of former states of existence is to be real- 
ized through remembrance (abhinnd 4; q.v.) . The 
vanishing and reappearing of beings is to be realized 
through the divine eye (abhifind 5; q.v.). The 8 deliver- 


ances (yimokkha, q.v.) are to be realized through the 
mental group (kdya, here feeling, perception, mental 
formations; s. kdya) . The extinction of cankers is to be 
realized through insight (yipassand). 

saddha: faith, confidence. A Buddhist is said to have 
faith if "he believes in the Perfect One's (the Buddha's) 
Enlightenment" (M 53; A.V, 2), or in the Three Jewels 
(s. ti-ratana), by taking his refuge in them (s. ti-sarana). 
His faith, however, should be "reasoned and rooted in 
understanding" (dkdravatd saddha dassanamulika; 
M. 47), and he is asked to investigate and test the ob- 
ject of his faith (M. 47, 95). A Buddhist's faith is not in 
conflict with the spirit of inquiry, and "doubt about 
dubitable things" (A. II, 65; S. XLII, 13) is admitted and 
inquiry into them is encouraged. The 'faculty of faith' 
(saddhindriya) should be balanced with that of wisdom 
(pannindriya; s. indriya-samatta) . It is said: "A monk 
who has understanding, establishes his faith in accord- 
ance with that understanding" (S. XLVIII, 45). Through 
wisdom and understanding, faith becomes an inner cer- 
tainty and firm conviction based on one's own 

Faith is called the seed (Sn. v. 77) of all whole- 
some states because, according to commentarial 
explanations, it inspires the mind with confidence 
(okappana, pasdda) and determination (adhimokkha) , 
for launching out' (pakkhandhana; s. M. 122) to cross 
the flood oisamsdra. 

Unshakable faith is attained on reaching the first 
stage of holiness, 'stream-entry' (sotdpatti, 
s. ariyapuggala) , when the fetter of sceptical doubt 
(yicikicchd; s. samyojana) is eliminated. Unshakable 


confidence (avecca-pasdda) in the Three Jewels is one 
of the characteristic qualities of the Stream-winner 
(sotdpannassa angdni, q.v.) . 

Faith is a mental concomitant, present in all karmic- 
ally wholesome, and its corresponding neutral, con- 
sciousness (s. Tab. II). It is one of the 4 streams of merit 
(punnadhdrd, q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties 
(indriya, q.v.), spiritual powers (bala, q.v.), elements of 
exertion (padhdniyanga, q.v.) and one of the 
7 treasures (dhana, q.v.) . 

See Faith in the Buddha's Teaching, by Soma Thera 
(Wheel 262). "Does Saddha mean Faith?" by Nanamoli 
Thera (in Wheel 52/53). 

saddhanusari and saddha-vimutta: the 'faith- 
devoted and the 'faith-liberated', are two of the 7 kinds 
of noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala, B.). 

sagga: 'heaven'; s. deva (heavenly beings) . 

sahajata-paccaya: 'co-nascence', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

sahetuka-citta: s. hetu. 

sakadagami: the 'Once-returner': s. ariya-puggala, A. 

sakka: the 'King of Gods' (devdnam-inda) , is the lord 
over the celestial beings in the heaven of the Thirty- 
Three' (tdvatimsa, s. deva) . 

sakkaya: 'existing group', 'this word is usually trans- 
lated by 'personality', but according to the commen- 
taries it corresponds to sat-kdya, 'existing group', hence 
not to Sanskrit sva-kdya, 'own group' or 'own body'. In 


the suttas (e.g. M. 44) it is said to be a name for the 
5 groups of existence (khandha): "Sakkaya, O Brother 
Visakha, is said by the Blessed One to be a name for the 
5 'groups as objects of clinging' (updddna-kkhandha) , to 
wit: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental form- 
ations, and consciousness." - See foil. 

sakkaya-ditthi: 'personality-belief, is the first of the 
10 fetters (samyojand) . It is entirely abandoned only on 
reaching the path of Stream- winning (sotdpatti-magga; 
s. ariya-puggala) . There are 20 kinds of personality- 
belief, which are obtained by applying 4 types of that 
belief to each of the 5 groups of existence 
(khandha, q.v.): (1-5) the belief to be identical with 
corporeality, feeling, perception, mental formations or 
consciousness; (6-10) to be contained in them; (11-15) 
to be independent of them; (16-20) to be the owner of 
them (M. 44; S. XXII. 1). See prec, ditthi, updddna 4. 

salayatana: the '6 bases' (of mental activity); 
s. dyatana, paticcasamuppdda. 

samadhi: 'concentration'; lit. 'the (mental) state of 
being firmly fixed' {sam+d+ Vdhd), is the fixing of the 
mind on a single object. "One-pointedness of mind 
{cittass' ekaggatd), Brother Visakha, this is called con- 
centration" (M. 44). Concentration - though often very 
weak - is one of the 7 mental concomitants inseparably 
associated with all consciousness. Cf. ndma, cetand. 

Right concentration {samm.d-sam.ddhi) , as the last 
link of the 8-fold Path (s. magga), is defined as the 
4 meditative absorptions (jhdna, q.v.). In a wider sense, 
comprising also much weaker states of concentration, it 


is associated with all karmically wholesome (kusala) 
consciousness. Wrong concentration (micchd-samddhi) 
is concentration associated with all karmically un- 
wholesome (akusala, q.v.) consciousness. Wherever in 
the texts this term is not differentiated by 'right' or 
'wrong', there 'right' concentration is meant. 

In concentration one distinguishes 3 grades of 

(1) 'Preparatory concentration' (parikamma- 
samddhi) existing at the beginning of the mental 

(2) 'Neighbourhood concentration' {upacdra- 
samddhi), i.e. concentration 'approaching' but not yet 
attaining the 1st absorption (jhdna, q.v.), which in 
certain mental exercises is marked by the appearance of 
the so-called 'counter-image' (patibhdga-nimitta) . 

(3) 'Attainment concentration' (appand-samddhi) , 
i.e. that concentration which is present during the 
absorptions. (App.) 

Further details, s. bhdvana, Vis.M. Ill and Fund. IV. 

Concentration connected with the 4 noble path- 
moments {maggd), and fruition-moments (phald), is 
called supermundane (lokuttara), having Nibbana as 
object. Any other concentration, even that of the 
sublimest absorptions is merely mundane (lokiya, q.v.). 

According to D. 33, the development of concentra- 
tion (samddhi-bhdvand) may procure a 4-fold blessing: 

(1) present happiness through the 4 absorptions; 

(2) knowledge and vision (ndna-dassana) - here 
probably identical with the 'divine eye' (s. abhifind) 
through perception of light (kasind); (3) mindfulness 
and clear comprehension through the clear knowledge 


of the arising, persisting and vanishing of feelings, per- 
ceptions and thoughts; (4) extinction of all cankers 
(dsavakkhayd) through understanding the arising and 
passing away of the 5 groups forming the objects of 
clinging (s. khandha) . 

Concentration is one of the 7 factors of enlighten- 
ment (bojjhanga, q.v.), one of the 5 spiritual faculties 
and powers (s. bald), and the last link of the 8-fold 
Path. In the 3-fold division of the 8-fold Path (morality, 
concentration and wisdom), it is a collective name for 
the three last links of the path (s. sikkhd). 

samadhi-parikkhara: 'means, or requisites of concen- 
tration', are the 4 foundations of mindfulness 
(satipatthdna q.v.). See M. 44. 

samadhi-samapatti-kusalata, -thiti-kusalatd, 
-utthdnakusalatd: skillfulness in entering into 
concentration, in remaining in it, and in rising from it. 
Cf. S. XXXIV, llff. 

samadhi-sambojjhanga: 'concentration as factor of 
enlightenment' (s. bojjhanga) . 

samadhi-vipphara iddhi: the 'power of penetrating 
concentration', is one of the magical faculties 
(iddhi, q.v.). 

samanantara-paccaya: 'contiguity', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

samanna-phala; the 'fruits of monkhood', is the name 
of a famous sutta (D. 2) and also, according to D. 33, 
a name for the 4 supermundane fruitions: Stream- 

-291 - 

entrance, Once-return, Non-return, and Perfect 
Holiness (s. ariya-puggala) . 

samapatti: 'attainments', is a name for the 8 absorp- 
tions of the fine-material and immaterial spheres to 
which occasionally is added as 9th attainment, 
attainment of extinction (nirodhasamdpatti) Cf.jhdna. 

sama-sisT: one 'who attains two ends simultaneously', 
namely: the extinction of cankers and the end of life 
(s. Pug. 19) . In A. VIII, 6 it is said: "Such is the case with 
a monk who dwells in the contemplation of imperman- 
ency of all forms of existence, keeping before his eyes 
their impermanency, perceiving their impermanency, 
perseveringly, steadfastly, undisturbed, of firm mind, 
wisely absorbed; and in whom at one and the same 
time the extinction of cankers and the end of like take 
place." (App.) 

samatha: 'tranquillity', serenity, is a synonym of 
samddhi (concentration), cittekaggatd (one-pointedness 
of mind) and avikkhepa (undistractedness) . It is one of 
the mental factors in 'wholesome consciousness. 
Cf. foil, and bhdvand. 

samatha-vipassana: 'tranquillity and insight', are 
identical with concentration (samddhi, q.v.; s. prec.) 
and wisdom (pafind, q.v.), and form the two branches 
of mental development (bhdvand, q.v.) . 

(1) 'Tranquillity' is all unperturbed, peaceful and 
lucid state of mind attained by strong mental concen- 
tration. Though as a distinct way of practice 
(s. samatha-ydnika) , it aims at the attainment of the 


meditative absorptions (jhdna, q.v.), a high degree of 
tranquil concentration (though not necessarily that of 
the absorptions) is indispensable for insight too. 
Tranquillity frees the mind from impurities and inner 
obstacles, and gives it greater penetrative strength. 

"What now is the power of tranquillity (samatha- 
bala)? It is the one-pointedness and non-distraction of 
the mind due to freedom from desire (renunciation) . . . 
to freedom from ill-will... to the perception of light 
(s. aloka-sannd) . . . to non-distraction... to the defining 
of phenomena... to knowledge, gladness, the 8 attain- 
ments, the 10 kasinas, the 10 recollections, the 9 ceme- 
tery contemplations, the 32 kinds of respiration-mind- 
fulness... the one-pointedness and non-distraction of 
the mind of one contemplating abandonment (relin- 
quishment) while inhaling and exhaling (s. dndpdnasati). 

"The power of tranquillity consists of the freedom 
from perturbation; in the 1st absorption, from the 
5 hindrances (mvarana, (q.v.); in the 2nd absorption, 
from thought-conception and discursive thinking;... in 
the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception it 
consists of the freedom from perturbation by the percep- 
tion of the sphere of nothingness (s. anupubbanirodhd) , 
which is no longer agitated and irritated by defilements 
associated with restlessness, nor by the groups of 
existence" (Pts.M. 1. p. 97) 

(2) 'Insight' (s. vipassana) is the penetrative under- 
standing by direct meditative experience of the imperm- 
anency, unsatisfactoriness and impersonality of all 
material and mental phenomena of existence. It is 


insight that leads to entrance into the supermundane 
states of holiness and to final liberation. 

"What now is the power of insight? It is the contem- 
plation of impermanency (aniccdnupassand) , of misery 
(dukkhanupassand) , impersonality' (anattdnupassand) , 
of aversion (nibbidanupassand) , detachment 
(yirdganupassand) , extinction (nirodha), abandonment 
(patinissagga) , with regard to corporeality, feeling, 
perception, mental formations and consciousness.... 
That in contemplating the impermanency one is no 
more agitated by the idea of grasping. . . no more by 
ignorance and the defilements associated therewith and 
no more by the groups of existence: this is called the 
power of insight" (Pts.M. p. 97). 

"Two things are conducive to knowledge: tran- 
quillity and insight. If tranquillity is developed, what 
profit does it bring? The mind is developed. If the mind 
is developed, what profit does it bring? All lust is 

"If insight is developed, what profit does it bring? 
Wisdom is developed. If wisdom is developed, what 
profit does it bring? All ignorance is abandoned" 
(A. II, 2.7). 

There is a method of meditative practice where, in 
alternating sequence, tranquillity-meditation and in- 
sight-meditation are developed. It is called 'tranquillity 
and insight joined in pairs' (samatha-vipassand- 
yuganaddhd), the coupling or yoking of tranquillity and 
insight. He who undertakes it, first enters into the 1st 
absorption. After rising from it, he contemplates the 


mental phenomena that were present in it (feeling, per- 
ception, etc.) as impermanent, painful and not-self, and 
thus he develops insight. Thereupon he enters into the 
2nd absorption; and after rising from it, he again con- 
siders its constituent phenomena as impermanent, etc. 
In this way, he passes from one absorption to the next, 
until at last, during a moment of insight, the intuitive 
knowledge of the path (of Stream-entry, etc.) flashes 
forth - See A. IV, 170; A.IX, 36; Pts: Yuganaddha Katha. 

samatha-yanika: 'one who takes tranquillity as his 
vehicle'. This is a name for a person who not only has 
reached insight but also one or the other of the absorp- 
tions, to distinguish him from one 'who practises only 
insight' (sukkha-vipassaka, q.v.) . 

sambodhi = bodhi (q.v.). 

sambojjhanga = bojjhanga (q.v.) . 

samma-ditthi, -sankappa, -vaca, etc: see magga. 

samma-magga: see micchd-magga. 

samma-ppadhana: 'right exertion', is identical with the 
6th link of the 8-fold path (s. magga, padhdna) . 

samma-sambodhi: 'Perfect Enlightenment', Universal 
Buddhahood, is the state attained by a Universal 
Buddha (sammd-sambuddhd) , i.e. one by whom the 
liberating law (dhammd) which had become lost to the 
world, has again been discovered, realized and clearly 
proclaimed to the world. 


"Now, someone, in things never heard before, 
understands by himself the truth, and he therein attains 
omniscience, and gains mastery in the powers. Such a 
one is called a Universal Buddha, or Enlightened One" 
(Pug. 29). 

The doctrine characteristic of all the Buddhas, and 
each time rediscovered by them and fully explained to 
the world, consists in the 4 Truths (sacca, q.v.) of 
suffering, its origin, its extinction and the way to its 
extinction (s. magga). See bodhi. 

sammasana: 'comprehension', exploring, 'determining' 
(yavatthdna, q.v.) is a name for the determining of all 
phenomena of existence as impermanent, miserable 
and impersonal (anicca, dukkha, anatta), etc., which is 
the beginning of insight (s. Pts.M. I, p. 53; Vis.M. XX); 
also called kaldpa-s. (q.v.), 'comprehension by groups 
(of existence - khandha). , (App.). 

sammatta: the 'state of Tightness', are the 8 links of the 
8-fold Path (D. 33). Cf. micchdtta. 

sammuti-sacca: 'conventional truth', is identical with 
vohdra-sacca (s. paramattha-saccd) . 

sampada: 'attainment, blessing'. The 5 blessings are 
said to be faith, morality, learning, liberality, wisdom 
(A. V, 91). Further: morality, concentration, wisdom, 
deliverance, the eye of knowledge connected with 
deliverance (A. V, 92). 

sampajanna: 'clarity of consciousness', clear compre- 
hension. This term is frequently met with in combin- 
ation with mindfulness (sati). In D. 22, M. 10 it is said: 


"Clearly conscious is he in going and coming, clearly 
conscious in looking forward and backward, clearly 
conscious in bending and stretching his body; clearly 
conscious in eating, drinking, chewing and tasting, 
clearly conscious in discharging excrement and urine; 
clearly conscious in walking, standing, sitting, falling 
asleep and awakening; clearly conscious in speaking 
and keeping silent." - For a definition of the term sati- 
sampajanna, s. Pug. 86. 

According to the Com., 'clarity of consciousness' is 
of 4 kinds: regarding the purpose, the suitability, 
(inclusion in the meditative) domain, and the undelud- 
ed conception of the activity concerned. Explained in 
detail in Com. to Satipatthana Sutta. (tr. in The Way of 
Mindfulness, by Soma Thera; BPS) . 

sampaticchana-citta: 'receptive consciousness', is the 
mind-element (mano-dhatu) that follows immediately 
upon the arising of sense-consciousness (visual con- 
sciousness, etc.), performing on that occasion the 
function of receiving the sense-object. Regarding the 
other functions of consciousness, s. vinndna-kicca. 

sampayutta-paccaya: 'condition of association', is one 
of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

samphassa = phassa (q.v.) . 

samsara: 'round of rebirth', lit. perpetual wandering', 
is a name by which is designated the sea of life ever 
restlessly heaving up and down, the symbol of this 
continuous process of ever again and again being born, 
growing old, suffering and dying. More precisely put, 


samsdra is the unbroken chain of the five-fold khandha- 
combinations, which, constantly changing from mom- 
ent to moment follow continuously one upon the other 
through inconceivable periods of time. Of this samsdra, 
a single lifetime constitutes only a tiny and fleeting frac- 
tion; hence to be able to comprehend the first noble 
truth of universal suffering, one must let one's gaze rest 
upon the samsdra, upon this frightful chain of rebirths, 
and not merely upon one single life-time, which, of 
course, may be sometimes less painful. - Cf. tilakkhana, 
anattd, paramattha, patisandhi. 

samseva: 'companionship'. (1) "Through companion- 
ship with bad men (asappurisa-s.) comes listening to 
bad advice, thereby unwise reflection, thereby inatten- 
tion and mental confusion, thereby lack of sense- 
control, thereby 3-fold bad conduct in bodily action, 
speech and mind, thereby the 5 hindrances 
(mvarana, q.v.), thereby craving for existence. 
(2) Through companionship with good men 
(sappurisa-s.) comes listening to good advice, thereby 
faith, thereby wise reflection, thereby mindfulness and 
clarity of consciousness, thereby sense-control, thereby 
3-fold good conduct, thereby the 4 foundations of 
mindfulness (satipatthdna, q.v), thereby the 7 factors of 
enlightenment (bojjhanga, q.v.), thereby liberation 
through wisdom (pannd-vimutti, q.v.)." Cf. A. X. 62. 

samuccheda-pahana: 'overcoming by destruction', is 
the absolute extinction of certain fetters of existence 
(samyojana, q.v.), which takes place by entering into 
one of the 4 supermundane paths of holiness (s. ariya- 


puggald).- Regarding the 5 kinds of overcoming, 

samudaya-sacca: 'truth of the origin', i.e. the origin of 
suffering, is the 2nd of the 4 Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.) . 

samutthana: 'origination'. There are 4 kinds of origin- 
ation of corporeal phenomena, namely: through 
karma, consciousness, temperature, nutriment. For 
example, 'karma-produced' (kamma-s. = kammaja, 
karma-born) are the sense organs, sexual character- 
istics, etc., which, according to their nature, are condit- 
ioned either through wholesome or unwholesome 
karma formations (volitional actions; 
s. paticcasamuppdda,2) in a previous existence. 'Mind- 
produced', i.e. consciousness-produced (citta- 
samutthdna = cittajd) are bodily and verbal expression 
(yinnatti, q.v.) . For a detailed exposition, see 

samvara-padhana: 'effort to avoid'; s.padhdna. 

samvara-sila: i indriya-s.' > ; s. sila. 

samvara-suddhi: 'purity of control', is another name 
for morality consisting of restraint of the senses 
(indriya-samvara-slla; s. slid) . 

samvatta-kappa: s. kappa. 

samvega-vatthu: 'the sources of emotion', or of a 
sense of urgency, are 8: "birth, old age, disease, death, 
being 4; the suffering in the lower states of existence 
being the 5th; further, the misery of the past rooted in 
the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the future rooted in 


the cycle of rebirth, the misery of the present rooted in 
the search after food" (Vis.M. III.). 

samvejaniya-tthana: 'places rousing emotion', are 4: 
the place where the Perfect One was born, (i.e. the 
Lumbini-grove near Kapilavatthu, at the present 
frontier of Nepal); the place where he reached Full 
Enlightenment (i.e. Uruvela, the modern Ureli, and 
Buddhagaya, on the Neranjara-river; the modern 
Lilanja) ; the place where he, for the first time, unveiled 
the Dhamma to the world (i.e. the deer-park at Isipat- 
ana near Benares); the place where he entered the 
final Nibbana (i.e. Kusinara). (A. IV, 118). 

samyojana: 'fetters'. There are 10 fetters tying beings 
to the wheel of existence, namely: (1) personality- 
belief (sakkdya-ditthi, q.v.), (2) sceptical doubt 
(yicikicchd q.v.), (3) clinging to mere rules and ritual 
(sllabbata-pardmdsa; s. updddna), (4) sensuous craving 
(kdma-rdga, 4.v.), (5) ill-will (yydpdda), (6) craving for 
fine-material existence (rupa-rdgd) , (7) craving for 
immaterial existence (arupa-rdga) , (8) conceit 
(mdna, q.v.), (9) restlessness (uddhacca, q.v.), 
(10) ignorance (.avijjd, q.v.). The first five of these are 
called 'lower fetters' (orambhdgiya-samyojand) , as they 
tie to the sensuous world. The latter 5 are called 
'higher fetters' (uddhambhdgiya-samyojana) , as they tie 
to the higher worlds, i.e. the fine-material and immater- 
ial world (A. IX, 67, 68; X. 13; D. 33, etc.). 

He who is free from 1-3 is a Sotapanna, or Stream- 
winner, i.e. one who has entered the stream to 
Nibbana, as it were. He who, besides these 3 fetters, has 


overcome 4 and 5 in their grosser form, is called a 
Sakadagami, a 'Once -returner' (to this sensuous world). 
He who is fully freed from 1-5 is an Anagaml, or 'Non- 
returner' (to the sensuous world). He who is freed from 
all the 10 fetters is called an Arahat, i.e. a perfectly 
Holy One. 

For more details, s. ariya-puggala. 

The 10 fetters as enumerated in the Abhidhamma, 
e.g. Vibh. XVII, are: sensuous craving, ill-will, conceit, 
wrong views, sceptical doubt, clinging to mere rules 
and ritual, craving for existence, envy, stinginess, 

sancetana = cetand, q.v. 

sangaha-vatthu: the 4 'ways of showing favour' are 
liberality, kindly speech, beneficial actions, impartiality 
(A. IV, 32; VIII, 24). 

sangha (lit.: congregation), is the name for the 
Community of Buddhist monks. As the third of the 
Three Gems or Jewels (ti-ratana, q.v.) and the Three 
Refuges (ti-sarana, q.v.), i.e. Buddha, Dhamma and 
Sangha, it applies to the ariya-sangha, the community 
of the saints, i.e. the 4 Noble Ones (ariya-pugga, q.v.), 
the Stream-winner, etc. 

sankappa: 'thought', is a synonym ofvitakka (q.v.). For 
sammd-s., or right thought, s. magga (2). 

sankhara: This term has, according to its context, 
different shades of meaning, which should be carefully 

301 - 

(I) To its most frequent usages (s. foil. 1-4) the 
general term 'formation' may be applied, with the 
qualifications required by the context. This term may 
refer either to the act of 'forming or to the passive state 
of 'having been formed' or to both. 

1 . As the 2nd link of the formula of dependent 
origination, (paticcasamuppdda, q.v.),sankhdra has the 
active aspect, 'forming, and signifies karma (q.v.), 

i.e. wholesome or unwholesome volitional activity 
(cetand) of body (kdya-s.), speech (vacl-s.) or mind 
{citta- or mano-s.). This definition occurs, e.g. at 
S. XII, 2, 27. For s. in this sense, the word 'karma- 
formation' has been coined by the author. In other 
passages, in the same context, s. is defined by reference 
to (a) meritorious karma-formations 
(punfi'dbhisankhdrd) , (b) demeritorious k. 
(apuniVabhisankhdrd) , (c) imperturbable k. 
(dnenfdbhisankhdrd) , e.g. in S. XII, 51; D. 33. This 
threefold division covers karmic activity in all spheres 
of existence: the meritorious karma-formations extend 
to the sensuous and the fine-material sphere, the 
demeritorious ones only to the sensuous sphere, and 
the 'imperturbable' only to the immaterial sphere. 

2. The aforementioned three terms, kdya-, vaci- and 
citta-s. are sometimes used in quite a different sense, 
namely as (1) bodily function, i.e. in-and-out-breathing 
(e.g. M. 10), (2) verbal function, i.e. thought-concept- 
ion and discursive thinking, (3) mental -function, 

i.e. feeling and perception (e.g. M. 44). See 
nirodhasamdpatti . 


3. It also denotes the 4th group of existence 
(sankhdrakkhandha) , and includes all 'mental form- 
ations' whether they belong to 'karmically forming' 
consciousness or not. See khandha, Tab. II. and 

S. XXII, 56, 79. 

4. It occurs further in the sense of anything formed 
(sankhata, q.v.) and conditioned, and includes all 
things whatever in the world, all phenomena of exist- 
ence. This meaning applies, e.g. to the well-known 
passage, "All formations are impermanent. . . subject to 
suffering" {sabbe sankhdra aniccd. . . dukkhd) . In that 
context, however, s. is subordinate to the still wider and 
all-embracing term dhamma (thing); for dhamma 
includes also the Unformed or Unconditioned Element 
(asankhata-dhdtu) , i.e. Nibbana (e.g. in sabbe dhamma 
anattd, "all things are without a self) . 

(II) Sankhdra also means sometimes Volitional 
effort', e.g. in the formula of the roads to power (iddhi- 
pdda, q.v.) ; in sasankhdra- and asankhdra-parinibbdyl 
(s. andgdml, q.v.); and in the Abhidhamma terms 
asankhdrika- (q.v.) and sasankhdrika-citta, i.e. without 
effort = spontaneously, and with effort = prompted. 

In Western literature, in English as well as in 
German, sankhdra is sometimes mistranslated by 
'subconscious tendencies' or similarly (e.g. Prof Beckh: 
"unterbewuBte Bildekrafte," i.e. subconscious formative 
forces) . This misinterpretation derives perhaps from a 
similar usage in non-Buddhist Sanskrit literature, and is 
entirely inapplicable to the connotations of the term in 
Pali Buddhism, as listed above under I, 1-4. For 


instance, within the dependent origination, s. is neither 
subconscious nor a mere tendency, but is a fully con- 
scious and active karmic volition. In the context of the 
5 groups of existence (s. above I, 3), a very few of the 
factors from the group of mental formations (sankhdra- 
kkhandhd) are also present as concomitants of subcon- 
sciousness (s. Tab. I-III), but are of course not restricted 
to it, nor are they mere tendencies. 

sankharupekkha-nana: the 'equanimity-knowledge 
with regard to the formations of existence', is one of 
those kinds of knowledge which form the 'purification 
by knowledge and vision of the path-progress' 
(s. visuddhi, VI, 8) . "It is known by 3 names: in the 
lowest stage it is called 'knowledge consisting in the 
desire for deliverance' (muccitu-kamyatd-ndnd); in the 
middle stage it is called the 'reflecting contemplation' 
(patisankhdnupassandndna); in the last stage, however, 
i.e. after attaining the summit, it is called the 'equanim- 
ity-knowledge with regard to the formations of 
existence'" (Vis.M. XXI). 

sankhata: the 'formed', i.e. anything originated or 
conditioned, comprises all phenomena of existence. 
Cf. sankhdra I, 4; asankhata. 

sankhitta citta: in the Satipatthana Sutta, signifies the 
'contracted' or 'cramped' mind, not the concentrated 
(samdhitd) mind, as often translated by Western 
authors. Cf. Satipatthana (3) . 

sanna: 1. 'perception', is one of the 5 groups of 
existence (khandha, q.v.), and one of the 7 mental 
factors (cetasikd) that are inseparably bound up with 


all consciousness (s. cetana). It is sixfold as perception 
of the 5 physical sense-objects and of mental objects. It 
is the awareness of an object's distinctive marks ("one 
perceives blue, yellow, etc.," S. XXII, 79). If, in repeat- 
ed perception of an object, these marks are recognized, 
safind functions as 'memory' (s. Abh. St., p. 68f.). 

2. safind stands sometimes for consciousness in its 
entirety, e.g. in rCeva-sannd-n'dsanndyatana, 'the realm 
of neither-perception-nor- non-perception'; further, in 
asannd-satta, 'unconscious beings'. In both cases 
reference is not to 'perception' alone, but also to all 
other constituents of consciousness. Cf. D. 9. 

3. safind may also refer to the 'ideas', which are 
objects of meditation, e.g. in a group of 7 ideas, of 
impermanence (anicca-s.), etc. (A. VII, 46); of 10: 
impurity (asubha-s.), etc. (A. X, 56), and another set of 
10 in A. X. 60; or to wrong notions, as in nicca-, subha-s. 
(the notion of permanence, beauty), etc. 

sanna-vedayita-nirodha = nirodha-samdpatti (q.v.). 

sanna-vipallasa: 'perversion of perception' 
(s. vipalldsa) . 

sannojana = samyojana (q.v.). 

santana = santati: 'continuity', may refer to the con- 
tinuity of consciousness (citta-s.), of the groups of exist- 
ence (khandha-s.), of sub-consciousness (bhavanga-s.), 
of corporeality (rupa-s.), to the uninterrupted 
continuity of the paticcasamuppdda (q.v.), etc. (App.). 


santirana-citta: Investigating consciousness', is one of 
the stages in the cognitive series. For the 14 functions of 
consciousness, s. vinndnakicca. 

santutthita: 'contentedness'; s. ariya-vamsa. 

sapadanik'anga: s. dhutanga. 

sappatigha-rupa: 'corporeality reacting to sense 
stimuli', refers to the 5 sense-organs (dyatana, q.v.) . - 
Cf. Vibh. II (s. Guide II, Chap. II) and Vis.M. XIV; 
further s. patigha 2. 

sarana: s. ti-sarana. 

sasana (lit. 'message') : the Dispensation of the 
Buddha, the Buddhist religion; teaching, doctrine. 

Navanga-Buddha (or satthu) -sasana, the ninefold 
Dispensation of the Buddha (or the Master) consists of 
suttas (sutta), mixed prose (geyya), exegesis 
(yeyydkarana) , verses (gdthd), solemn utterances 
(uddna), sayings of the Blessed One (itivuttaka) , birth 
stories (jdtaka), extraordinary things (abbhuta- 
dhamma), and analysis (yedalla). This classification is 
often found in the suttas (e.g. M. 22). According to the 
commentaries, also the Vinaya and the Abhidhamma 
Pitaka are comprised in that ninefold division (see 
Atthasalini Tr., I, 33) . It is a classification according to 
literary styles, and not according to given texts or 

sasankhara-parinibbayT: 'one who reaches Nibbana 
with exertion', is a name of one of the 5 kinds of Non- 
returners (andgdmi, q.v.) . 


sasankharika-citta (in Dhs.: sasankhdrend) : a 
prepared, or prompted, state of consciousness, arisen 
after prior deliberation (e.g. weighing of motives) or 
induced by others (command, advice, persuasion) - 
See Tab. I; exemplified in Vis.M. XIV, 84f. - Opposite: 
asankhdrika-citta, q.v. 

sassata-ditthi (-vdda) : 'eternity-belief, is the belief in 
a soul or personality existing independently of the 
5 groups of existence, and continuing after death etern- 
ally, as distinguished from the 'annihilation-belief 
(uccheda-ditthi) , i.e. the belief in a personality falling at 
death a prey to absolute annihilation. For more details, 
s. ditthi. 

sati: 'mindfulness', is one of the 5 spiritual faculties and 
powers (s. bald), one of the 7 factors of enlightenment 
(bojjhanga, q.v.), and the 7th link of the 8-fold Path 
(magga, q.v.), and is, in its widest sense, one of those 
mental factors inseparably associated with all karmic- 
ally wholesome {kusala, q.v.) and karma-produced 
lofty (sobhand) consciousness (Cf. Tab. II). - For the 
4 foundations of mindfulness s. foil. 

satipatthana: the 4 'foundations of mindfulness', 
lit. 'awarenesses of mindfulness' (sati-upatthdnd) , are: 
contemplation of body, feeling, mind and mind-objects. 
- For sati, s. prec. 

A detailed treatment of this subject, so important 
for the practice of Buddhist mental culture, is given in 
the 2 Satipatthana Suttas (D. 22; M. 10), which at the 
start as well as the conclusion, proclaim the weighty 
words: "The only way that leads to the attainment of 


purity, to the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, to 
the end of pain and grief, to the entering of the right 
path, and to the realization of Nibbana is the 4 foundat- 
ions of mindfulness." 

After these introductory words, and upon the quest- 
ion which these 4 are, it is said that the monk dwells in 
contemplation of the body, the feelings, the mind, and 
the mind-objects, "ardent, clearly conscious and 
mindful, after putting away worldly greed and grief." 

These 4 contemplations are in reality not to be 
taken as merely separate exercises, but on the contrary, 
at least in many cases, especially in the absorptions, as 
things inseparably associated with each other. Thereby 
the Satipatthana Sutta forms an illustration of the way 
in which these 4 contemplations relating to the 
5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) simultaneously 
come to be realized, and finally lead to insight into the 
impersonality of all existence. 

(1) The contemplation of the body 
(kdyanupassand) consists of the following exercises: 
mindfulness with regard to in-and-outbreathing 
(dndpdnasati, q.v.), minding the 4 postures 
(iriydpatha, q.v.), mindfulness and clarity of conscious- 
ness (satisampajanna, q.v.), reflection on the 32 parts 
of the body (s. kdyagatdsati and asubha), analysis of 
the 4 physical elements (dhdtuvavatthdna, q.v.) , 
cemetery meditations (sivathikd q.v.). 

(2) All feelings (yedandnupassand) that arise in the 
meditator he clearly perceives, namely: agreeable and 
disagreeable feeling of body and mind, sensual and 
super-sensual feeling, indifferent feeling. 


(3) He further clearly perceives and understands 
any state of consciousness or mind (cittdnupassana) , 
whether it is greedy or not, hateful or not, deluded or 
not, cramped or distracted, developed or undeveloped, 
surpassable or unsurpassable, concentrated or uncon- 
centrated, liberated or unliberated. 

(4) Concerning the mind-objects (dhammdnupassand), 
he knows whether one of the five hindrances 
{rdvarana, q.v.) is present in him or not, knows how it 
arises, how it is overcome, and how in future it does no 
more arise. He knows the nature of each of the five 
groups (khandha, q.v.), how they arise, and how they 
are dissolved. He knows the 12 bases of all mental 
activity {dyatana q.v.) : the eye and the visual object, 
the ear and the audible object,... mind and mind- 
object, he knows the fetters (samyojana, q.v.) based on 
them, knows how they arise, how they are overcome, 
and how in future they do no more arise. He knows 
whether one of the seven factors of enlightenment 
(bojjhanga, q.v.) is present in him or not, knows how it 
arises, and how it comes to full development. Each of 
the Four Noble Truths (sacca, q.v.) he understands 
according to reality. 

The 4 contemplations comprise several exercises, 
but the Satipatthana should not therefore be thought of 
as a mere collection of meditation subjects, any one of 
which may be taken out and practised alone. Though 
most of the exercises appear also elsewhere in the 
Buddhist scriptures, in the context of this sutta they are 
chiefly intended for the cultivation of mindfulness and 
insight, as indicated by the repetitive passage conclud- 


ing each section of the sutta (see below) . The 4 con- 
templations cover all the 5 groups of existence 
(khandha, q.v.), because mindfulness is meant to en- 
compass the whole personality. Hence, for the full 
development of mindfulness, the practice should ex- 
tend to all 4 types of contemplation, though not every 
single exercise mentioned under these four headings 
need be taken up. A methodical practice of Sati- 
patthana has to start with one of the exercises out of 
the group 'contemplation of the body', which will serve 
as the primary and regular subject of meditation: The 
other exercises of the group and the other contem- 
plations are to be cultivated when occasion for them 
arises during meditation and in everyday life. 

After each contemplation it is shown how it finally 
leads to insight-knowledge: "Thus with regard to his 
own body he contemplates the body, with regard to the 
bodies of others he contemplates the body, with regard 
to both he contemplates the body. He beholds how the 
body arises and how it passes away, beholds the arising 
and passing away of the body. 'A body is there' (but no 
living being, no individual, no woman, no man, no self, 
nothing that belongs to a self; neither a person, nor 
anything belonging to a person; Com.) : thus he has est- 
ablished his attentiveness as far as it serves his know- 
ledge and mindfulness, and he lives independent, un- 
attached to anything in the world." 

In the same way he contemplates feeling, mind and 

In M. 118 it is shown how these four foundations of 
mindfulness may be brought about by the exercise of 


mindfulness on in-and-out breathing (anapana- 
sati, q.v.). 

Literature: The Way of Mindfulness, tr. of Sutta and 
Com., by Soma Thera (3rd ed; Kandy 1967, BPS). - 
The Heart of Buddhist Meditation, by Nyanaponika Thera 
(3rd ed.; London. Rider & Co.). The Foundations of 
Mindfulness (tr. of M. 10), Nyanasatta Thera (Wheel 19). 
The Satipatthana Sutta and its Application to Modern Life, 
V. F. Gunaratna (Wheel 60). - The Power of Mindfulness by 
Nyanaponika Thera (Wheel 121/122). 

sati-sambojjhanga: 'mindfulness as factor of 
enlightenment' s. bojjhanga. 

sati-sampajanna: 'mindfulness and clarity of 
consciousness, s. sampajanna. 

satta: 'living being'. This term, just like attd, puggala, 
jiva, and all the other terms denoting 'ego-entity', is to 
be considered as a merely conventional term (yohara- 
vacana), not possessing any reality- value. For the 
impersonality of all existence, s. anattd, paramattha, 
puggala, jiva, satta, paticcasamuppada. 

sattakkhattu-parama: 'one with only 7 further 
rebirths at the utmost', is one of the 3 kinds of Stream- 
winners (sotapanna, q.v.) . 

sattavasa, nava: 'abodes of beings'. In the sutta-texts 
(e.g. D. 33; A.IX, 24) 9 such abodes are mentioned: 
"There are, O monks, 9 abodes of beings, namely: 
(1) "There are beings who are different in body 
and different in perception, such as the human beings, 
some heavenly beings, and some beings living in the 
world of suffering (yinipatika, q.v.). 

-311 - 

(2) "There are beings who are different in body but 
equal in perception, such as the first-born gods of the 
Brahma-world (i.e. at the beginning of each new world- 
formation; s. deva II) . 

(3) "There are beings who are equal in body but 
different in perception, such as the Radiant Gods 
(abhassara, s. deva II) . 

(4) "There are beings who are equal in body and 
equal in perception, such as the All -Illuminating Gods 
(subha-kinha; s. deva II) . 

(5) "There are beings without perception and 
feeling, such as the unconscious beings {asahha- 
satta, q.v.) . 

(6) "There are beings who, through the complete 
overcoming of perceptions of matter (rupa-safind) , the 
disappearance of perceptions of sense-reaction 
(patigha-sanna) , and the non-attention to perceptions 
of variety thinking: 'Boundless is space', are reborn in 
the sphere of boundless space (s. deva, III; jhana, 5). 

(7) "There are beings who, through the complete 
overcoming of the sphere of boundless space, thinking: 
'Boundless is consciousness', are reborn in the sphere of 
boundless consciousness (s. jhana 6). 

(8) "There are beings who, through the complete 
overcoming of the sphere of boundless consciousness, 
thinking: 'Nothing is there, are reborn in the sphere of 
nothingness (s. jhana, 7). 

(9) "There are beings who, through the complete 
overcoming of the sphere of nothingness, are reborn in 
the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception 
(s. jhana, 8)" (A. IX, 24). 


According to the Com. to A., the beings of the Pure 
Abodes {suddhavasa, q.v.) are not mentioned here, for 
the reason that they exist only in those world-periods in 
which Buddhas appear. Cf. vinndna-tthiti. 

Sa-upadisesa-nibbana: s. nibbdna, upddi. 

savaka: 'hearer', i.e. 'disciple', refers, in a restricted 
sense (then mostly ariya-sdvaka, 'noble disciple'), only 
to the 8 kinds of noble disciples (ariya-puggala, q.v.). 

savaka-bodhi: 'enlightenment of the disciple', desig- 
nates the holiness of the disciple, as distinguished from 
the holiness of the Pacceka-Buddha (q.v.) and the 
Samma-sambuddha (q.v.). 

sceptical doubt: vicikicchd (q.v.). Cf. kankhd. 

scruples: kukkucca (q.v.). 

sekha: a 'noble learner', a disciple in higher training, 
i.e. one who pursues the 3 kinds of training 
{sikkhd, q.v.), is one of those 7 kinds of noble disciples 
who have reached one of the 4 supermundane paths or 
the 3 lower fruitions (s. ariya-puggala) , while the one 
possessed of the 4th fruition, or Arahatta-phala, is 
called 'one beyond training' (asekha, lit. 'no more 
learner'). The worldling (puthujjana, q.v.) is called 
'neither a noble learner, nor perfected in learning' 
(n'eva-sekha-ndsekha) . Cf. Pug. 23-25. 

self: attd (q.v.). 

self-annihilation, craving for: vibhava-tanhd 
(s. tanhd) . 


self-confidence: vesdrajja (q.v.) . 

self-mortification: atta-kilamatha (q.v.). 

senasana: 'dwelling place', is one of the 4 requisites of 
the monk's life (s. sila 4). To be suitable for spiritual 
training, it should possess 5 advantages. As it is said 
(A. X, 11): "But how, O monks, does the dwelling place 
possess 5 advantages? Such a dwelling place is not too 
far, nor too near (to the village), is suitable for going 
(on almsround) and returning. In the daytime it is not 
much crowded, and at night without noise and bustle. 
One is not much molested there by gadflies, mosqui- 
toes, wind, sun and creeping things. While living there, 
the monk without difficulty obtains robes, almsfood, 
dwelling, and the necessary medicines. There are elder 
monks living there, with great learning, well versed in 
the Message, masters of the Law (dhamma), of the 
Discipline (yinayd) and of the Tables of Contents 
(i.e. either the twofold Abhidhamma Matrix, or the 
Bhikkhu and Bhikkhuni Patimokkha; s. pdtimokkha) . 
And he approaches them from time to time, questions 
them, asks them for explanations, etc. 

sense-organs and objects: s. ayatana, dhdtu. 

sense-stimuli, corporeality responding to: s. ayatana. 

sensitive corporeality: pasada-rupa (q.v.) . 

sensuality (subj. & obj.): kama (q.v.). 

sensuous clinging: kamupadana; s. upadana. 


sensuous craving: kdma-tanhd (-rdga), is one of the 
10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and one of the 3 kinds of 
craving (tanhd, q.v.) . 

sensuous sphere (-world) : s. avacara, loka. 

serenity: s. samatha. 

seven rebirths at the utmost: s. sotdpanna. 

sex: s. bhdva. 

sexual intercourse, unlawful: s. kdmesu micchdcdra. 

shame: hiri (q.v.). 

shamelessness: ahirika (q.v.). 

signless (animittd) : s. ceto-vimutti, vimokkha, 

sikkha: the 'training', which the Buddha's disciple has 
to undergo, is 3-fold: training in higher morality 
(adhisila-sikkhd) , in higher mentality (adhicitta- 
sikkhd), and in higher wisdom (adhipafind-sikkhd) . This 
3-fold training refers to the 3-fold division of the 8-fold 
Path (magga, q.v.) in morality, concentration and wis- 
dom (sila, samddhi, pahha) . In D. 16 and A.IV,1 it is 

"It is through not understanding, not penetrating 
noble morality... noble concentration... noble 
wisdom. . . noble deliverance that I, as well as you, have 
had for such a long time to pass through this round of 

"This then is morality, this concentration, this 
wisdom, this deliverance. Being endowed with 


morality, concentration brings high fruit and blessing. 
Being endowed with concentration, wisdom brings high 
fruit and blessing. Being endowed with wisdom, the 
mind becomes freed from all cankers {asava q.v.) 
namely, from the sensuous canker {kamasavd), from 
the canker of existence (bhavasava) from the canker of 
opinions (ditthisava) from the canker of ignorance 
(avijjdsava) . 

sikkhapada: 'steps of training', moral rules. 

The 5 moral rules, also called panca-sila which are 
binding on all Buddhist laymen, are: (1) abstaining 
from killing any living being, (2) from stealing, 
(3) from unlawful sexual intercourse, (4) from lying, 
(5) from the use of intoxicants, (s. surdmeraya etc.) 

The 10 rules {dasa-sila) are binding on all novices 
and monks, namely: (1) abstaining from killing, 
(2) from stealing, (3) from unchastity, (4) from lying, 
(5) from the use of intoxicants, (6) from eating after 
midday, (7) from dancing, singing, music and shows, 
(8) from garlands, scents, cosmetics and adornments, 
etc., (9) from luxurious beds, (10) from accepting gold 
and silver. 

In the 8 rules (attha-sild) which on full and new 
moon days, and on the first and last quarter of the 
moon, are observed by many lay-followers 
(updsaka, q.v.), the 7th and 8th of the above 10 rules 
are fused into one as the 7th rule, while the 9th 
becomes the 8th. 

sila: 'morality', 'virtue', is a mode of mind and volition 
{cetana, q.v.) manifested in speech or bodily action 
(s. karma). It is the foundation of the whole Buddhist 


practice, and therewith the first of the 3 kinds of train- 
ing (sikkha, q.v.) that form the 3 -fold division of the 
8-fold Path (s. magga), i.e. morality, concentration and 

Buddhist morality is not, as it may appear from the 
negative formulations in the Sutta-texts, something 
negative. And it does not consist in the mere not com- 
mitting of evil actions, but is in each instance the clearly 
conscious and intentional restraint from the bad actions 
in question and corresponds to the simultaneously 
arising volition. 

Morality of the 8-fold Path, namely, right speech, 
right action and right livelihood, is called 'genuine or 
natural morality' pakatisild), as distinguished from the 
external rules for monks or laymen, the so-called 
'prescribed morality' (pannatti-sila, q.v.), which, as 
such, is karmically neutral. 

"What now is karmically wholesome morality 
(kusala-sild)? It is the wholesome bodily action (kaya- 
kamma, s. karma), wholesome verbal action (yacl- 
kamma, s. karma), and also the purity with regard to 
livelihood which I call morality" (M. 78). 
Cf. magga, 3-5. 

For the 5, 8 and 10 rules, s. sikkhapada. Further 
cf. caritta- and varitta-slla. 

The 4 kinds of morality consisting of purification 
(catuparisuddhi-sila) are: (1) restraint with regard to 
the monks' Disciplinary Code, (2) restraint of the 
senses, (3) purification of livelihood, (4) morality with 
regard to the 4 requisites (of the monk) . 


(1) Restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code 
(pdtimokkha-samvara-sild) . "Here the monk is restrain- 
ed in accordance with the monks' Disciplinary Code, is 
perfect in conduct and behaviour, and perceiving dan- 
ger even in the least offences, he trains himself in the 
rules he has taken upon him" (A. V, 87, 109, 114, etc.). 

(2) Restraint of the senses (indriya-samvara-sila) . 
"Whenever the monk perceives a form with the eye, a 
sound with the ear, an odour with the nose, a taste with 
the tongue, an impression with the body, an object with 
the mind, he neither adheres to the appearance as a 
whole, nor to its parts. And he strives to ward off that 
through which evil and unwholesome things, greed and 
sorrow, would arise, if he remained with unguarded 
senses; and he watches over his senses, restrains his 
senses" (M. 38). 

(3) Purification of livelihood (ajlva-pdrisuddhi- 
sild). It consists therein that the monk does not acquire 
his livelihood in a way unbefitting to a monk. 

(4) Morality with regard to the 4 requisites 
(paccaya-sannissita-sild) . It consists therein that the 
monk is guided by the right mental attitude when mak- 
ing use of the 4 requisites: robes, almsfood, dwelling 
and medicine. "Wisely reflecting he makes use of his 
robes. . . merely to protect himself against cold and 
heat, etc. Wisely reflecting he makes use of his alms- 
food. . . merely as a prop and support to this body. . . . 
Wisely reflecting he makes use of his dwelling... merely 
to keep off the dangers of weather and to enjoy soli- 
tude.. . . Wisely reflecting he makes use of the necessary 


medicines, merely to suppress feelings of sickness that 
arise, and to reach perfect freedom from suffering" 
(cf.M. 2). 

About these 4 kinds of morality, Vis.M. I gives a 
detailed exposition. 

silabbata-paramasa and -updddna: 'attachment (or 
clinging) to mere rules and ritual', is the 3rd of the 
10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.), and one of the 4 kinds of 
clinging (updddna, q.v.). It disappears on attaining to 
Stream-entry (sotdpatti) . For definition, s. updddna. 

sila-samadhi-panna: s. sikkhd, magga. 

silent buddha: pacceka-buddha (q.v.). 

sitting position, sleeping in: s. dhutanga. 

sivathika: 'cemetery contemplations', as described in 
D. 22 and M. 10, have as their objects a corpse one or 
two or three days old, swollen up, blue-black in colour, 
full of corruption; a corpse eaten by crows, etc.; a 
framework of bones; flesh hanging from it, bespattered 
with blood, held together by the sinews; without flesh 
and blood, but still held together by the sinews; bones 
scattered in all direction; bleached and resembling 
shells; heaped together after the lapse of years; weath- 
ered and crumbled to dust. At the end of each of these 
contemplations there follows the conclusion: "This 
body of mine also has this nature, has this destiny, can- 
not escape it." Similar are the 10 objects of loathsome- 
ness (asubha q.v.). 

skilful: kusala (q.v.). 


sloth: middha, s. nivarana. 

sobhana: lofty', beautiful, pure, are called, in Abh. S., 
all states of consciousness excepting the unwholesome 
and those without roots (ahetuka). Sobhana-sddhdrana 
are called the mental factors {cetasika) common to all 
lofty consciousness; s. Tab. II. 

somanassa: lit 'glad-minded-ness' (su+ manas+ya), 
gladness, joy; identical with 'mentally agreeable feel- 
ing' (cetasikd sukhd vedand), belongs to the feeling- 
group (yedand-kkhandha, s. khandha II), and is enum- 
erated amongst the 22 faculties (indriya, q.v.). It may 
or may not be associated with karmically wholesome 
consciousness (s. Tab. I. 1-4, 9-12, 18-21), with karmic- 
ally unwholesome consciousness (greedy c. ib. 22-25), 
and with karmically neutral consciousness (ib. 40, 
42-45, 57-60, 66-69, 72-76, 81-84), - Somanassa is not 
identical with piti (q.v.) . 

somanassupavicara: 'indulging in gladness'; s. mano- 

something: kincana (q.v.) . 

sotapanna: the 'Stream- winner', is the lowest of the 
8 noble disciples (s. ariya-puggala) . Three kinds are to 
be distinguished: the one 'with 7 rebirths at the utmost' 
(sattakkhattu-paramd) , the one 'passing from one noble 
family to another' (kolankold) , the one 'germinating 
only once more' (eka-blji) . As it is said (e.g. Pug. 37-39; 
A. Ill, 87): 

(1) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 
3 fetters (personality-belief, sceptical doubt, attach- 


ment to rules and ritual; s. samyojand) , has entered the 
stream (to Nibbana), he is no more subject to rebirth in 
lower worlds, is firmly established, destined to full 
enlightenment. After having passed amongst the heav- 
enly and human beings only seven times more through 
the round of rebirths, he puts an end to suffering. Such 
a man is called 'one with 7 births at the utmost' 
(sattakkhattu-parama) . 

(2) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 

3 fetters,... is destined to full enlightenment, he, after 
having passed among noble families two or three times 
through the round of rebirths, puts an end to suffering. 
Such a man is called 'one passing from one noble 
family to another' (kolankola) . 

(3) "If a man, after the disappearance of the 

3 fetters,... is destined to full enlightenment, he, after 
having only once more returned to human existence, 
puts an end to suffering. Such a man is called 'one 
germinating only once more' (eka-biji). See Sotapatti- 
Samyutta (S. LV). 

sotapannassa angani: the 'characteristic qualities of a 
Stream- winner' are 4: unshakable faith towards the 
Enlightened One, unshakable faith towards the 
Doctrine, unshakable faith towards the Order, and 
perfect morality. Explained in S. LV, I, D. 33, in 
S. XLVII, 8 and in Netti-ppakarana these 4 qualities are 
called sotdpattiyanga (q.v.) . 

sotapatti: 'Stream-entry'; s. sotdpanna; s. -magga, 
-phala, 'path and fruition of Stream-entry'; 
s. ariyapuggala. 

-321 - 

sotapattiyanga: the 4 (preliminary) 'conditions to 
Stream-entry' are: companionship with good persons, 
hearing the Good Law, wise reflection, living in 
conformity with the Law (S. LV, 5; D. 33). 
Cf. sotdpannassa angdni. 

space: s. dkdsa. 

spheres (of existence) : avacara (q.v.) . - The 
4 immaterial spheres (dyatana): s.jhdna (5-8). 

spiritual faculties: s. indriya (15-19), indriya-samatta, 

spontaneously born beings: opapdtika (q.v.). 

stains, the 3: mala (q.v.). 

standstill (of morality etc.) : s. hdna-bhdgiya-sila. S. of 
existence: vivatta (q.v.). 

stinginess: macchariya (q.v.); cf. Tab. II. 

stored-up karma: katattd; s. karma. 

stream-entry: s. sotdpanna, ariya-puggala. 

streams of merit: punnadhdrd (q.v.) . 

stream- winner: s. sotdpanna, ariya-puggala. 

stupid-natured: s. carita. 

subconscious stream (of existence) : bhavanga- 
sota (q.v.). 

subha-kinha (or -kinna) : s. deva, II. 


subha-nimitta: 'beautiful (or attractive) object of 
mind'; it may become an inducement to the arising of 
sense-desire (kamacchanda; s. mvarana) : "No other 
thing do I know, O monks, through which in such a 
degree sense-desire may arise, and once arisen will 
continue to grow, as an attractive object. Whoso does 
not wisely consider an attractive object, in him sense- 
desire will arise, and once arisen will continue to grow" 
(A. I, 2). 

subha-sanna, -citta, -ditthi: 'the perception (con- 
sciousness or view) of beauty (or purity)' in what is 
actually devoid of it (asubhe subha-sanna), is one of the 

4 perversions (yipalldsa, q.v.). 

sublime abodes (or States) : brahma-vihara (q.v.) . 

substrata of existence: upadhi (q.v.). 

sucarita: 'good conduct', is 3-fold, in body, speech and 
mind, and comprises the 10 wholesome courses of 
action (s. kammapatha) . According to A. X, 61, it has 
sense-control as its condition. See D. 33, A. II, 17; III, 2. 

successive births, karma ripening in: s. karma. 

suchness: tathata (q.v.). 

sudassa, sudassT: s. foil. 

suddhavasa: the 'Pure Abodes', are a group of 

5 heavens belonging to the fine-material world (rupa- 
loka, s. loka), where only the Non-returners 

(s. anagami, q.v.) are reborn, and in which they attain 
Arahatship and Nibbana (ariya-puggala) . The names of 


the inhabitants of these Pure Abodes are: Aviha, 
Atappa, Sudassa, Sudassi, Akanittha. Cf. andgdml. 

suddha-vipassana-yanika = sukkha-vipassaka (q.v.) . 

suffering: For the 4 Truths of suffering, s. sacca; further 
s. ti-lakkhana. 

sugati: 'happy course of existence'; s.gati. 

sukha: pleasant, happy; happiness, pleasure, joy, bliss. 
It is one of the three feelings (s. vedand) and may be 
either bodily or mental. The texts distinguish between 
the happiness of the senses and the h. of renunciation 
(A. II), worldly (carnal; sdmisd) and unworldly (non- 
carnal; nirdmisd) happiness (M. 10). See A. II, ch. VIII. 
- Happiness is an indispensable condition for attaining 
concentration of mind (samddhi, q.v.), and therefore it 
is one of the 5 factors (or constituents) of the 1st 
absorption (jhdnanga; s.jhdnd) and is present up to the 
3rd absorption inclusively. "The mind of the happy one 
has concentration as its fruit and reward" (A.X,1) . - "In 
him who is filled with happiness, right concentration 
has found a foundation" (A.X,3) . 

sukha-sanna, -citta, -ditthi: 'the perception (cons- 
ciousness or view) of happiness' in what is actually 
suffering {dukkhe sukha-safind) , i.e. any form of 
existence, it is one of the perversions (yipalldsa, q.v.) . 

sukkha-vipassaka: 'one supported by bare insight', is 
the commentarial term for one who, without having 
attained any of the meditative absorptions (jhdna, q.v.), 
has realized only by the support of insight 
(yipassand, q.v.) one or several of the supermundane 


paths (s. ariyapuggala) . In Vis.M. XVIII, he is called 
suddha-vipassand-ydnika, as distinguished from 'one 
who has tranquillity as vehicle' (samathaydnika, q.v.) . 
Though the primary meaning ofsukkha as intended 
here is as stated above, subcommentaries (e.g. D. Tika) 
employ also the literal meaning ofsukkha, i.e. 'dry': 
"His insight is dry, rough, unmoistened by the moisture 
of tranquillity meditation." This justifies a frequent 
rendering of this term by 'dry-visioned' or 'having dry 
insight', which, however, should not lead to miscon- 
ceptions about the nature of insight meditation as being 
'dry' or 'merely intellectual', while in fact the develop- 
ment of insight will produce rapture (plti) and a sense 
of urgency (samvega) in the meditator. - (App.). 

sunna (adj.), sunnata (noun): void (ness), empty 
(emptiness) . As a doctrinal term it refers, in Theravada, 
exclusively to the anattd doctrine, .i.e. the unsubstant- 
ially of all phenomena: "Void is the world... because it 
is void of a self and anything belonging to a self 
(sufinam attena vd attaniyena vd; S. XXXV, 85); also 
stated of the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.) in 
the same text. See also M. 43, M. 106. - In CNidd. 
(quoted in Vis.M. XXI, 55), it is said: "Eye... mind, 
visual objects... mind-objects, visual consciousness... 
mind-consciousness, corporeality. . . consciousness, etc., 
are void of self and anything belonging to a self; void 
of permanency and of anything lasting, eternal or 
immutable.. They are coreless: without a core of 
permanency, or core of happiness or core of self." - In 
M. 121, the voiding of the mind of the cankers, in the 
attainment of Arahatship, is regarded as the "fully 
purified and incomparably highest (concept of) 


voidness. - See Sn. v. 1119; M. 121; M. 122 
(Wheel 87); Pts.M. II: Sufma-katha; Vis.M. XXI, 53ff. 

sunnatanupassana: 'contemplation of emptiness' 
(s. prec), is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight 
(yipassand, q.v.). Cf. Vis.M. XXI. 

sunnata-vimokkha : 'emptiness-deliverance'; 
s. vimokkha. 

• • , 

superiority-conceit: s. mana. 

supermundane: lokuttara (q.v.); -faculties, s. indriya 

supernormal: mahaggata (q.v.); -knowledges, 

s. abhinnd. 

support, decisive support: (nissaya, upanissaya) are 
two of the 24 conditions (s. paccaya) . 

supportive karma: upatthambhaka-kamma; s. karma. 

suppressive karma: upapilaka-kamma; s. karma. 

surameraya-majja-ppamadatthana veramanl 
sikkhapadam samadiyami: "I take upon myself the 
vow to abstain from taking intoxicants and drugs such 
as wine, liquor, etc. since they lead to moral careless- 
ness." This is the wording of the last of the 5 moral 
rules (s. sikkhdpada) binding on all Buddhists. 

susanik'anga: s. dhutanga. 

suta-maya panfia: 'knowledge based on learning'; 
s. pannd. 



tadanga-pahana: 'overcoming by the opposite', is one 
of the 5 kinds of overcoming (pahdna, q.v.). 

tadarammana-citta: 'registering consciousness' 
(s. Tab. I, 40-49, 56), is the last stage in the complete 
process of cognition (citta-vithi) immediately before 
sinking into the subconscious. It does not occur with the 
consciousness of the absorptions nor with supermun- 
dane consciousness, but only with large or distinct 
objects of the sensuous sphere. Cf. vinndna-kicca. 

taints: dsava (q.v.). 

talk, low: tiracchdna-kathd (q.v.) . 

tanha: (lit. 'thirst') : 'craving', is the chief root of suffer- 
ing, and of the ever-continuing cycle of rebirths. "What, 
O monks, is the origin of suffering? It is that craving 
which gives rise to ever-fresh rebirth and, bound up 
with pleasure and lust, now here, now there, finds ever 
fresh delight. It is the sensual craving (kdma-tanhd) , the 
craving for existence (bhava-tanhd) , the craving for 
non-existence (yibhava-tanhd)" (D. 22). T. is the 8th 
link in the formula of the dependent origination 
(paticcasamuppdda, q.v.) . Cf. sacca. 

Corresponding to the 6 sense-objects, there are 
6 kinds of craving: craving for visible objects, for 
sounds, odours, tastes, bodily impressions, mental 
impressions (rupa-, sadda-, gandha-, rasa-, photthabba-, 
dhamma-tanhd) . (M. 9; D. 15) 


Corresponding to the 3 -fold existence, there are 
3 kinds: craving for sensual existence (kdma-tanhd) , for 
fine-material existence (rupa-tanhd) , for immaterial 
existence (arupa-tanhd) . (D. 33) 

There are 18 'thought-channels of craving' (tanhd- 
vicaritd) induced internally, and 18 induced externally; 
and as occurring in past, present and future, they 
total 108; see A. IV, 199; Vibh., Ch. 17 
(Khuddakavatthu-Vibhanga) . 

According to the dependent origination, craving is 
conditioned by feeling; on this see D. 22 (section on the 
2nd Truth). 

Of craving for existence (bhava-tanhd) it is said 
(A. X, 62) : "No first beginning of the craving for exist- 
ence can be perceived, O monks, before which it was 
not and after which it came to be. But it can he per- 
ceived that craving for existence has its specific condit- 
ion. I say, O monks, that also craving for existence has 
its condition that feeds it (sdharam) and is not without 
it. And what is it? 'Ignorance', one has to reply." - 
Craving for existence and ignorance are called "the 
outstanding causes that lead to happy and unhappy 
destinies (courses of existence)" (s. Vis.M. XVII, 36-42). 

The most frequent synonyms of tanhd are 
rdga (q.v.) and lobha (s. mula) . 

tanha-kkhaya: 'extinction of craving', is identical with 
'extinction of cankers' (dsavakkhayd) and the attain- 
ment of perfect Holiness or Arahatship. Cf. ariya- 


tanha-nissita-sila: 'morality based on craving' 
(s. nissaya). 

tathagata: the 'Perfect One', lit. the one who has 'thus 
gone', or 'thus come', is an epithet of the Buddha used 
by him when speaking of himself. 

To the often asked questions, whether the Tatha- 
gata still exists after death, or not, it is said (e.g. S. XXII, 
85, 86) that, in the highest sense (paramattha, q.v.) the 
Tathagata cannot, even at lifetime, be discovered, how 
much less after death, and that neither the 5 groups of 
existence (khandha, q.v.) are to be regarded as the 
Tathagata, nor can the Tathagata be found outside 
these corporeal and mental phenomena. The meaning 
intended here is that there exist only these ever-chang- 
ing corporeal and mental phenomena, arising and van- 
ishing from moment to moment, but no separate entity, 
no personality. 

When the commentaries in this connection explain 
Tathagata by 'living being' {sattd), they mean to say 
that here the questioners are using the merely conven- 
tional expression, Tathagata, in the sense of a really 
existing entity. 

Cf. anattd, paramattha, puggala, jiva, satta. 

A commentarial treatise on "The Meaning of the Word 
'Tathagata' " is included in The Ail-Embracing Net of Views 
(Brahmajala Sutta), tr. Bhikkhu Bodhi (BPS). 

tathagata-bala: the 'ten powers of the Perfect One'; 
s. dasa-bala. 


tathata: 'Suchness', designates the firmly fixed nature 
(bhavd) of all things whatever. The only passage in the 
Canon where the word occurs in this sense, is found in 
Kath. 186 (s. Guide, p. 83). On the Mahayana term 
tathata, s. Suzuki, Awakening of Faith, p. 53f. (App.). 

tatra-majjhattata: 'equanimity, equipoise, mental 
balance' (lit., 'remaining here and there in the middle'), 
is the name for a high ethical quality belonging to the 
sankhara-kkhandha (s. khandhd) and is mostly known 
by the name upekkha. In its widest sense it is associated 
with all pure consciousness (s. Tab. II). ''Tatra- 
majjhattata is called the 'keeping in the middle of all 
things'. It has as characteristic that it effects the balance 
of consciousness and mental factors; as nature 
(function; rasa), that it prevents excessiveness and 
deficiency, or that it puts an end to partiality; as mani- 
festation, that it keeps the proper middle" (Vis.M. XIV). 

tavatimsa: 'the Thirty- three (Gods)', a class of 
heavenly beings in the sensuous sphere; s. deva (I). 

te-civarik'anga: 'practice of the three-rober', is one of 
the ascetical means for purification (dhutanga, q.v.) . 

tejo-dhatu: 'fire-element, heat-element'; s. dhatu. 

tejo-kasina: 'fire-kasina', is one of the 10 kasina 
exercises; s. kasina. 

temperature: utu (q.v.). - For corporeality produced 
by temperature, s. samutthana. 

tendencies: anusaya (q.v.). 


terror, awareness of: one of the insight-knowledges; 
s.visuddhiVl. 3. 

te-vijja: 'one endowed with the threefold (higher) 
knowledge'. In Brahmanism means 'knower of the 
3 Vedas' {tri-vidya) , in Buddhism means one who has 
realised 3 kinds of knowledge, to wit: remembrance of 
former rebirths, the divine eye, extinction of all 
cankers. For details, s. abhifind, 4-6. Cf. Tevijjd Sutta, 
D. 13 (Wheel 57/58). 

theravada: 'Doctrine of the Elders', is a name of the 
oldest form of the Buddha's teachings, handed down to 
us in the Pali language. According to tradition, its name 
is derived from the fact of having been fixed by 
500 holy Elders of the Order, soon after the death of 
the Master. 

Theravada is the only one of the old schools of 
Buddhism that has survived among those which 
Mahayanists have called 'Hinayana'. It is sometimes 
called Southern Buddhism or Pali Buddhism. It is found 
today in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos 
and Chittagong (East Bengal.) - Cf. Guide, p. 60. - 

thlna-middha: 'sloth and torpor', constitute the 3rd of 
the 5 hindrances {mvarana, q.v.). They may or may not, 
be associated with greedy consciousness (s. Tab. 23, 25, 
27, 29 and II). 

thinking, wisdom based on: cintdmayapafind: s.pafind. 

331 - 

thiti-bhagiya-sila, -samadhi, -panna: 'static morality, 
static concentration, static wisdom'; s. hdna-bhdgiya- 

thought, thought-conception: s. vitakka. 

thought, Right: sammd-sankappa; .s. sacca, magga. 

ties, the 4: gantha (q.v.). 

ti-hetu-patisandhika: s. patisandhi. 

ti-lakkhana: the '3 characteristics of existence', or 
signata, are impermanency (anicca, q.v.) , suffering or 
misery (dukkha, q.v.; s. sacca, dukkhatd), not-self 
(anattd, q.v.) . 

"Whether Perfect Ones appear in the world, or 
whether Perfect Ones do not appear in the world, it still 
remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and fixed 
law: that all formations are impermanent, that all 
formations are subject to suffering, that everything is 
without a self (A. Ill, 134). 

"What do you think, O monks: Is corporeality 
(rupa) permanent or impermanent? - Impermanent, 
O Venerable One. - Are feeling (yedana), perception 
{safina), mental formations (sankhdrd) and conscious- 
ness (yinndnd) , permanent or impermanent? - 
Impermanent, O Venerable One. 

"But that which is impermanent, is it something 
pleasant or painful? - It is painful, O Venerable One. 


"But, of what is impermanent, painful and subject 
to change, could it be rightly said, 'This belongs to me, 
this am I, this is my ego'? - No, Venerable One. 

"Therefore, whatever there is of corporeality, 
feeling, perception, mental formations and conscious- 
ness, whether past, present or future, one's own or 
external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, of all 
these things one should understand, according to 
reality and true wisdom: 'This does not belong to me, 
this am I not, this is not my ego'" (S. XXII, 59) . 

"In one who understands eye, ear, nose, tongue, 
body and all the remaining formations as impermanent, 
painful and not-self, in him the fetters (samyojana, q.v.) 
are dissolved" (S. XXXV, 53). 

It is the full comprehension of the 3 characteristics 
by direct meditative experience which constitutes 
liberating insight. About their relation to the three 
gateways of liberation', s. vimokkha I. 

For further details, s. anicca, dukkha, anattd, 

Literature: The Three Signata, by Prof. O. H. de 
A. Wijesekera (Wheel 20). - The Three Basic Facts of 
Existence: I-III (Wheel BPS), Vis.M. XX, 13ff, 18ff; XXI, 
47f, 67f. 

ti-Pitaka: 'The Three Baskets', is the name for the 
3 main divisions of the Pali Canon: the Basket of 
Discipline (Vinaya Pitaka), the Basket of Discourses 
(Sutta Pitaka) and the Basket of Philosophy 
(Abhidhamma Pitaka) . 


tiracchana-katha: low talk', lit. 'beastly talk', is the 
name in the sutta-texts for the following: "Talk about 
kings and robbers, ministers and armies, danger and 
war, eating and drinking, clothes and dwellings, 
garlands and scents, relations, chariots, villages and 
markets, towns and districts, women and heroes, street 
talks, talks by the well, talk about those departed in 
days gone by, tittle-tattle, talks about world and sea, 
about gain and loss" (A.X, 69 etc.). 

In the commentaries 4 further kinds are enumer- 
ated, thus bringing the number to 32, as mostly count- 
ed, namely: talk about sensuous enjoyment, self-morti- 
fication, eternity and self-annihilation. 

tiracchana-yoni: 'animal womb'; birth as animal. The 
animal kingdom belongs to the sensuous world 
(s. loka), is one of the 4 lower worlds (s. apaya) and 
one of the 3 woeful courses of existence (s. gati) . 

tirana-parinna: 'full understanding by investigating'; 
s. parinnd. 

ti-ratana: 'Three Jewels' or Three Gems, which by all 
Buddhists are revered as the most venerable things, are 
the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Holy Sangha.' i.e.: 
the Enlightened One; the law of deliverance discover- 
ed, realized and proclaimed by him; and the Commun- 
ity of Holy Disciples and those who live in accordance 
with the Law. - The contemplations of the 3 Jewels 
belong to the 10 contemplations (anussati q.v.). 

ti-sarana: 'Threefold Refuge', in which every faithful 
adherent of the Buddha puts his whole trust, consists in 
the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha (s. prec). 


The Buddha, or Enlightened One, is the teacher 
who by himself has discovered, realized and proclaim- 
ed to the world the law of deliverance. The Dhamma is 
the law of deliverance. The Sangha is the community of 
the disciples, who have realized or are striving to real- 
ize the law of deliverance. 

The 3-fold Refuge in Pali, by the uttering of which 
one may also outwardly profess one's faith, is still the 
same as in the Buddha's time, namely: 

Buddham saranam gacchdmi 
Dhammam saranam gacchdmi 
Sangham saranam gacchdmi 

I take my refuge in the Buddha! 
I take my refuge in the Dhamma! 
I take my refuge in the Sangha! 

Literature: The Threefold Refuge by Nyanaponika Thera 
(Wheel 76). -Devotion in Buddhism (Wheel 18). Going for 
Refuge, by Bhikkhu Bodhi (Wheel 282/284) - Khp. Tr. 
pp. 4ff. 

titthayatana: the 3 'articles of (heretical) belief, 
which in A. Ill, 61 are declared as leading to inactivity, 
are: (1) the belief that all happiness and woe are 
produced through former karma (prenatal actions; 
s. karma); (2) that everything is uncaused; (3) that 
everything is created by God. 

(1) is the teaching of Niggantha-Nathaputta, the 
leader of the Nigganthas, the modern Jains. The fault 
with this doctrine is that it does not account for that 
happiness and woe which either are the result of the 
present life's good or bad action, or are associated with 


the corresponding action. (2) is the doctrine of 
Makkhali Gosala; s. ditthi. 

According to the above 3 doctrines, man is not 
responsible for his actions, so that all moral exertions 
become useless. 

torpor: thina, s. thina-middha (q.v.). 

training, the 3-fold: sikkhd (q.v.). - The steps of°: 
sikkhdpada, (q.v.). 

trance: jhdna (q.v.) . 

tranquillity (of mind) : s. samatha, samatha-vipassand, 
bhdvand, bojjhanga. - 'One who has taken t. as his 
vehicle': samathaydnika (q.v.). 

tranquilisation, Overcoming (of defilements) by way 
of: s. pahdna. 

transference of merit: patti-ddna (q.v.). 

transformation, power of: s. iddhi. 

transitoriness: anicca (q.v.). 

treasures, the 7: s. dhana (q.v.). 

tree: Living under a tree is one of the ascetical practices 
(dhutanga, q.v.). 

truths, the 4 Noble: sacca (q.v.). - 2-fold knowledge of 
the t.; s. saccafidna. 

turning away, contemplation of the: 
vivattanupassand; s. vipassand. 


tusita: a class of heavenly beings in the sensuous 
plane; s. deva (1). 

twin miracle: yamaka-pdtihdriya (q.v.). 



ubhato-bhaga-vimutta: the 'both-ways-liberated one', 
is the name of one class of noble disciples {ariya- 
puggala, q.v.). He is liberated in 2 ways, namely, by 
way of all 8 absorptions (jhdna, q.v.) as well as by the 
supermundane path (sotdpatti, etc.) based on insight 
(yipassand, q.v.). In M. 70 it is said: 

"Who, O monks, is a both-ways-liberated one? If 
someone in his own person has reached the 

8 liberations (absorptions), and through wise 
penetration the cankers {dsava, q.v.) have become 
extinguished, such a one is called a both-ways-liberated 
one."Cf. D. 15. 

In the widest sense, one is both-ways-liberated if 
one has reached one or the other of the absorptions, 
and one or the other of the supermundane paths 

The first liberation is also called 'liberation of mind' 
(cetovimutti) , the latter liberation through wisdom' 
(pannd-vimutti) . 

The first liberation, however, is merely temporary, 
being a liberation through repression (yikkhambhana- 
vimutti = vikkhambhana-pahdna: s. pahdnd) . 

uccheda-ditthi: 'annihilation-view': s. ditthi. 

udayabbayanupassana-nana: 'knowledge consisting 
in the contemplation of rise and fall', is the first of the 

9 insight-knowledges constituting the purification by 


knowledge and vision of the path-progress'. For details, 
s.visuddhi,Vl. 1. 

uddhacca: 'restlessness', belongs to the 10 fetters 
(samyojana, q.v.), and to the 5 hindrances 
{mvarana, q.v.) . It is one of those 4 mental factors 
inseparably associated with all unwholesome 
consciousness (akusala-sddhdrana, q.v.). Cf. Tab. II. 

uddhambhagiya-samyojana: the 5 'higher fetters'; 
s. samyojana. 

uddhamsota-akanitthagami: 'passing upstream to 
the highest gods', is one of the 5 kinds of Non-returners 
(anagami, q.v.) . 

uggaha-nimitta: s. nimitta. 

ugghatitannu: 'one who already during a given ex- 
planation comes to penetrate the truth' (Pug.) . This is 
one of four types of persons classified according to their 
ability of acquiring insight, mentioned in A. IV, 133. Cf. 
also vipacitafinu, neyya, pada-parama. 

See The Requisites of Enlightenment, by Ledi Sayadaw 
(Wheel 171/174) p. Iff. 

ujukata: (kdya-, citta-): 'uprightness' (of mental factors 
and of consciousness), is associated with all pure con- 
sciousness. Cf. Tab. II. 

unconditioned, the: asankhata (q.v.). - 
Contemplation of the u. (= animitta); s. vipassand. 

unconscious beings: asahnd-satta (q.v.). 


understanding: s. ditthi, nana, panfia, parinna. - 
Right u., s. magga (1). Sacca (IV. I). 

unit: s. kalapa, rupa-kalapa. 

unprepared, unprompted: s. asankharika-citta. 

unshakable deliverance: s. ceto-vimutti. 

unshakable one, the: akuppa-dhamma (q.v.). 

unthinkable things, the 4: acinteyya (q.v.). 

unwholesome, karmically: akusala (q.v.) . 

upacara: 'moment of access'; s.javana. 

upacara-samadhi: 'neighbourhood or access- 
concentration', is the degree of concentration just 
before entering any of the absorptions, or jhanas. It still 
belongs to the sensuous sphere (kamavacara; 
s. avacara) . 

upacaya, rupassa: 'growth of corporeality'; 
s. khandha I; App. 

upacchedaka-kamma: 'destructive karma'; s. karma. 

upadana: 'clinging', according to Vis.M. XVII, is an 
intensified degree of craving (tanha, q.v.) . The 4 kinds 
of clinging are: sensuous clinging (kamupadana) , 
clinging to views (ditthupadana) , clinging to mere rules 
and ritual (sllabbatupadana) , clinging to the person- 
ality-belief (atta-vadupadana) . 

(1) "What now is the sensuous clinging? Whatever 
with regard to sensuous objects there exists of sensuous 


lust, sensuous desire, sensuous attachment, sensuous 
passion, sensuous deludedness, sensuous fetters: this is 
called sensuous clinging. 

(2) "What is the clinging to views? 'Alms and 
offerings are useless; there is no fruit and result for 
good and bad deeds: all such view and wrong 
conceptions are called the clinging to views. 

(3) "What is the clinging to mere rules and ritual? 
The holding firmly to the view that through mere rules 
and ritual one may reach purification: this is called the 
clinging to mere rules and ritual. 

(4) "What is the clinging to the personality-belief? 
The 20 kinds of ego-views with regard to the groups of 
existence (s. sakkdya-ditthi) : these are called the 
clinging to the personality-belief (Dhs. 1214-17). 

This traditional fourfold division of clinging is not 
quite satisfactory. Besides kamupdddna we should ex- 
pect either rupupdddna and arupupdddna, or simply 
bhavupdddna. Though the Anagami is entirely free from 
the traditional 4 kinds of updddna, he is not freed from 
rebirth, as he still possesses bhavupdddna. The Com. to 
Vis.M. XVII, in trying to get out of this dilemma, ex- 
plains kamupdddna as including here all the remaining 
kinds of clinging. 

'Clinging' is the common rendering for u., though 
'grasping' would come closer to the literal meaning of 
it, which is 'uptake'; s. Three Cardinal Discourses 
(Wheel 17), p. 19. 

341 - 

upadana-kkhandha: the 5 'groups of clinging', or 
more clearly stated in accordance with Vis.M., 'the 
5 groups of existence which form the objects of 
clinging'. Cf. M. 44, and see khandha. 

upada-rupa: 'derived corporeality', signifies the 
24 secondary corporeal phenomena dependent on the 
4 primary physical elements, i.e. the sense-organs and 
sense-objects, etc. See khandha I; App. 

upadhi: 'substratum of existence'. In the Com. there 
are enumerated 4 kinds: the 5 groups (khandha, q.v.), 
sensuous desire (kama) , mental defilements 
(kilesa, q.v.), karma (q.v.). In the suttas it occurs 
frequently in Sn. (w. 33, 364, 546, 728), and, with 
reference to Nibbana, in the phrase "the abandoning of 
all substrata" (sabbupadhi-patinissagga; D. 14). See 
viveka (3). 

upadi: lit. 'something which one grasps, to which one 
clings, i.e. the 5 groups of existence (khandha, q.v.). In 
the suttas, the word is mostly used in such expressions 
as "One of the 2 fruits may be expected: either perfect 
wisdom or, if the groups are still remaining (sati upadi- 
sese, 'if there is a remainder of groups), Anagamiship" 
(D. 22). Further (A. IV. 118): "Here the Perfect One 
has passed into the Nibbana-element in which no more 
groups are remaining (anupadi-sesa) ." Cf. nibbana. 

upadinna-rupa: 'karmically acquired corporeality', or 
'matter clung-to (by karma)', is identical with karma- 
produced corporeality (kammaja-rupa; s. samutthana) . 
In Vis.M. XIV it is said: "That corporeality which, later 
on, we shall refer to as 'karma-produced' (kammaja), is, 


for its being dependent on previous (pre-natal) karma, 
called 'karmically acquired'." The term (upadinna) 
occurs so in the suttas, e.g. M. 28 (Wheel 101), 
62, 140. See Dhs. §990; Khandha Vibh. 

upaghataka-kamma: 'destructive karma'; s. karma. 

upahacca-parinibbayi: 'one who reaches Nibbana 
within the first half of life', is one of the 5 kinds of 
Anagami (q.v.) . 

upakkilesa: 'impurities', corruptions, imperfections 
(a frequent rendering by 'defilements' is better reserved 
for kilesa, q.v.) . 

A list of 16 moral 'impurities of the mind' {cittassa 
upakkilesa) is mentioned and explained in M. 7 & 8 
(Wheel. 61/62): 1. covetousness and unrighteous 
greed (abhijjha-visamalobha) , 2. ill will (yyapada), 
3. anger (kodha), 4. hostility (upanaha), 5. denigration 
(makkha), 6. domineering (palcisa), 7. envy (issa), 
8. stinginess (macchariya) , 9. hypocrisy (maya), 
10. fraud (satheyya), 11. obstinacy (thambha), 
12. presumption (sarambha) , 13. conceit (mana), 
14. arrogance (atimana) , 15. vanity (mada), 
16. negligence (pamada). 

There are 3 groups of upakkilesa pertaining to 

(a) 9 mental imperfections occurring in 'one 
devoted to higher mental training' (adhicitta); 3 coarse 
ones - evil conduct in deeds, words and thoughts; 
3 medium - thoughts of sensual desire, ill will and 


cruelty; 3 subtle - thoughts about one's relatives, one's 
country and one's reputation (A. Ill, 100). 

(b) 18 imperfections in the practice of mindfulness 
of breathing (dndpdna-sati, q.v.), mentioned in Pts.M., 
Anapana-katha (tr. in Mindfulness of Breathing, by 
Nanamoli Thera (p. 60; BPS). 

(c) 10 'imperfections of insight' (-meditation, 
vipassanupakkilesa) ; s. visuddhi V. 

upanissaya-paccaya: 'decisive support' or 'induce- 
ment', is one of the 24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

upapajja-vedanlya-kamma: 'karma ripening in the 
next birth'; s. karma. 

upapatti-bhava: 'rebirth-process'; s. bhava. 

upapilaka-kamma: 'suppressive kamma'; s. karma. 

upasaka: lit. 'sitting close by', i.e. a 'lay adherent', is 
any lay follower who is filled with faith and has taken 
refuge in the Buddha, his doctrine and his community 
of noble disciples (A. VIII, 25). His virtue is regarded as 
pure if he observes the 5 Precepts (panca-sila; 
s. sikkhdpadd). He should avoid the following wrong 
ways of livelihood: trading in arms, in living beings, 
meat, alcohol and poison (A. V, 177). See also 
A. VIII, 75. 

upasamanussati: 'recollection of the peace of 
Nibbana', is the last of the 10 recollections 
(anussati, q.v.). "Whatsoever, O monks, there are of 
things, as highest of them is considered detachment 


(yirdgd), i.e. the crushing of conceit, the stilling of 
thirst, the uprooting of clinging, the breaking through 
the round of rebirths, cessation of craving, detachment, 
extinction, Nibbana" (A. IV, 34). 

upasika: 'female adherent'; s. updsaka. 

upatthambhaka-kamma: 'supportive karma'; 
s. karma. 

upavicara: s. manopavicdra. 

upekkha: 'equanimity', also called tatra- 
majjhattatd (q.v.) , is an ethical quality belonging to the 
sankhdra-group (s. khandhd) and should therefore not 
be confounded with indifferent feeling (adukkha-m- 
asukhd vedand) which sometimes also is called upekkha 
(s. vedand). 

upekkha is one of the 4 sublime abodes (brahma- 
vihdra, q.v.), and of the factors of enlightenment 
(bojjhanga, q.v.). See Vis.M. IV, 156ff. 

upekkha-nana = sankhdrupekkhd-ndna (q.v.) . 

upekkha-sambojjhanga: 'equanimity as factor of 
enlightenment'; s. bojjhanga. 

upekkha-sukha: 'equanimous happiness,' is the feeling 
of happiness accompanied by a high degree of equani- 
mity (upekkha) as, e.g. in the 3rd absorption 
(jhdna q.v.) . 

upekkha-vedana: s. vedand. 

upekkhindriya: the 'faculty of indifference', is one of 
the 5 elements of feeling (M. 115) and therefore not to 


be confounded with the ethical quality 'equanimity', 
also called upekkhd (q.v.). 

upekkhopavicara: Indulging in indifference'; 
s. manopavicdra. 

uposatha: lit. 'fasting', i.e. 'fasting day', is the full-moon 
day, the new-moon day, and the two days of the first 
and last moon-quarters. On full-moon and new-moon 
days, the Disciplinary Code, the Pdtimokkha, is read 
before the assembled community of monks (bhikkhu), 
while on the mentioned 4 moon-days many of the faith- 
ful lay devotees go to visit the monasteries, and there 
take upon themselves the observance of the 8 rules 
(attha-slla; sikkhdpada) . See A. VIII, 41ff. 

uprightness: ujukatd q.v. 

upstream to the highest gods, passing: s. andgdml. 

usages, the 4 noble: ariya-vamsa (q.v.). 

utu: temperature, heat, is identical with the heat- 
element (tejodhdtu, q.v.). 

utu-samutthana (= utuja) -rupa: 'corporeality 
produced by temperature'; s. samutthdna. 



vaca: 'speech'. On right sp., s. magga (3), sacca (IV.3). - 
Low talk, s. tiracchdna-kathd. 

vacT-kamma: Verbal action'; s. karma, kamma-patha. 

vacT-sankhara: 'verbal karma-formation', or 'verbal 

(1) For verbal karma-formation, s. sankhdra (I. 1). 

(2) For verbal function (of mind), i.e. thought- 
conception and discursive thinking, s. sankhdra (I. 2). 

vacT-vinnatti: s. vinnatti. 

vanishing, Contemplation of: vaydnupassand, is one of 
the 18 chief kinds of insight (vipassdna, q.v.). 

vanishing and reappearing: knowledge of the 

v. and r. of beings according to karma, is identical with 

the divine eye (s. abhinnd 5). 

varitta-sila: 'morality consisting in avoiding' (evil 
things), as distinguished from 'morality consisting in 
performing' (good things). See cdritta-vdritta. 

vasT: 'mastery'. Vis.M. IV speaks of 5 kinds of m., which 
anyone who wishes to develop the absorptions 
(jhdna, q.v.) should acquire first of all, with regard to 
the 1st absorption, namely: mastery in adverting to it 
(dvajjana-vasl) , in entering it (samdpajjana-vasl) , in 
determining it (adhitthdna-vasi) , in rising therefrom 


(yutthana-vasi) , in retrospection (paccavekkhana-vasi) . 

"If wherever, whenever, and for whatever duration 
desired, one enters the 1st absorption, and at one's 
entering it, no slowness is experienced, this is called 
mastery in entering the absorption, etc. In an analogous 
way, the 4 remaining kinds are to be explained" 
(Vis.M. IV, 131f; XXIII, 27ff.). 

vatta: 1. 'round', 2. 'round of rebirths'. 

(1) With reference to the dependent origination 
(paticcasamuppdda, q.v.), Vis.M. XVII speaks of 

3 rounds: the karma round (kamma-vattd) comprising 
the karma-formations and the karma-process (2nd and 
10th links); the round of defilements (kilesa-vatta) 
comprising ignorance, craving and clinging (1st, 8th 
and 9th links); the round of results (yipdka-vattd) 
comprising consciousness, mind and corporeality, 
6 bases, impression, feeling (3rd-7th links). 
Cf. paticcasamuppdda (diagram) . 

(2) round of rebirth = samsdra (q.v.). 

vatthu: 'physical base', i.e. the 6 physical organs on 
which the mental process is based, are the 5 physical 
sense-organs and, according to the Com., the heart 
(hadaya-vatthu, q.v.) as the 6th. This 6th vatthu must 
not be confounded with the 6th dyatana, which is a 
collective name for all consciousness whatever. - 

vatthu-kama: 'objective sensuality', the 5 sense- 
objects; s. kdma. 


vavatthana: 'determining', defining. In its application 
to insight meditation, this term occurred first in 
Pts.M. (I, p. 53); but in a verbal form, as a past 
participle, already in M. Ill: tyassa dhammd anupada- 
vavatthitd honti, "these things (the mental factors) were 
determined by him (i.e. Sariputta) successively" 
(s. Abh. St., p. 54). In Vis.M. XX, 130, it is said: 'The 
determining of the truth of suffering is effected with the 
determining of mind-and-body in the purification of 
view (s. visuddhi III) . The determining of the truth of 
origination is effected with the discerning of conditions 
in the purification by transcending doubt 
(s. visuddhi IV). The determining of the truth of the 
path is effected by emphasis on the right path in the 
purification by knowledge and vision of what is path 
and not-path (s. visuddhi V) . Thus the determining of 
the 3 truths (suffering, origin, path) has been first 
effected by means of mundane (lokiya, q.v.) knowledge 
only." - See sammasana, visuddhi. 

For the determining of the 4 physical elements, 
s. dhdtuvavatthdna. 

vayanupassana: 'contemplation of vanishing', is one of 
the 18 chief kinds of insight (yipassand, q.v.). 

vayo-dhatu: 'wind-element'; s. dhdtu. 

vayo-kasina 'wind-kasina', is one of the kasina 
exercises (kasina, q.v.) . 

vedana: 'feeling', sensation, is the 2nd of the 5 groups 
of existence (s. khandha II). According to its nature, it 
maybe divided into 5 classes: (1) bodily agreeable 
feeling (kdyikd sukhd-vedand = sukha); (2) bodily 


disagreeable feeling (kdyikd dukkhd-vedand = dukkhd); 
(3) mentally agreeable feeling (cetasikd sukhd-vedand 
= somanassd) ; (4) mentally disagreeable feeling 
(cetasikd dukkhd-vedand = domanassa) ; (5) indifferent 
or neutral (adukkha-m-asukhd vedand = upekkhd, q.v.) . 

With regard to the 6 senses, one distinguishes 
6 kinds of feeling: feeling associated with seeing, 
hearing, smelling, tasting, bodily impression and mental 
impression. The textual wording of it is 'feeling arisen 
through visual contact' (cakkhu-samphassajd vedand; 
S.XXII, 55; D. 22), etc. 

Feeling is one of the 7 mental factors inseparably 
associated with all consciousness whatever, s. ndma. 
In the formula of the dependent origination 
(paticcasamuppdda, q.v.), feeling is the condition for the 
arising of craving (tanha). The above-mentioned 
5 kinds of feeling are enumerated amongst the 
22 faculties {indriya, q.v.). - See M. 59; Contemplation 
of Feeling (Vedana Samyutta), by Nyanaponika Thera 
(Wheel 303/304). 

vedananupassana: 'contemplation of feeling', is one 
of the 4 foundations of mindfulness (satipatthdna q.v.). 

vehapphala is the name of a class of heavenly beings 
in the fine-material world; s. deva. 

verbal action: vaci-kamma; s. karma. 

verbal functions of mind: vacl-sankhdra; s. sankhdra. 

vesarajja: 'self-confidence' of a Buddha is fourfold. He 
is confident: 1. to have attained to a perfect Enlighten- 


ment of which it cannot be said that it omits anything 
essential to it; 2. to have destroyed all cankers (dsava), 
leaving none that can be said to be undestroyed by 
him; 3. that what were declared by him as obstacles to 
liberation are undeniably such; 4. that his teaching 
fulfils its purpose of actually leading to final liberation 
from suffering. See A. IV, 8; VII, 58; M. 12. 

vibhajja-vada: 'analytical or discriminating doctrine' is 
an early name for the original Buddha doctrine, called 
Theravada. - The term vibhajja-vddi occurs in M. 99 
and A. X, 94, though not in the sense of a separate 
school, but as a characteristic of the Buddha himself: 
"Now, by blaming what is blamable and praising what 
is praiseworthy, the Blessed One is a 'discriminating 
teacher' (yibhajja-vadi) and is not one-sided in his 
teaching" (A. X, 94) . 

Buddhaghosa, in the introduction to his Com. on 
the Kathavatthu, says that in Asoka's time, when the 
Sangha prospered, many heretics took ordination as 
Buddhist monks but continued to spread their wrong 
doctrines. For purifying the Sangha, Asoka, together 
with the venerable Moggaliputtatissa, summoned 
assembly of the bhikkhus. When each of the assembled 
was individually questioned by the king about what the 
Buddha taught, those who said that he was an eternalist 
(sassata-vadi) , etc. were expelled. The genuine 
bhikkhus replied that the Buddha was a vibhajja-vadi, 
an 'analyst' or 'discriminating teacher'; and when, on 
the king's question, Moggaliputtatissa confirmed that 
this was the correct view, those monks were admitted to 
the Uposatha (q.v.) assembly of the Sangha, and from 
their midst the participants of the 3rd Council at Patali- 

-351 - 

putta were selected. - See Mahavamsa, tr. by Wilh. 
Geiger, Ch. V, v. 268f. 

vibhava ditthi = uccheda-ditthi; s. ditthi. 

vibhava-tanha: 'craving for non-existence', or for self- 
annihilation; s. tanhd. 

vicara: 'discursive thinking'; s. vitakka-vicdra. 

vicikiccha: 'sceptical doubt', is one of the 5 mental 
hindrances (nivarana, q.v.) and one of the 3 fetters 
(samyojana, q.v.) , which disappear for ever at Stream- 
entry, the first stage of holiness (s. ariya-puggala) . As a 
fetter, it refers to sceptical doubt about the Master (the 
Buddha), the Teaching, the Sangha, and the training; 
about things past and future, and conditio nality 
(Dhs. 1004; cf. A. X, 71). It also applies to uncertainty 
whether things are wholesome or not, to be practised 
or not, of high or low value, etc. According to 
Vis.M. XIV, 177, vicikiccha is the lack of desire to think 
(things out i.e. to come to a conclusion; vigata-cikicchd, 
desiderative to Vcit, to think); it has the nature of 
wavering, and its manifestation is indecision and a 
divided attitude; its proximate cause is unwise attention 
to matters of doubt. It is associated with one of the 
2 classes of unwholesome consciousness rooted in 
delusion (Tab. I, No. 32). - See also kankhd. 

view, right: sammd-ditthi; s. ditthi, magga 1, sacca IV, 1. 
- For wrong view, s. ditthi. 

vigata-paccaya: 'disappearance', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.). 


vihara: 'abode' There are 3 abodes: the heavenly 
abode (dibba-vihdrd) , the divine abode (brahma- 
vihdra, q.v.), the noble abode (ariya-vihdra) . See 
A. Ill, 63; D. 33. 

vijja: '(higher) knowledge', gnosis. For the 3-fold k., 
s. abhinnd and te-vijjd. Cf. foil. 

vijja-carana: 'knowledge and conduct'. This expression 
occurs in those passages in the suttas where the 
qualities of a Buddha are described, namely: "Truly, the 
Blessed One is holy, is fully enlightened, perfect in 
knowledge and conduct...". According to Vis.M. VII, 1 
and D. 3, knowledge (yijja) refers here either to the 
3-fold knowledge (s. te-vijjd), or to the 8 kinds of 
knowledge, namely: the 6 higher spiritual powers 
(abhinnd, q.v.), insight (vipassand, q.v.), and magical 
power (iddhi, q.v.); whilst conduct {carand) refers to 
15 things: moral restraint, watching over the sense- 
doors, moderation in eating, wakefulness, faith, moral 
shame, moral dread, great learning, energy, mindful- 
ness, wisdom and the 4 absorptions. 

vikkhambh ana-pah an a: 'overcoming by repression' 
(or 'suspension'), is one of the 5 kinds of overcoming 
(pahdna, q.v.) . 

vikubbana-iddhi: the 'power of transformation', is one 
of the magical faculties (iddhi, q.v.). 

vimamsa: 'investigation, inquiry, pondering', is one of 
the 4 roads to power (iddhi-pdda, q.v.) and one of the 
4 factors of predominance (s.paccaya, 3). 

vimokkha: 'liberation' (deliverance). I. the 3; II. the 8. 


I. The 3 liberations are: 1. the conditionless 
(or signless) liberation (animitta-v.), 2. the desireless 
liberation (apanihita-v.), 3. the emptiness (or void) 
liberation (sunnatd-v.) . They are also called 'the triple 
gateway to liberation' (yimokkha-mukha; Vis.M. XXI, 
66ff), as they are three different approaches to the 
paths of holiness. - See visuddhi VI, 8. Cf. Vis XXI, 6ff, 
121ff; Pts.M. II. Vimokkha-Katha. 

I. "Whosoever being filled with determination 
(adhimokkha, q.v.), considers all formations as imper- 
manent (aniccd), such a one attains the conditionless 
liberation. 2. Whosoever being filled with tranquillity, 
considers all formations as painful (dukkhd), such a 
one attains the desireless liberation. 3. Whosoever 
being filled with wisdom, considers all formations as 
without a self (anatta), such a one attains the emptiness 
liberation" (Vis.M. XXI, 70 = Pts.M. II, p. 58). 

(1) & (2) are mentioned and explained in M. 43, 
under the name of deliverances of mind (ceto-vimutti, q.v.). - 
(2) and (3) appear in Dhs. (344ff, 353ff) in the section 
on supermundane consciousness (see Atthasalini Tr., 
p. 299ff). 

II. The 8 liberations (attha vimokkhd) occur 
frequently in the texts (A. VIII, 66; D. 16, etc.) and are 
described as follows: 

"There are 8 liberations, O monks. Which are 

(1) "Whilst remaining in the fine-material sphere 
{rupi), one perceives corporeal forms: this is the first 


(2) "Not perceiving corporeal forms on one's own 
person, one perceives corporeal forms externally: this 
is the 2nd liberation. 

(3) "By thinking of the beautiful, one is filled with 
confidence: this is the 3rd liberation. 

(4) "Through the total overcoming of the corpor- 
eality-perceptions, the vanishing of the reflex-percep- 
tions, and the non-attention to the multiformity-percep- 
tions, with the idea 'Unbounded is space', one reaches 
the sphere of unbounded space (dkdsdnancdyatana) 
and abides therein: this is the 4th liberation. 

(5) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of 
unbounded space, and with the idea 'Unbounded is 
consciousness', one reaches the sphere of unbounded 
consciousness (yinndnancdyatand) and abides therein: 
this is the 5th liberation. 

(6) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of 
unbounded consciousness, and with the idea 'Nothing is 
there', one reaches the sphere of nothingness 
(dkineanndyatand) and abides therein: this is the 6th 

(7) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of 
nothingness, one reaches the sphere of neither- 
perception-nor-non-perception {rCeva-sanrid- 
ndsanndyatancO and abides therein: this is the 7th 

(8) "Through the total overcoming of the sphere of 
neither-perception-nor-non-perception, one reaches 
the extinction of perception and feeling (s. nirodha- 
samdpatti) : this is the 8th liberation. 

These, O monks, are the 8 kinds of liberation." 


For (1-3), s. abhibhdyatana; for (4-7), s.jhdna; 
for (8), s. nirodha-samdpatti. 

By (3) is meant the attainment of the fine-material 
absorptions (jhdna, q.v.) by means of concentrating the 
mind on perfectly pure and bright colours as objects of 
the kasina (q.v.). According to Pts.M. this mental state is 
produced also by concentrating the mind on the 
4 sublime states, i.e. all-embracing kindness, 
compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity, in 
consequence of which all beings appear perfectly pure 
and glorified, and thus the mind turns to the beautiful. 

See Pts.M. II, Vimokkha-katha; Atthasalini Tr., 
p. 255; App. 

vimutti: 'deliverance', is of 2 kinds: deliverance of 
mind (ceto -vimutti, q.v.) and deliverance through 
wisdom (panfid-vimutti, q.v.). 

'Deliverance of mind', in the highest sense, is that 
kind of concentration {samddhi) which is bound up 
with the path of Arahatship (arahatta-maggd) ; 
'deliverance through wisdom' is the knowledge (nana) 
bound up with the fruition of Arahatship (arahatta- 
p/ida) . Cf. A. V, 142. 

There are also 5 kinds of deliverance, identical with 
the 5 kinds of overcoming (pahdna, q.v.) . 

vinipata: 'world of suffering', is another name for the 
4 woeful courses (duggati; s. gati) of existence, and for 
the 4 lower worlds (apdya, q.v.) . 

The Stream-Winner {sotdpanna, q.v.) is no longer 
subject to rebirth in them (avinipdta-dhamma) . 


vinnana: 'consciousness', is one of the 5 groups of 
existence (aggregates; khandha, q.v.); one of the 
4 nutriments {ahara, q.v.); the 3rd link of the depen- 
dent origination (paticcasamuppada, q.v.); the 5th in the 
sixfold division of elements (dhatu, q.v.). 

Viewed as one of the 5 groups (khandha), it is 
inseparably linked with the 3 other mental groups 
(feeling, perception and formations) and furnishes the 
bare cognition of the object, while the other 
3 contribute more specific functions. Its ethical and 
karmic character, and its greater or lesser degree of 
intensity and clarity, are chiefly determined by the 
mental formations associated with it. 

Just like the other groups of existence, conscious- 
ness is a flux (yinfiana-sota, 'stream of c.') and does not 
constitute an abiding mind-substance; nor is it a 
transmigrating entity or soul. The 3 characteristics 
(s. ti-lakkhand), impermanence, suffering and no-self, 
are frequently applied to it in the texts (e.g., in the 
Anattalakkhana Sutta, S.XXII, 59). The Buddha often 
stressed that "apart from conditions, there is no arising 
of consciousness' (M. 38); and all these statements 
about its nature hold good for the entire range of 
consciousness, be it "past, future or presently arisen, 
gross or subtle, in oneself or external, inferior or lofty, 
far or near" (S.XXII, 59). 

According to the 6 senses it divides into 6 kinds, 
viz. eye- (or visual) consciousness (cakkhu-v.), etc. 
About the dependent arising of these 6 kinds of cons- 
ciousness, Vis.M. XV, 39 says: 'Conditioned through the 
eye, the visible object, light and attention, eye-cons- 
ciousness arises. Conditioned through the ear, the 


audible object, the ear-passage and attention, ear- 
consciousness arises. Conditioned, through the nose, 
the olfactive object, air and attention, nose-conscious- 
ness arises. Conditioned through the tongue, the 
gustative object, humidity and attention, tongue- 
consciousness arises. Conditioned through the body, 
bodily impression, the earth-element and attention, 
body-consciousness arises. Conditioned through the 
subconscious mind (bhavanga-mano) , the mind-object 
and attention, mind-consciousness arises." 

The Abhidhamma literature distinguishes 89 classes 
of consciousness, being either karmically wholesome, 
unwholesome or neutral, and belonging either to the 
sense-sphere, the fine-material or the immaterial 
sphere, or to supermundane consciousness. See Table I. 

vinnana-kicca: 'functions of consciousness', as exer- 
cised within a process of consciousness or cognitive 
series {cittavlthi) . In the Abhidhamma Com. and 
Vis.M. XIV the following functions are mentioned: 
rebirth (patisandhi) , subconsciousness (bhavanga), 
advertence (dvajjana), seeing, hearing, smelling, tast- 
ing, body-consciousness; receiving (sampaticchana) , 
investigating (santirand) , determining (yotthapand) , 
impulsion (javana), registering (taddrammana) , dying 
(cuti) . 

A single unit of sense-perception (e.g. visual 
consciousness), being conditioned through a sense- 
organ and its corresponding object, forms in reality an 
extremely complex process, in which all the single 
phases of consciousness follow one upon another in 


rapid succession, while performing their respective 
functions, e.g.: 

"As soon as a visible object has entered the range of 
vision, it acts on the sensitive eye-organ (cakkhu- 
pasddd), and conditioned thereby an excitation of the 
subconscious stream (bhavanga-sota) takes place. 

"As soon, however, as subconsciousness is broken 
off, the functional mind-element (s. Tab. I, 70), grasp- 
ing the object and breaking through the subconscious 
stream, performs the function of 'adverting' the mind 
towards the object (dvajjana) . 

"Immediately thereupon there arises at the eye- 
door, and based on the sensitive eye-organ, the eye- 
consciousness, while performing the function of 'seeing' 
(dassana) .... 

Immediately thereafter there arises the mind- 
element (Tab. I, 39, 55) performing the function of 
'receiving' (sampaticchand) the object of that 

"Immediately thereafter there arises... the mind- 
consciousness-element (Tab. I, 40, 41, 56), while 
'investigating' (santirand) the object received by the 

"Immediately thereafter there arises the functional, 
rootless mind-consciousness-element (Tab. I, 71), 
accompanied by indifference, while performing the 
function of 'determining' (yotthapana) the object.... 

"Now, if the object is large, then immediately 
afterwards there flash forth 6 or 7 'impulsive moments' 
(javana-citta) , constituted by one of the 8 wholesome, 


or 12 unwholesome, or 9 functional classes of 
consciousness (Tab. 1, 1-8; 22-23; 72-80). 

"Now, if at the end of the impulsive moments, the 
object at the five-sense doors is very large, and at the 
mind-door clear, then there arises, once or twice, one 
of the 8 root-accompanied, karma-resultant classes of 
consciousness (Tab. I, 42-49) of the sense-sphere, or 
one of the 3 rootless karma-resultant mind-conscious- 
ness-elements (Tab. I, 40, 41, 56).... Because this 
consciousness after the vanishing of the impulsive 
moments, possesses the faculty continuing with the 
object of the subconsciousness, taking the object of the 
subconsciousness as its own object, therefore it is called 
'registering' (taddrarmmana, lit. 'that object', or 'having 
that as object')" (Vis.M. XIV, 115ff). 

If, however, the sense-object is weak, then it 
reaches merely the stage of 'impulsion' (javand), or of 
'determining' (yotthapand) ; if very weak, only an 
excitation of the subconsciousness takes place. 

The process of the inner or mind-consciousness, 
i.e. without participation of the 5 physical senses, is as 
follows: in the case that the mind-object entering the 
mind-door is distinct, then it passes through the stages 
of 'advertence at the mind-door' (manodvdrdvajjand) , 
the 'impulsive stage' and the 'registering stage', before 
finally sinking into the subconscious stream. - (App.: 
citta-vithi) . 

Literature: Aids to the Abhidhamma Philosophy, by 
Dr. C. B. Dharmasena (with colour chart of the Cognitive 
Series; Wheel 63/64). - The Psychology and Philosophy of 
Buddhism, by Dr. W. F. Javasuriya (Buddhist Missionary 
Socy., Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). 


vinnanancayatana: 'sphere of boundless 
consciousness', is a name for the 2nd meditative 
absorption in the immaterial sphere (s.jhdna, 6). 

vinnana-tthiti: 'abodes or supports of consciousness'. 
The texts describe 7 such abodes (e.g. A. VII, 41) : 

(1) "There are beings who are different in body 
and different in perception, such as men, some 
heavenly beings, and some beings living in states of 
suffering (s. apdya). This is the 1st abode of 

(2) "There are beings who are different in body but 
equal in perception, such as the first-born gods of the 
Brahma-world (s. deva II). This is the 2nd abode of 

(3) "There are beings who are equal in body but 
different in perception, such as the Radiant Gods 
(dbhassara-deva) . This is the 3rd abode of 

(4) "There are beings who are equal in body and 
equal in perception, such as the All-illuminating Gods 
(subhakinha-devd) . This is the 4th abode of 

(5) "There are beings... reborn in the sphere of 
boundless space. This is the 5th abode of 

(6) "There are beings... reborn in the sphere of 
boundless consciousness. This is the 6th abode of 

(7) There are beings... reborn in the sphere of 
nothingness. This is the 7th abode of consciousness" 

361 - 

About the 3 last-named spheres, s.jhana (5-7). 
Cf. sattdvdsa. 

In D. 33 there are mentioned 4 vinndna-tthiti, 
apparently in the sense of 'bases' of consciousness, 
namely: corporeality, feeling, perception, mental 
formations, which in S. XXII, 53 are further explained. 

vinnatti: (lit. 'making known') 'intimation', is an 
Abhidhamma term for bodily expression (kdya- 
vinnatti) and verbal expression (yaci-vifinatti) , both 
belonging to the corporeality-group. They are pro- 
duced by the co-nascent volition, and are therefore, as 
such, purely physical and not to be confounded with 
karma (q.v.), which as such is something mental. 
Cf. Kath. 80, 100, 101, 103, 194 (s. Guide V). - (App.). 

"One speaks of 'bodily expression', because it 
makes known an intention by means of bodily move- 
ment, and can itself be understood by the bodily move- 
ment which is said to be corporeal. 

'"Verbal expression' is so called because it makes 
known an intention by means of a speech-produced 
noise" (Vis.M. XIV). 

vipacitannu (or vipancitafinu) : 'one who realizes the 
truth after explanation.' Thus is called one who realizes 
the truth only after detailed explanation of that which 
already had been said to him in a concise form. 
Cf. ugghatitannu. 

vipaka: 'karma-result', is any karmically (morally) 
neutral mental phenomenon (e.g. bodily agreeable or 
painful feeling, sense-consciousness, etc.), which is the 


result of wholesome or unwholesome volitional action 
(karma, q.v.) through body, speech or mind, done 
either in this or some previous life. Totally wrong is the 
belief that, according to Buddhism, everything is the 
result of previous action. Never, for example, is any 
karmically wholesome or unwholesome volitional 
action the result of former action, being in reality itself 
karma. On this subject s. titthdyatana, karma, Tab. I; 
Fund II. Cf. A. Ill, 101; Kath. 162 (Guide, p. 80). 

Karma-produced (kammaja or kamma-samutthdnd) 
corporeal things are never called kamma-vipdka, as this 
term may be applied only to mental phenomena. 

vipaka-paccaya: 'karma-result condition' is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.) . 

vipallasa: 'perversions' or 'distortions'. - "There are 
4 perversions which may be either of perception 
(sannd-vipalldsa) , of consciousness (cittav.) or of views 
(ditthi-v.) . And which are these four? To regard what is 
impermanent {anicca) as permanent; what is painful 
(dukkhd) as pleasant (or happiness-yielding) ; what is 
without a self (anattd) as a self; what is impure (ugly: 
asubha) as pure or beautiful" (A. IV, 49) . - See Manual 
of Insight, by Ledi Sayadaw (Wheel 31/32), p. 5. 

"Of the perversions, the following are eliminated 
by the 1st path-knowledge (sotdpatti): the perversions 
of perception, consciousness and views, that the imper- 
manent is permanent and what is not a self is a self; 
further, the perversion of views that the painful is 
pleasant, and the impure is pure. By the 3rd path- 
knowledge (andgdmitd) are eliminated: the perversions 
of perception and consciousness that the impure is 


pure. By the 4th path-knowledge (arahattd) are 
eliminated the perversions of perception and cons- 
ciousness that the painful is pleasant" (Vis.M. XXII, 68). 

viparinamanupassana: 'contemplation of change' (of 
all things), is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight 
(vipassand, q.v.) . 

vipassana: 'insight', is the intuitive light flashing forth 
and exposing the truth of the impermanency, the 
suffering and the impersonal and unsubstantial nature 
of all corporeal and mental phenomena of existence. It 
is insight- wisdom (yipassand-panncO that is the decisive 
liberating factor in Buddhism, though it has to be 
developed along with the 2 other trainings in morality 
and concentration. The culmination of insight practice 
(s. visuddhi VI) leads directly to the stages of holiness 
(s. visuddhi VII). 

Insight is not the result of a mere intellectual 
understanding, but is won through direct meditative 
observation of one's own bodily and mental processes. 
In the commentaries and the Vis.M., the sequence in 
developing insight-meditation is given as follows: 
1. discernment of the corporeal {rupa), 2. of the mental 
(ndmd), 3. contemplation of both (ndmarupa; i.e. of 
their pairwise occurrence in actual events, and their 
interdependence), 4. both viewed as conditioned 
(application of the dependent origination, 
paticcasamuppdda) , 5. application of the 
3 characteristics (impermanency, etc.) to mind-and- 

The stages of gradually growing insight are 
described in the 9insight- knowledges (yipassand- 


nana), constituting the 6th stage of purification: 
beginning with the 'knowledge of rise and fall' and 
ending with the 'adaptation to Truth'. For details, see 
visuddhi VI and Vis.M. XXL 

Eighteen chief kinds of insight-knowledge (or prin- 
cipal insights, maha-vipassand) are listed and described 
in Vis.M. XXII, 113:(1) contemplation of imperman- 
ence (aniccanupassand) , (2) of suffering 
(dukkhanupassand) , (3) of no self (anattanupassand) , 
(4) of aversion (nibbiddriupassana). (5) of detachment 
(virdgdnupassand),(6) of extinction (nirodhanupassancO , 
(7) of abandoning ipadnissagganupassana), (8) ofwaning 
(khaydnupassand), (9) of vanishing (yayanupassand) , 
(10) of change (yiparinamanupassand) , (11) of the 
unconditioned (or signless, animittanupassana) , (12) of 
desirelessness (apanihitanupassand) , (13) of emptiness 
{sunnataupassand) , (14) insight into phenomena which 
is higher wisdom (adhipanna-dhamma-vipassand) , 
(15) knowledge and vision according to reality (yatha- 
bhuta-fianadassana) , (16) contemplation of misery (or 
danger, admavdnupassana), (17) reflecting contemplation 
(patisankhanupassand) , (18) contemplation of turning away 
(vivaipmdnupassana) . 

Through these 18, the adverse ideas and views are 
overcome, for which reason this way of overcoming is 
called 'overcoming by the opposite' (tadanga-pahana, 
overcoming this factor by that). Thus (1) dispels the 
idea of permanence. (2) the idea of happiness, (3) the 
idea of self, (4) lust, (5) greed, (6) origination, 
(7) grasping, (8) the idea of compactness, (9) karma- 
accumulation, (10) the idea of lastingness, (11) the 


conditions, (12) delight, (13) adherence, (14) grasping 
and adherence to the idea of substance, 
(15) attachment and adherence, (17) thoughtlessness, 
(18) dispels entanglement and clinging. 

Insight may be either mundane (lokiya, q.v.) or 
supermundane (lokuttara, q.v.). Supermundane insight 
is of 3 kinds: (1) joined with one of the 4 supermun- 
dane paths, (2) joined with one of the fruitions of these 
paths, (3) regarding the extinction, or rather 
suspension, of consciousness (s. nirodha-samdpatti) . 

See samatha-vipassand, visuddhi, III-VII. 

Literature: Manual of Insight, by Ledi Sayadaw 
(Wheel 31/32). Practical Insight Meditation, Progress of 
Insight, both by Mahasi Sayadaw (BPS). The Experience of 
Insight, by Joseph Goldstein (BPS). 

vipassana-yanika = sukkha-vipassaka (q.v.) . 

vipassanupakkilesa: 'imperfections of insight'; 
s. visuddhi. 

vipatti: 'aberration' or 'deviation', may be: deviation 
from morality (sila-vipatti) , or deviation from under- 
standing (ditthivipatti) . 

"To deviate in deeds, or in words, or in both deeds 
and words: this is called deviation from morality. 

'"Alms and offerings are useless, there is no fruit 
and result of good and bad actions, there are no such 
things as this and the next life'. ... Such wrong views are 
called deviation from understanding." (Pug. 67, 68) 

vippayutta-paccaya: 'dissociation', is one of the 
24 conditions (paccaya, q.v.). 


viraga: 'fading away', detachment; absence of lust, 
dispassionateness. Appears frequently together with 
nirodha, 'cessation' (1) as a name for Nibbana, (2) in 
the contemplations (a) forming the 4th tetrad in the 
exercises in mindfulness of breathing 
(s. dndpdnasati 14), (b) of the 18 principal insights 
(No. 5); s. vipassand. 

According to Com., it may mean (1) the momentary 
destruction of phenomena, or (2) the ultimate 'fading 
away', i.e. Nibbana. In the aforementioned two 
contemplations, it means the understanding of both, 
and the path attained by such understanding. 

viraganupassana: s. prec. 

virati: the 3 'abstentions' or abstinences, are: absten- 
tion from wrong speech, wrong (bodily) action and 
wrong livelihood; corresponding to right speech, action 
and livelihood of the 8-fold Path (s. magga, 3-5). By 
abstention is not simply meant the non-occurrence of 
the evil things in question, but the deliberate abstaining 
therefrom, whenever occasion arises. They belong to 
the 'secondary' (not constant) mental concomitants 
obtaining in lofty consciousness (s. Tab. II). Cf. sila. 

virility: s. bhdva. 

viriya: 'energy', lit. 'virility', 'manliness' or 'heroism' 
(from vira, man, hero; Lat. vir; cf. virtus), is one of the 
5 spiritual faculties and powers (s. bald), one of the 
7 factors of enlightenment (s. bojjhanga) and identical 
with right effort of the 8-fold Path (s. magga) . For 
further explanations, s. padhdna. 

367 - 

viriya-sambojjhanga: 'energy as factor of enlighten- 
ment', is one of the 7 factors of enlightenment 
(bojjhanga, q.v.) . 

virtue: s. slla. 

visesa-bhagiya-sila: (samddhi, -pannd): morality 
(concentration, wisdom) connected with progress'. For 
details, s. hdnabhdgiya-sila. 

visible object: s. dyatana. 

visuddhi: 'purification', purity. The '7 stages of 
purification' (satta-visuddhi) form the substructure of 
Upatissa's Vimutti-Magga (The Path To Freedom), 
preserved only in Chinese, as well as of Buddhaghosa's 
monumental work, Visuddhi-Magga (The Path of 
Purification), based on the former work. 

The only place in the Canon where these 7 kinds of 
purification are mentioned is M. 24, "The Simile of the 
Stage-coach" (s. 'Path', §64), wherein their purpose and 
goal are illustrated. There it is said that the real and 
ultimate goal does not consist in purification of moral- 
ity, or of mind, or of view, etc., but in total deliverance 
and extinction. Now, just as one mounts the first coach 
and travels to the second coach, then mounts the 
second coach and travels with it to the third coach, etc., 
in exactly the same way the goal of (I) the purification 
of morality (sila-visuddhi) is (II) the purification of 
mind (citta-visuddhi) ; its goal: (III) the purification of 
view (ditthi-visuddhi) ; its goal: (IV) the purification by 
overcoming doubt (kankhdvitarana-visuddhi) ; its goal: 
(V) the purification by knowledge and vision of what is 
path and not-path (maggdmagga-ndnadassana- 


visuddhi); its goal: (VI) the purification by knowledge 
and vision of the path-progress (patipadd-ndnadassana- 
visuddhi); its goal: (VII) the purification of knowledge 
and vision (ndnadassana-visuddhi) ; but the goal of this 
purification is deliverance freed from all clinging. 

(I) "Purification of morality (sila-visuddhi) consists 
of the 4-fold purity of morality (catu-pdrisuddhi-sila) , 
namely: restraint with regard to the Disciplinary Code 
(pdtimokkhasamvara-sild) , sense-restraint 
(indriysamvara-sild) , purity of livelihood 
(djivapdrisuddhi-sild) , morality with regard to the 

4 requisites (paccaya-sannissita-sila)" (Vis.M. XVIII). On 
these 4 terms, s. sila. - In the case of a layman, it entails 
the observance of whatever moral rules (5 or more) he 
has taken upon himself. 

(II) "Purification of mind (citta-visuddhi) is a name 
for the 8 attainments (= absorptions: jhdna, q.v.), as 
well as for neighbourhood-concentration {upacdra- 
samddhi; s. samddhi) ." (ib.). 

(III) "By purification of view {ditthi-visuddhi) is 
meant the understanding, according to reality, of mind 
and corporeality (ndmarupa, q.v.) . . . which is founded 
on undeludedness (wisdom) as base, and which in 
manifold ways determines mind and corporeality after 
overcoming all belief in a personality {attd: self, ego.)." 

(IV) "By purification by overcoming doubt 
(kankhd-vitarana-visuddhi) is meant the understanding 
which, by grasping the conditions of this mind and 
corporeality, has escaped from all doubt with regard to 
the 3 times (past, present, future)." (ib. XIX) 


(V) "By purification by knowledge and vision of 
what is path and not-path (maggdmagga-ndnadassana- 
visuddhi) is meant that understanding which knows the 
right path from the wrong path: 'This is the right path, 
that the wrong path.' " (ib. XX) 

In order to attain this 5th stage of purification, one 
at first should develop methodical insight (naya- 
vipassand), i.e. through contemplation of the 5 groups 
of existence (khandha, q.v.). For whosoever does not 
yet possess a perfectly developed insight, to him such 
phenomena as effulgence of light, etc. (see below), 
arising during insight, may become impediments in the 
3 kinds of full understanding here considered 
(s. parinnd) . 

'As soon as the manifold ways and characteristics of 
the 4 Truths (sclcccl) and the dependent origination 
(paticcasamuppddd) have become clear to the meditat- 
ing disciple, he says to himself: Thus do these things 
never before arisen arise, and having arisen they dis- 
appear again. Thus do the formations of existence ever 
and again arise as something quite new. But not only 
are they something new, they are moreover also of 
limited duration, like a dew-drop at sunrise, like a 
bubble, like a line drawn with a stick in the water, like a 
mustard seed placed on the point of an arrow, or like a 
flash of lightning. Also as something unsubstantial and 
empty do they appear, as jugglery, as a mirage.... 
Merely something subject to vanishing arises, and 
having arisen disappears again.'" 

During such insight practice, however, may arise 
the 10 imperfections (or defilements) of insight 


(vipassanupakkilesa) : effulgence of light (obhdsa), 
knowledge (nana), rapture (piti), tranquillity 
{passaddhi), happiness (sukha), determination 
(adhimokkha) , energy (paggaha) , awareness 
(upatthana) , delight {nikanti).- See Vis.M. XX, 105f. 


Excepting the last one, 'delight', they are not 
imperfections or defilements in themselves, but may 
become a basis for them through the arising of pride or 
delight or by a wrong conclusion that one of the holy 
paths has been attained. He, however, who is watchful 
and experienced in insight practice, will know that 
these states of mind do not indicate attainment of the 
true path, but are only symptoms or concomitants of 
insight meditation. 

"Thus far the meditating disciple has determined 
3 of the truths, namely while determining the corporeal 
and mental phenomena he has, through purification of 
view (ditthi-visuddhi) , determined the 'truth of 
suffering'. While grasping the conditions he has, 
through purification by overcoming doubt (kankha- 
vitarana-visuddhi) , determined the 'truth of the origin 
of suffering'. While determining the right path, he has, 
through purification by knowledge and vision of what is 
path and not-path (maggamaggananadassana- 
visuddhi), determined the 'truth of the path' (leading to 
the extinction of suffering)." 

(VI) Purification by knowledge and vision of the 
path-progress (patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi) is the 
insight perfected in 8 kinds of knowledge, together with 
the 9th knowledge, the 'knowledge adapting itself to 

-371 - 

By the 8 kinds of knowledge are here meant the 
following, which are freed from defilements, follow the 
right process, and are considered as insight, namely: 

1. knowledge consisting in contemplation of rise 

and fall (udayabbaydnupassand-ndna) , 

2. in contemplation of dissolution (bhangdnupassciTid-ndrLa), 

3. in awareness of terror (or the fearful) 

(bhayatupatthdnd-ndna) , 

4. in contemplation of misery (ddinavdnupassand- 

ndnd) , 

5. in contemplation of aversion (nibbiddnupassand- 


6. in the desire for deliverance (muccitu-kamyatd- 

ndna) , 

7. in reflecting contemplation (jxitomkhdnupassmd-ndncO, 

8. in equanimity regarding all formations of exist 

ence (sankhdrupekkhd-fidnd) - which is 
followed by 

9. in adaptation to truth (saccdnulomika-fidnd) . 

(1) consists in the meditative observation of the 

3 characteristics of existence (impermanence, suffering, 
no self) in one's own bodily and mental processes. As 
long as the mind is still disturbed by the 10 imperfect- 
ions (s. V), the 3 characteristics will not become fully 
clear in their true nature. Only when the mind is free 
from these imperfections can the characteristics be 
observed clearly. 

(2) When through such repeated practice, know- 
ledge and mindfulness have grown keen and the bodily 
and mental formations become apparent quickly, at 


that stage the phase of dissolution of these formations 
will become prominent. 

"Consciousness with (e.g.) materiality as its object 
arises and dissolves. Having reflected on that object, he 
contemplates the dissolution of (reflecting) conscious- 
ness." (Pts.M. I, 57, quoted in Vis.M. XXI, 11). 

The 8 blessings of this knowledge are: abandoning 
the belief in eternal existence (bhava-ditthi) , giving up 
attachment to life, constant right application (of mind 
to meditative endeavour), a purified livelihood, over- 
coming of anxiety, absence of fear, acquisition of for- 
bearance and gentleness, conquest of discontent and 
sensual delight (Vis.M. XXI, 28). 

(3) Knowledge consisting in awareness of terror 
(or fearfulness) is the seeing of terror in the conditions 
as well as the continuity of existence. For whoso con- 
siders the formations as impermanent, to him the con- 
ditions of existence (i.e. the karma-formations produc- 
ing ever new existence) appear as terror, as driving 
towards death. Whoso considers the formations as 
misery, to him the continuity of existence appears as 
terror, as something oppressive. Whoso considers the 
formations as impersonal, to him the karma-formations, 
as well as the continuity of existence, appear as terror, 
as an empty village, as a mirage, etc. 

(4) Contemplation of misery (or danger) is another 
aspect of the awareness of terror: "The origin (of exist- 
ence) is terror. . . continuance of existence is terror. . . 
arising is suffering', such understanding in the aware- 
ness of terror is the knowledge of misery. 'Non-arising is 
bliss', this is knowledge of the peaceful state (Pts.M. 1, 59); 


that is, the no-more-arising is safety, is happiness, is 
Nib b ana. 

(5) Contemplation of aversion means: aversion for 
all formations as terror, therefore its name 'awareness 
of terror' has come into use. Because it has made 
known the misery of all these formations, therefore it 
has received the name of 'contemplation of misery' 
(ddinavdnupassand) . Because it has arisen through 
aversion for those formations, therefore it is known as 
'contemplation of aversion' (nibbiddnupassand) . 

(6) Knowledge consisting in the desire for deliver- 
ance means: the desire for freedom and escape from all 
formations of existence. For feeling aversion for all 
formations, becoming weary of them, finding no more 
delight in them, the mind does not cling to a single one 
of all these formations. 

(7) Reflecting contemplation is the repeated 
meditative discernment of the formations of existence, 
attributing to them the 3 characteristics of existence, 
with the desire to find deliverance from all forms of 

(8) Equanimity regarding all formations: "When 
the meditator (through reflecting contemplation) has 
discerned the formations by applying the 3 character- 
istics to them and sees them as void, he abandons both 
terror and delight, and becomes indifferent and equani- 
mous with regard to all formations; he neither takes 
them as I nor as 'mine'; he is like a man who has divorc- 
ed his wife" (Vis.M. XXI, 61). 

Now, while continuing to contemplate the 3 char- 
acteristics of existence and perceiving the tranquil lot of 


Nibbana as the peace, this equanimity-knowledge 
becomes the triple gateway to liberation. As it is said 
(Pts.M. II, p. 48): 

"Three gateways to liberation (yimokkha-mukha; 
s. vimokkha I) lead to escape from the world, namely: 
that the mind is contemplating all formations as limited, 
and is rushing forward to the conditionless element 
(animitta-dhdtu) ; that the mind is stirred with regard to 
all formations of existence, and is rushing forward to 
the desireless element (appanihita-dhdtu) ; that the 
mind sees all things as something foreign, and is rushing 
forward to the void element (sunnatd-dhdtu) ." 

At this stage, and through the triple gateway, the 
diversification of path attainment takes place, according 
to the 7 kinds of noble persons (ariya-puggala, q.v.); on 
this see Vis.M. XXI, 74ff. 

The 6th, 7th and 8th knowledges, according to 
Vis.M. XXI, form really only one single knowledge in its 
first, middle and final stages of development. This 
knowledge is also known as the 'insight leading to path 
ascent' (yutthdna-gdmim-vipassand, q.v.) . 

(9) Adaptation to truth (or conformity with truth) 
is called that knowledge which, while contemplating 
impermanency, etc. adapts itself to the preceding 
8 kinds of insight-knowledge, as well as to the immedi- 
ately following supermundane path and to the 
37 elements pertaining to enlightenment 
(bodhipakkhiya-dhamma, q.v.). It is identical with 
adaptation-knowledge (anulomandna) . 

"Whosoever has cultivated, developed, and 
frequently practised 'equanimity regarding all 
formations' in him arises very strong faith known as 


determination (adhimokkha-saddha) and his energy is 
better exerted, his mindfulness better established, his 
mind better concentrated, and a still stronger 'equanim- 
ity regarding the formations' arises. 'Now the path will 
reveal itself, thus thinking, the meditator contemplates 
with his equanimity-knowledge all formations as imper- 
manent, etc., and thereafter that knowledge sinks into 
the subconscious stream of existence (s. bhavanga- 
sotd). Immediately afterwards there arises advertence 
at the mind-door (s. vinndna-kiccd) . And just like 
equanimity-knowledge, the adaptation-knowledge, too, 
takes as its object the formations, regarding them as 
something impermanent, miserable and impersonal. 
Thereupon, while continuing the uninterrupted 
continuity of consciousness (citta-santati) , there arises 
the 1st impulsive moment (javana, q.v.), called 
'preparation' (parikammd) , taking the same formations 
as object. Immediately thereafter, with the same 
formations as object, there arises the 2nd impulsive 
moment, known as 'access' (upacdrd) . And again 
immediately after that, there arises the impulsive 
moment called 'adaptation' (anuloma) ." 

(VII) Purification of knowledge and vision 
(ndnadassana-visuddhi) is the knowledge associated 
with any of the 4 kinds of supermundane path- 
consciousness (s. ariyapuggald) . 

"Immediately upon this adaptation-knowledge 
there arises the 'maturity-knowledge' (gotrabhu-ndna; 
s. gotrabhu) taking as object the Unconditioned, the 
standstill of existence, the absence of becoming, 
cessation, Nibbana, while at the same time transcending 
the rank (gotta = gotra: lineage), designation and 


plane of the worldling (puthujjana, q.v.), and entering 
the rank, designation and plane of the Noble Ones 
{ariyd), being the first turning towards Nibbana as 
object, the first thinking of it, the first concentration on 
it, and the condition for the path... forming the culmin- 
ation of insight, and never as such coming back again. 

"As the immediate continuation following upon 
that maturity knowledge (gotrabhu-ndnd) , there arises 
the first path-consciousness (Stream-entrance) forever 
destroying the first 3 of the 10 fetters of existence 
(samyojana, q.v.), and closing the entrance to the lower 
worlds. Immediately after this path-knowledge, there 
arise, as its result, 2 or 3 path-produced states of con- 
sciousness, the fruitional consciousness (phala-cittd) . 
Immediately after the sinking of this consciousness into 
the subconscious stream of existence, the retrospective 
knowledge (paccavekkhana-ndna, q.v.) arises, having 
the path-consciousness as its object" (Vis.M. XXI). For 
the 3 higher paths, s. ariya-puggala. 

Each of the 4 kinds of path-consciousness performs 
at the one and the same time 4 functions, namely: the 
function of full understanding (parifind, q.v.) of suffer- 
ing, the function of overcoming (pahdna, q.v.) the ori- 
gin of suffering, the function of realizing (sacchikiriyd) 
the extinction of suffering, the function of developing 
(bhdvand, q.v.) the supermundane Noble Eightfold 
Path (magga, q.v.) . 

See Path of Purification, by Buddhaghosa, tr. by 
Nyanamoli (BPS); Path of Freedom, by Upatissa (BPS). 

vitakka: 'thought', 'thought-conception', is one of the 
'secondary' (not constant) mental concomitants 


(s. Tab. II), and may be either karmically wholesome, 
unwholesome or neutral. - "There are 3 karmically 
unwholesome (akusala) thoughts: sensuous thought 
(kdma-vitakka) , hating thought (bydpdda-v.), and cruel 
thought (yihimsa-v.) . There are 3 karmically whole- 
some (kusala) thoughts: thought of renunciation 
(nekkhamma-v.) , of hatelessness (avydpdda-v.), of not 
harming (avi/nmsd-v.) ." The latter three constitute 
'right thought', the 2nd link of the 8-fold Path 
(s. magga 2) . 

On the 'Removal of Distracting Thoughts' (yitakka- 
santhdnd), s. M. 20 (tr. in Wheel 21). 

vitakka-vicara: 'thought-conception and discursive 
thinking', (or 'applied and sustained thought') are 
verbal functions (yacl-sankhdra: s. sankhdrd) of the 
mind, the so-called 'inner speech ('parole interieure') . 
They are constituents of the 1st absorption (s.jhdnd), 
but absent in the higher absorptions. 

(1) "Thought-conception (yitakka) is the laying 
hold of a thought, giving it attention. Its characteristic 
consists in fixing the consciousness to the object. 

(2) "Discursive thinking (vicara) is the roaming 
about and moving to and fro of the mind. ... It manifests 
itself as continued activity of mind" (Vis.M. IV) . 

(1) is compared with the striking against a bell, 
(2) with its resounding; (1) with the seizing of a pot, 
(2) with wiping it. (Cf. Vis. IV.). 

vitality: jivitindriya; s. indriya, khandha (corporeality, 
mental formations), Tab. II. 


vithi = citta-vithi: 'process of consciousness'; 
s. vinnanakicca. 

vivatta: 'absence of the cycle of existence' (yatta, q.v.), 
standstill of existence, is a name for Nibbana 
(s. nibbana). - (App.). 

vivatta-kappa: s. kappa. 

vivattananupassana: 'contemplation of the turning 
away', is one of the 18 chief kinds of insight 
(vipassana, q.v.). - (App.). 

viveka: 'detachment', seclusion, is according to 
Niddesa, of 3 kinds: (1) bodily detachment (kaya- 
viveka), i.e. abiding in solitude free from alluring 
sensuous objects; (2) mental detachment (citta-viveka) , 
i.e. the inner detachment from sensuous things; 
(3) detachment from the substrata of existence 
(upadhi-viveka) . 

In the description of the 1st absorption, the words 
"detached from sensuous things" {yivicc' eva kamehi) 
refer, according to Vis.M. IV, to 'bodily detachment'; the 
words "detached from karmically unwholesome things" 
(yivicca akusalehi dhammehi) refer to 'mental detach- 
ment'; the words "born of detachment" (yivekaja), to 
the absence of the 5 hindrances. 

viveka-sukha: 'happiness of detachment', or aloofness 
(s. prec). "Whoso is addicted to society and worldly 
bustle, he will not partake of the happiness of renun- 
ciation, detachment, peace and enlightenment" 
(A. VII, 86). 


vodana: 'cleansing', may refer either to (1) morality 
(.slid), or (2) concentration (samddhi), or (3) wisdom 
(panna) . 

(1) "Cleansing of morality takes place in 2 ways: by 
understanding the misery of moral deviation (sila- 
vipatti; s. vipatti) and by understanding the blessing of 
moral perfection (slla-sampattiy , (s. Vis.M. I). 

(2) Cleansing of concentration is concentration 
connected with progress (yisesa-bhdgiya-samddhi; 

s. hdna-bhdgiyd) . If, for example, one has entered the 
1st absorption, and sensuous perceptions and reflect- 
ions arise, in that case there is concentration connected 
with decline.... If, however, perceptions and reflections 
free from thought-conception and discursive thinking 
(2nd jhdna; q.v.) arise, in that case there is concen- 
tration connected with progress. 

(3) Cleansing, with reference to wisdom, is identi- 
cal with the 'insight leading to the (path) ascent' 
(yutthdna-gdmim-vipassand, q.v.), which arises at the 
stage of 'purification by knowledge and vision of the 
path-progress' (s. visuddhi VI), and is followed immedi- 
ately by the maturity moment and the entrance into the 
supermundane paths. 

vohara-desana: 'conventional exposition', as distin- 
guished from an explanation true in the highest sense 
(paramattha-desand, q.v.) . It is also called sammuti- 
sacca (in Sanskrit samvrti). (App.). 

void-deliverance; s. ceto-vimutti. 

vokara: s. panca-vokdra-bhava. 


volition: cetana (q.v.). 

votthapana-citta: 'determining consciousness', is that 
mind-element (functioning independently of karma; 
s. Tab. I, 70). which in the process of sense-perception 
performs the function of determining the sense-object. 
It is one of the 14 functions of consciousness (yinndna- 
kicca, q.v.) . 

vutthana-gaminl-vipassana: 'insight leading to (path) 
ascent'. It is also called 'cleansing' (yoddna, q.v.), and 
according to Pts.M. II, 64, it is a name for 3 kinds of 
insight-knowledge, namely: knowledge consisting in 
the desire for deliverance (muccitu-kamyatd-ndna; 
s. visuddhi VI, 6); reflecting-contemplation-knowledge 
(patisankhdnupassand-ndna; ib. VI, 7); and knowledge 
consisting in equanimity regarding all formations 
(sankhdrupekkhd-ndna; s. visuddhi VI, 8) . 

It arises at the stage of 'purification by knowledge 
and vision of the path-progress' (s. visuddhi VI), and is 
followed immediately by the maturity moment and the 
entrance into the supermundane paths. 

"'Ascent' (yutthdnd) is the supermundane path 
(s. ariya-puggala) since it rises above the object forming 
the external foundation (of insight; i.e. the external 
5 groups of existence), in which object one's mind was 
absorbed, and also rises above one's own continuity 
(one's own 5 groups of existence, or khandha, q.v.) 
together with its defilements. By reason of its leading 
upwards to the supermundane path, this insight is 
called 'ascending insight'. That it passes on to the path: 
that is the meaning implied" (Vis.M. XXI, 83f.). (App.). 

-381 - 

vyapada: Ill-will', is a synonym of dosa (s. mula); it is 
one of the 5 hindrances (mvarana, q.v.) and one of the 
10 fetters (samyojana, q.v.). 



water-element: dpo-dhdtu (s. dhdtu). 

water-kasina, white-k., wind-k.: s. kasina. 

weighty karma: garuka-kamma (s. karma). 

wheel of existence: s. samsdra, vatta. 

wheel of the law: dhamma-cakka (q.v.). 

will: cetand (q.v.). 

wind-element: vdyo-dhdtu (s. dhdtu) . 

wisdom: pahhd (q.v.) . 

woeful courses (of existence) : duggati (s.gati), 

world, the 3-fold: loka (q.v.). 

worldling: puthujjana (q.v.) . 

worldly: lokiya (q.v.) . 

worldly conditions, the 8: loka-dhamma (q.v.). 

world-period, formation, dissolution: s. kappa. 

wrongnesses, the 10: micchatta (q.v.). 

wrong path: micchd-magga (q.v.). 

wrong understanding (or view), w. thought, 
w. speech; etc: s. micchd-magga. 



yakkha: in popular belief, a kind of ghost, goblin, or 

yama-deva: are a kind of heavenly beings of the 
sensuous world; s. deva. 

yamaka-patihariya: 'twin miracle'. "There the Perfect 
One performed the twin miracle unattainable to any 
disciple: from the upper part of his body a flame sprang 
forth, and from the lower part a stream of water, etc." 
(Pts.M. 1,125 f.);App. 

yatha-bhuta-nana-dassana: 'the knowledge and 
vision according to reality', is one of the 18 chief kinds 
of insight (vipassand, q.v.) . 

yathakammupaga-nana: 'knowledge of rebirth 
according to one's actions'; s. abhinnd (4) . 

yathasanthatik'anga: 'the practice of being satisfied 
with whatever dwelling', is one of the ascetical means 
of purification; s. dhutanga (12). 

yoga: 'yokes, bonds', is another name for the 4 cankers 
(dsava, q.v.) . 

yogavacara = yogi: 'one devoted to mental training,' 
is in Vis.M. the usual name for the disciple cultivating 
mental concentration (App.). 

yokes: yoga, q.v. 


yoni: 'modes of generation.' There are 4 generation 
from the egg, from the mother's womb, from moisture, 
and spontaneous rebirth (opapatika, q.v.) in heaven, 
hell, etc. Explained in M. 12. 

yoniso manasikara: 'thorough attention' or wise 
consideration': s. manasikara. 

youth-infatuation: s. mada. 

yuganaddha: s. samatha-vipassana, last paragraph. 



Attempt at a chronological fixing of terms not found, or 
not found in this form or meaning, in the oldest parts of 
the Sutta Pitaka. 

akusala-sadharana-cetasika: This term is probably 
used for the first time in Abh. S., though already in 
Vis.M. XIV the 4 cetasika in question are mentioned 
amongst the mental factors associated with each of the 
12 akusala-cittas (Tab. I, 22-33), while in the Abhi- 
dhamma Pitaka (Dhs. §§ 365-429) uddhacca is found 
only in the last of the 12 cittas, missing in all the 
remaining 11 cittas. 

anantarika-kamma: This term seems to be used for 
the first time in Kath. (190) of the Abh. Canon; the 
5 crimes mentioned, however, are already enumerated 
and explained in the old Sutta texts (e.g. A.V, 129), as 
is to be seen from the main part of this work. 

arammana: s.paccaya, 2. 

avacara: kdmdvacara is already met with in the oldest 
sutta texts (e.g. D. 1) . Rupdvacara and arupdvacara, 
however, occur probably for the first time in 
Pts.M. (I. 83ff.), while in the Abhidhamma Canon and 
the Com. all the 3 terms are frequently mentioned and 

avajjana: s. citta-vlthi. 


avyakata: This term in the sense of 'amoral' or 'karmic- 
ally neutral', does not occur in the old sutta texts, while 
it is found in Pts.M. (e.g. I, 79ff)- It plays an important 
role in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs.) and the philosoph- 
ical commentaries. 

ayuhana: probably met with for the first time in 
Pts.M. (I. 10f.). 

bhava: The 2-fold division, kamma and upapatti, is 
probably found for the first time in Vibh. of the 
Abh. Canon, but it expresses throughout the genuine 
teaching of the suttas. 

bhava: as an isolated word, signifying the physical 
nature or faculties of sex, probably occurs only in the 
Com. The expression itthibhdva and purisabhdva, with 
the meaning of 'being a man', or 'being a woman', or 
after fiatvd, etc., as for instance tassd itthibhdvam natvd: 
'knowing her to be a woman': such expressions are 
often found in the oldest sutta texts. 

bhavanga-sota, -citta: These 2 compound terms 
belong exclusively to the exegetical literature, while 
the term bhavanga is several times, briefly and 
unexplained, mentioned in the Patth. of the 
Abh. Canon, as though already known at that time. 

carita: rdga-c, dosa-c, buddhi-c, etc., are only to be 
met with in the Com. and Vis.M. 

caritta- and vdritta-sila: are only found in the Com., as 
Vis.M. 1, etc., but the teaching indicated by it is fre- 
quently mentioned in the old sutta texts as karanlya 
and akaranlya (e.g. A. II, 16). 


cetasika: This term occurs often in the old sutta texts, 

but only as adj. (e.g. cetasikam sukham, etc.) or, at 

times, used as a sing. neut. noun (e.g. D. 1; 

p. 213, PTS). As a designation for mental factors, or 

concomitants of consciousness (citta-sampayuttd 

dhammd), it is frequently met with in 

Dhs. (§ 1189, 1512) as cetasika-dhamma, while in 

Vis.M., Abh. S., etc., cetasika is used also as a neuter 

noun, in the sense of mental phenomenon. 

citta-lahuta, -muduta, -kammannatd, -pdgunnatd, 
-ujukatd: s. lahutd. 

citta-vlthi, as well as all terms for the various functions 
within the processes of consciousness, such as dvajjana- 
citta, sampaticchana, santirana, votthapana, javana, 
taddrammana, bhavanga, cuti: none of these terms is 
found in the Sutta Canon, except javana, in Pts.M. Even 
in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Patth.) only javana and 
bhavanga are twice or thrice briefly mentioned. The 
stages, however, must have been more or less known. 
Cf. e.g. Patth.: u Cakkhu-vinndnam tarn sampayuttakd ca 
dhammd (= cetasika) mano-dhatuya (performing the 
sampaticchana-function) , tarn sampayuttakdnan ca 
dhammanam (cetasikdnam) anantara-paccayena 
paccayo. Mano-dhatu. . . manovinnana-dhatuya 
(performing the santirana and votthapana function) .... 
Purima purima kusala dhammd (javana) pacchimdnam 
pacchimdnam kusaldnam dhammanam 
(javanacittdnam) anantara-paccayena paccayo. . . 
avydkatdnam dhammanam (tadarammana- and 
bhavanga-cittdnam. . . .) ." 


cuti-citta: s. citta-vithi. 

dhatu-vavatthana: This term is first used in Pts.M. 
while the subject in question is often treated in the old 
sutta texts (e.g. M. 28, 62, 140, etc.). Cf. sammasana. 

dhutanga: This compound term is used only in the 
Com. The only place in the suttas where the first part, 
dhuta, is used in the above sense, is found in S. XIV. 
The names of the performers of these 13 ascetical 
exercises, however, are all mentioned in the suttas, but 
scattered here and there, for instance: pamsukulika, 
drannika, pindapdtika, ekdsanika, tedvarika, 
sapdddnacdri, sosdnika, abhhokdsika, nesajjika, 
yathdsanthatika, in M. 5, 113; A. V, 181-190, etc.; 
rukkhamulika, khalupacchdbhattika and pattapindika in 
A. V, 189 f. etc. 

gotrabhu: s.javana. 

hasituppada-citta: This term is used in Abh. S. for the 
citta, Tab. I, 72. This type of consciousness (the 
Buddha's smile) is often implied in the suttas. 

iddhi: Most, or perhaps all, of the 10 terms listed at 
Vis.M. XII, as adhitthdna, etc., are absent in the older 
sutta texts. In Pts.M. (II, 205-214), however, they are 
enumerated in due order and minutely explained. The 
magical powers indicated by these terms are, neverthe- 
less, for the most part explicitly described already in 
the oldest sutta texts. Cf. D. 34; M. 3; A. Ill, 99, etc. 

indriya-samatta: This term is probably found for the 
first time in the Com., esp. Vis.M. IV. The rudiments of 


this doctrine, however, are already found in the old 
sutta texts, e.g. A. Ill, 100. 

javana: The only reference in the Sutta Pitaka is 
Pts.M. II, 73: kusalakammassajavana-khane, "in the 
impulsion-moment of a wholesome karma." In the 
Abhidhamma Pitaka it is briefly mentioned in the 
Patthana, but without explanation, as if already known. 
The teaching of the flashing forth of 4 javana 
immediately before entering the jhana or lokuttara- 
magga, i.e. parikamma, upacara, anuloma, gotrabhu is, 
as such, without doubt a later development in the 
commentarial literature. 

kalapa: This doctrinal term, as well as the doctrine of 
the different corporeal units or groups, such as the 
suddhatthaka-k., jivitanavaka-k., cakkhudasaka-k., etc. 
(s. Vis.M. XVIII), belong only to the later developments 
of exegetical literature, as Vis.M. etc. 

kama: Vatthu-k. and kilesa-k. are probably found for 
the first time in M.Nid. 1. They correspond to the pahca 
kamaguna (cakkhu-vinneyya rupa, etc.) and kama-raga 
in the older sutta texts (e.g. A. VI, 68). 

kamma: ahosi-,janaka-,garuka-, bahula-, 
upatthambhaka-, upaghataka-, upapllaka-, 
marandsanna-, upacchedaka-k. None of these terms is 
found in the Sutta or Abh. Canon. They have been 
introduced by the commentators (e.g. in Abh. S. and 
Vis.M.) for the purpose of a systematical grouping of 
the various aspects and functions of karma. The term 
katatta, however, occurs repeatedly in the Abh. Canon 
in such expressions as: Yasmim samaye... kusalassa 


kammassa katattd. . . cakkhuvinndnam hoti. . . .' 
(Dhs. § 431); or: Yam atthi rupam kammassa 
katattd. . . .' (Dhs. § 653); or 'katattd ca rupdnam' 

kammannata: s. lahutd. 

kammatthana: This term, as a designation for the 
meditation exercises (bhdvand), is found only in the 
Com. In the suttas the word is only used in a concrete 
sense for 'field of activity or occupation', as agriculture, 
trade, etc. 

katatta-kamma: s. kamma. 

kaya-lahuta: -mudutd, -kammannata, -pdgufinatd, 
-ujukatd, s. lahutd. 

khana: The 3 phases in a moment of consciousness, 
i.e. uppdda, thiti, bhanga, are probably mentioned for 
the first time in the commentaries; but there is a close 
parallel in two sutta texts which may have been the 
source for that teaching of a three-phased moment of 

"There are 3 characteristics of what is conditioned 
(sankhatassa lakkhand) : an arising (uppddo) is 
apparent, a passing away (yayo) is apparent, a change 
in the existing {thitassa afinathattam: Com. = ageing) is 
apparent" (A. Ill, 47). The same 3 phases are 
mentioned in S. XXII, 37, where they are applied to 
each of the 5 khandha. 

kilesa: the 10 kilesa are probably for the first time 
enumerated and explained in Dhs. (§§ 1229-1239). 
There they are, however, called kilesa-vatthu, which 

-391 - 

name {dasa kilesa-vatthu) is already mentioned in 
Pts. 1, 130, though there they are neither enumerated 
nor explained. 

kiriya: (kiriya, kriya) citta is a term first used in the 
Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs. §§ 566-582). It has an important 
place in post-canonical Abh. literature, e.g. Vis.M. XIV. 

lahuta, muduta, kammannata: as rupassa-, kaya-, or 
citta-, are for the first time found in the Abh. Canon, 
esp. Dhs. All, however, perhaps with the sole exception 
of pagunnatd, are implied in the Sutta Canon, e.g. l citte 
mudu-bhute kammanlye' (M. 4); 'lahu-safinan ca kaye 
okkamitva! (S. LI. 22); 'cittam ujukam akamsu' (S. I. 26; 
PTS). Kaya-passaddhi and citta-passaddhi, however, are 
well known in the old sutta texts in this connection. 

manodvaravajjana: s. citta-vlthi. 

muduta: s. lahuta. 

nana: Of the 9 kinds of insight-knowledge constituting 
the patipada-nanadassana-visuddhi (s. Vis.M. XXI), the 
following 6 are, as such, enumerated and explained for 
the first time in Pts.M., namely: udayabbayanupassana- 
nana (I. 54-57), bhanganupassana-nana, (ib. 57f.), 
bhayatupatthana-nana (ib. 59f), muccitakamyata-nana, 
patisanka-nana,sankharupekkha-nana (ib. 60-65). The 
terms udayabbaya and bhanga, in connection with the 
5 groups of existence, however, are often met with in 
the old sutta texts. Of the remaining 3 kinds of 
knowledge, adlnavanupassana, nibbidanupassana and 
anulomanana, the first 2 occur often in the old sutta 
texts, while anuloma-nana, though only briefly 


mentioned in the Abh. Canon (Patth.), plays a 
prominent part in the exegetical literature. 

natthi-paccaya: s.paccaya. 

n'eva-sekha-n'asekha: While the terms sekha and 
asekha occur frequently in the old sutta texts 
(e.g. A. II, 4: 'sekho ca asekho ca imasmim loke. . . 
ahuneyya! etc.), the term rCeva-sekha-rC asekha is 
perhaps mentioned for the first time in Pug. of the 
Abh. Canon. 

nibbana: The 2 terms kilesa- and khandha-parinibbana 
(or nibbana) are found only in the Com.; their 
corresponding 2 aspects sa-upadisesa and anupadisesa- 
nibbana, however, are mentioned and explained in 
It. 44 of the Sutta Canon. 

nimitta: As signifying the mental reflex-image 
occurring in meditation, this term, singly or in 
compounds (parikkamma-, uggaha-,patibhaga-n.), is 
found only in the Com., Vis.M., etc. The same holds 
good for kamma-nimitta, gati-nimitta. 

nissarana-pahana: s.pahana. 

nissaya, nissita: These two terms, in combination with 
tanha and ditthi, belong probably, as such, to the 
commentarial literature, e.g. Vis.M. I. 

niyama: The compound words utu-, bija-, kamma-, 
citta-, and dhamma-niyama, probably occur for the first 
time in the Com. Niyamata, however, occurs often in 
the old sutta texts, e.g. 'thita va sa dhatu 
dhammatthitata dhammaniyamata. . .' (A. III. 134. etc.) 


niyata-micchaditthi: is apparently mentioned for the 
first time in Dhs. (e.g. § 1028) of the Abh. As a name for 
the 10th and last of the akusala-kammapathas, it plays a 
prominent role in the Com. 

paccaya: This term occurs often in the old sutta texts in 
such expressions as: l ko hetu, kopaccayo\ l yamyad eva 
paccayam paticca uppajjati vinndnam , , etc., or as 
abl. adverb in 'avijjdpaccayd sankhdrd\ All the 
24 paccaya are for the first time enumerated, explained 
and applied to the phenomena of existence in the Abh. 
Canon (Patth.). Of these 24 paccaya, 5 are already 
mentioned in Pts.M. (II, 49-54, 59f., 72-77), namely, 
sahajdta-, annamanfia-, nissaya-, sampayutta-, 

l.Hetu is already used in the sutta texts as 'condit- 
ion' in a general and indefinite way, as a synonym of 
paccaya. In the sense of kusala and akusala roots (mula; 
s. M. 9), however, it is only found in the Abh. Canon 
and Com. 

I.Arammana has in the 'sutta texts only the 
meaning of 'foundation', or 'basis', or 'dependent on', 
e.g. M. 21: 'taddrammananca sabbalokam 
mettdsahagatena cetasd pharitvd. . . .' or D.33; S.XXII.53: 
l vinndnam. . . rupdrammanam. . . vedandram.-m.anam. . . .' 
As term for the 6 objects, rupdrammana, 
sadddrammana, etc., it is first used in the Abh. Canon, 
though the teaching of dependency of the 6 kinds of 
vinndna on the 6 sense-objects is an integral part of the 
suttas. Cf. e.g. M.38: 'cakkhuhca paticca rupe ca uppajjati 
vihhdnam sotanca paticca sadde ca...' etc. 


3.Adhipati, as a philosophical term, occurs for the 
first time in the Abh. Canon (esp. Patth.). The 
4 adhipati are in the suttas called iddhipdda 
(e.g. S. LI. 11). In the old sutta texts, 3 adhipateyya are 
however mentioned: atta-, loka-, dhamma- (A. Ill, 38). 

4. & 5. Anantara- and samanantara-paccaya occur, 
aspaccaya, for the first time in the Abh. Canon 
(esp. Patth.). In a veiled form, however, we find the 
first term in the old sutta texts (e.g. Ratana Sutta in 
Khp. And Sn.): 'samddhim dnantarikaruiamdhvC'. the 
concentration (associated with the arahatta-maggd) , 
which is called the Immediate' condition (for arahatta- 
phala) . 

6. & 7. Sahajdta and annamanna-paccaya. Though 
these terms, as such, are not found in the older sutta 
texts, still the teaching of the conascent and mutual 
conditionedness of the 4 mental groups (yedand, safind, 
sankhdra, vinndnd) is taught in the old texts, 
e.g. M. 28, 43; S. XXII, etc. 

8. Nissaya-paccaya is mentioned in Pts; s. first 
paragraph of this article, above. 

9. Upanissaya-paccaya. Though this name is not 
found in the suttas, the teaching expressed thereby is, 
however, frequently met with there, sometimes even in 
the form of upanisd (apparently a contraction of 
upanissaya), e.g. S. XII, 23: 'YampVssa tarn bhikkhave 
khayasmim khaye fidnam, tarn sa-upanisam vaddmi, no 
anupanisam , . The terms pakati-, drammana- and 
anantara-upanissaya are later developments of the 
Abh. Com. 


All the remaining terms are met with only in the 
Abh. literature though the substance is, perhaps in all 
cases, already dealt with in the old sutta texts. 

padaka-jjhana: This term is not found in the Sutta 
Canon, nor apparently in the Abh. Canon, but very 
often used in the exegetical literature. The idea, how- 
ever, expressed thereby, is implied in many places of 
the old sutta texts, e.g., A. IX, 36, where it is shown how 
the jhdnas, one after the other, may serve as basis, or 
foundation (as mental object), for vipassand. In many 
of the old sutta texts it is also shown how the 4th jhdna 
forms the foundation for the attainment of the 5 higher 
spiritual powers (abhifind) . 

pagunnata: s. lahutd. 

pahana: The 5 terms, as vikkhambhana, etc., are, as 
such, not found in the old sutta texts, but they are 
enumerated and explained already in Pts.M. (II. 179f.). 

palibodha: This 10-fold group is perhaps for the first 
time mentioned in Khp. Com. and explained in 
Vis.M. III. 

panca-dvaravajjana: s. dvajjana. 

paramattha s. vohdra-desand. 

paraml, paramita: Only the Com. deals with this 
subject, apart from the 3 apocryphal works, Buddha- 
vamsa and Cariyapitaka, and the Jataka. 

paricchinnakasa: This term is used in the Com. for the 
term dkdsa-kasina used in the older sutta texts. 


parinna: ndta-, tlrana-,pahdna-p., belong to the 
exegetical literature, but they are already implied in 
Pts.M. I. 87: 'Abhinnd-pannd hdtatthe fidnam, parihhd- 
panfid tiranatthe fidnam, pahdna-pafind pariccdgatthe 
fidnam... ye ye dhammd abhififidtd honti, te te dhammd 
ndta honti.. . tlritd. . . pahlnd? 

pariyatti, patipatti, pativedha: The first of these 
3 fundamental terms, especially in this 3-fold grouping, 
belongs to the commentarial literature, though the idea 
expressed thereby is often found in the suttas in such 
expressions as: 'dhammam pariydpundti suttam geyyam 
veyyakaranam. . . .' The 2 other terms are found 
separately in the suttas. 

patipannaka: occurs in Pug. 17. 

patipatti: s. pariyatti. 

patisandhi: is chiefly a commentarial term; but it 
occurs several times in one of the later books of the 
Sutta Pitaka, the Patisambhida Magga (Pts.M. I, llf, 52, 
59f.; II, 72f.). The usual sutta term for 'rebirth' is 

patisandhika: ahetu-, dvihetu-, and tihetu-p.: are 
purely commentarial terms. F or patisandhi-citta, s. citta- 

pativedha: s. pariyatti. 

pattidana: This term is found only in the Com., but the 
belief expressed by it is several times mentioned in the 
older sutta texts. Cf. the main part of this work. 


rupa: the terms nipphanna-rupa and are 
used only in the Com., although sappatigha and pasada 
are already found in the Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs. §§ 585, 
597f.), while upadinna occurs repeatedly in the old 
sutta texts, e.g. M. 28, apparently with the meaning 
given in the main part of this work. Cf. further upada- 

samadhi: parikamma-, upacara-, and appana-s.: are 
found only in the Com. 

sama-sisT: This term seems to be met with for the first 
time in Pug. 19, while the person indicated is described 
in A., as is to be seen in the main part of this work. 

samatha-yanika: s. sukkha-vipassaka. 

sammasana: This term, as noun, occurs probably for 
the first time in Pts.M. I. 53, although as a verb it is 
found already in the old texts. The same holds good 
with its synonym vavatthana. 

sammuti: s. sacca. 

sampaticchana-citta: s. citta-vlthi. 

samutthana: kamma- (= kamma-ja), utu-, ahara-s.: 
these terms are found only in the Com. Citta- 
samutthana-rupa, however, occurs already in 
Dhs. (§ 586) of the Abh. Canon; and is indicated very 
often in Patth., e.g. l tam {cittarri) samutthananan ca 
rupanam\ The teaching of the origin of matter is, of 
course, already implied in the old sutta texts. 


santana, santati: The terms citta-, rupa-, khandha-, 
bhavanga-s.:, etc., are found, here and there, in the 
Abh. Canon (e.g. Dhs. § 634, Kath. 110; s. Guide V), 
but they are often met with in the Abh. Com. In the 
Sutta (Therag. 716) is found sankhdrasantati. 

santlrana-citta: s. citta-vlthi. 

sila: paccayasannissita-,paccdvekkhana-slla:, etc., are 
terms used in the Com. for the proper contemplation 
(patisankhdyoniso) of the 4 requisites of a monk, often 
dealt with in the old texts (e.g. M. 2). Also the 3 other 
pdrisuddhi-slla, as pdtimokkhasamvara-, indriya-, and 
djlvapdrisuddhi-slla, though under these names perhaps 
only known in the Com., are fully dealt with in the old 
texts, e.g. M.53, D.2, M.2, etc. The terms pannatti- and 
pannatti-sila are used only in the Com. 

sukkha-vipassaka = suddha-vipassand-ydnika: these 
terms are used only in the Com., as also their counter- 
part samathaydnika. 

tadarammana-citta: s. citta-vlthi. 

tathata: This term, with the meaning in question, 
occurs perhaps only once in the Canon, namely in 
Kath. (s. Guide 83). Whether it is found also some- 
where in the Com., I am unable to say. 

tatramajjhattata: occurs probably for the first time in 
the Abh. Canon (e.g. Patth.; cf. Guide 110). 

theravada: This term was already used by the Buddha 
himself in speaking of the doctrine of Alara-Kalama 


(s. M. 26). As a name for the Buddha's doctrine it 
belongs to the commentarial literature. 

ujukata: s. lahutd. 

upacaya: is an Abh. term but already alluded to in the 
old sutta texts, e.g. M. 149: 'dyatim pancupdddna- 
kkhandhd upacayam gacchanti\ or in D.2: 'Ay am kayo. . . 
odana-kummds , upacayo\ 

upada-rupa: is, as such, an Abh. term, but it is used 
with the same meaning in the sutta texts, e.g. in M. 9: 
'catunnan ca mahdbhutdnam updddya rupam\ Upddd is 
an abbreviation of updddya (gerund). 

varitta-sila: s. carina. 

vasT: The 5 kinds of vasl are probably found first in the 

vatthu: as a general term for the 5 sense-organs 
(cakkhu-vatthu, etc) is frequent in the Com., and often 
used together with drammana (object) . This usage, 
however, is already indicated in the Abh. Canon: 
'Cakkhum p'etam. . . vatthum p'etarff (Dhs. § 597; Vibh., 
p. 71, PTS): 'cakkhuvinndnassa vatthu' (Dhs. §§ 679ff.). 

vimokkha: The 3, i.e. sunnatd-, animitta-, appanihita-: 
are for the first time described and enumerated in 
Pts.M. II, 351. As sufinatdsamddhi, etc., however, they 
are already given at D. 33. 

vinnatti: kdya- and vacl-v., seem to occur for the first 
time in Dhs. (§§ 665,718) of the Abh. Canon. 


vipassana: is frequently found in the older sutta texts 
(e.g. A. II, 32; S. XLV, 159), also together with samatha. 
The 9 and 18 insight-knowledges (yipassand-fidna and 
mahd-vipassand) , however, occur in the Sutta Pitaka 
only in the Pts.M., Nanakatha, where they are enumer- 
ated and explained, though without any group name 
being attached to them. 

vipassanupakkilesa: The group of 10 is mentioned for 
the first time in Pts.M. II, 102, and it is said that the 
mind may become defiled thereby (kilissati) , but the 
above term is not used for the 10. This is probably 
done for the first time in Vis.M. XX. 

vivatta: as a name for Nibbana, seems to be found only 
in the Com. 

vivattananupassana: is already mentioned in Pts.M., 
together with the remaining 17 kinds of vipassana. 
In the old texts it is not found. 

vohara-sacca: etc. The terms paramattha-, vohdra-, 
sammuti-: etc., belong as such to the commentarial 
literature, but their significance is clearly shown in the 
old sutta texts, e.g. D. 9: 'loka-sdmannd, loka-vohdra , ; 
further(D. 33): l sammuti-fidna\ etc. 

vokara: panca-, catu-, and eka-v. (bhava), occur as 
technical terms only in the Abh. (Vibh., Yam., Patth.) 
and Com., e.g. Vis.M., but their substance is an integral 
part of the suttas. 

votthapana-citta: s. citta-vlthi. 

401 - 

vutthana-gaminl-vipassana: is probably implied in 
Pts.M. I, 60, under the name of vutthana-vivattane 

yamaka-patihariya: is perhaps for the first time men- 
tioned and described in Pts.M., as seen in the main part 
of this work. 

yogavacara, yogi: These 2 terms belong to the com- 
mentarial literature, but the first term appears also 
in Mil. 

J/enerable l^yanatiloka